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Study Guide Human Bio BIOL 100

by: Talia Standring

Study Guide Human Bio BIOL 100

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Study Guide Human Bio BIOL 100
Talia Standring
GPA 3.49


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human bio, BIOL 100, study guide chapters 8 -13
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Talia Standring on Saturday August 16, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at San Francisco State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 396 views.

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Date Created: 08/16/14
Kidnev nephrons purify the blood amp restore water salt balance h20 most import uid lose by sweat urine poo vomit water vapor exhaled brain monitors salt concentration in the brain if NaCl is high your hypothalamus in brain sends message your thirsty restore Ph balance electrolyte balance secrete hormone erythroprotein which trigger stem cells in bone marrow to make blood cells kid is monitory how many blood cells u have Nephron functions filtration of plasma from the capillaries glonerulus into the bowman s capsule 2 reabsorption sending food nutrients electrolytes h20 back into the blood into peritubular capillary different places along the nephron 3 excretion getting waste out bowman s capsule millions gt filtration plasma enters except for blood cellsgt proemial tubule gt reabsorbs sugar amino acids good nutrients gt descending limb of loop of Henley gt reabsorbs water gt ascending limbs passively at bottom distal tubule gt reabsorbing salt gt salt pumps will actively reabsorb at top collecting duct gt reabsorb more water peritubular capillary bed all collecting ducts merge excrete the water urine excess h20 urea liver converts amino acids into ammonia gt urea uric acid nucleic acids toxins old hormones blood cells gt pigment urochrome in blood make urine yellow 2 hormones that help the nephrons Aldosterone activates salt pumps on top of ascending loop of the Henle distal tubule to allow reabsorption of salt into peritubular capillaries ADH antidiuretic hormone opleis channels in collecting duct to reabsorb more H20 moving H20 from collecting duct into peritubular capillary bed beer alch caffeine diuretic inhibit ADH amp you lose more water Urinapy disorders 1 track infection caused by bact treat w antibiotics moving up urethra if goes to kidney Pyelonephritis very server Store waste in bladder get it out of urethra Nervous System relays amp accepts messages send the information incredibly efficiently main anctional cells neurons helper supporting cells glial cells provide metabolic anctions the schwam cells make the insulation over the axons message moves faster w insulation they can also repair damage in some cases to axon 3 types of neurons 1 sensory 2 intemeurons between other neurons 95 of neurons are intemeurons 3 motor send messages to trigger muscles glands organ skin neurotransmitters are chemicals sent from one neuron across the synapse to another neuron or muscle organ glamp or skin dendrites receive message gt then send an impulse action potential down the axon gt to move down NA sodium goes into neuron first amp K potassium comes out gt release neurotransmitters gt keeps happening till gets to what you want to trigger gt response ganglia bundle of dendrite cell bodies spinal cord part of central nervous system Nerve bundles of bers made up of axons which send signals to the brain Gila provide neurons w mechanical amp metabolic axons regulates your re ects ex sensory re ectorsneurons sends message up arm then up spinal cord to brain then message to arm to move away then spinal cord part of nervous system re ects all other messages go to brain central nervous system Parts of Peripheral nervous system 1 somatic division voluntary conscious activities re exes from spinal cord triggers skeletal muscles w motor neurons w acetyl chlorine neurotransmitter 2 autonomic division involuntary division carrying messages to heart glamps amp other organs mostly smooth cardiac muscles are triggered w this division a parasympathetic released normal state regular breathing heart rate digestion potato b sympathetic prepares body for emergency responses pumps out stress hormones stress neuroT excited adrenaline response heart rate goes up take in more 02 slow digestion down for fight ight fright fomicate Mouth chew food w teeth tongue helps form it into a ball of food bolus gt pharynx throat gt esophagus gt esophageal sphircler smooth muscles that contract to control the ow of bolus into your stomach preventing it from going back up saliva h2o digestive enzymes salivapy amylase digest carbon hydrates lysosome enzyme kills bact function of liver 1 makes biles 2 breaks down alch ethanol gt acetate CO2 h20 3 excess amino acids converts them into ammonia urea goes to kidney 4 excess glucose converted into glycogen 5 breaks down red blood cell lactic acid hormones amp other components diarrhea large intestine doest have time to reabsord H20 so waste is very watery sometimes due to trying to expel a pathogen or nervous etc constipation could be due to not enough water or fiber in diet Rectum lndigestible matter held here before defecation Pancreas Produces the enzymes to digest proteins fats amp carbohydrates in the small intestine produces the hormone insulin Phagynx Both food amp air pass along this Stomach A bag made of muscle where food is held Gastric juice amp hydrochloric acid are added here 3 layers of smooth muscles gastric juices h20 HCL acid digestive enzymes pepsin breaks down proteins lipase lipids hormones secreted from stomach ghrelin appetite stimulator sends a message to hypothalamus in brain to let you know your hungry Gall bladder Stores bile Large lntestine Colon Water amp salt are absorbed here reabsorbs H20 into blood so you don t lose it all amp excess h20 will head out w waste bact in colon help you break down cellulose fiber of plant material food helps w nutrients amp make waste softer bac also makes vitamin folic acid vitamins we need to make nucleic acid rectum where we store out waste anus spherical voluntary amp involuntary components waste h20 cellulose fats dead cell bact causes smell nutrients in blood go up to the liver for processingTongue Organ that mixes food in the mouth amp makes swallowing happen Liver Produces bile Small intestine Where food is mixed w bile amp digestion of proteins fats amp carbohydrates takes place 1 duodenum breaking down nutrients help w digestion a liver make biles from cholesterol stores it in the b gallbladder sends bile through a duct to the duodenum helps break doWn fat c pancreas secretes insulin into the blood to hep W glucose up take from cells also secretes lots of digestive enzymes that go into the SI duodenum section to help break doWn food 2 jejunum absorb nutrients in to capillaries 3 ileum still absorbing nutrients into the blood 4 layers of small intestines mucosa Where nutrients are absorbed into the capillaries that be around the microuilli submucosa muscular smooth muscles serosa hormones secreted PYY When small intestines is fall appetite suppressor Esophagus Carries the food from the mouth to the stomach long tube W 2 layers of smooth muscles pushes bolus doWn tube W Wave 0 life contractions call peristalsis Salivary glamps Produce saliva containing salivary amylase Pyloric sphincter This muscle controls the passage of food out of the stomach Mucosa lined W villi blood goes through capillaries are thin so nutrients pass into them in the villi absorbs nutrients moves up toWard livers Which process it amp sends it different places glucose amino acids fats sends Waste blood to kidneys The urinary system consists of tWo capillary beds filtration occurs in the first capillary bed amp absorption amp secretion occur in the secondary Nutrients are reabsorbed into the blood from the proximal tubule into the peritubular capillary as Well as from the loop of Henle Where Water amp salts are reabsorbed amp the distal consulted tubule mostly NaCl amp then the collecting ductmore Water is reabsorbed into the interstitial uids Aldosterone amp ADH are hormones that play critical functions in salt amp Water balance 2 hormones that help the nephrons Which is the functional unit of the kidney consisting of the BoWman s capsule the proximal amp distal tubules amp loop of Henle Aldosterone activates salt pumps on top of ascending loop of the Henle distal tubule to alloW reabsorption of salt into peritubular capillaries ADH antidiuretic hormone opleis channels in collecting duct to reabsorb more H20 moving H20 from collecting duct into peritubular capillary bed beer alch caffeine diuretic inhibit ADH amp you lose more Water Urinary disorders 1 track infection caused by bact treat W antibiotics moving up urethra if goes to kidney Pyelonephritis very server Store Waste in bladder get it out of urethra glomerulus ball of capillaries from Which blood plasma leaves the circulatory system to be filtered by the BoWman39s capsulebronchioles The mammalian structure that is positioned in the pathway of air just before the alveoli asthma the respiratory ailment in Which the bronchioles constrict severely When you sWalloW the epiglottis covers the opening to the larynx alveoli the structures in the lungs Where dif dsion of gases occurs the greatest amount of nutrient absorption takes place in the small intestine Most of the CO2 produced by the body is transported to the lungs as bicarbonate Production of RBC is regulated by a hormone secreted from cells in the kidney as a response to 02 concentration in the bloody the path of blood from the systemic veins to the systemic arteries Respiratory disorders asthma bronchioles constrict makes airways smaller it is hard to bring 02 lots of triggers allergies viral Wether changes smoking exercise medication like albuteral help open airways so you can breathe apnea When medulla doesnt Work properly to send the signal to diaphragm to help you breathe bronchitis bact 1 infection in bronchioles treated W antibiotics scar tissue can form on the tubular hard to breathe Pneumonia uid inside the bronchioles on lungs bact Emphysema alveoli are clogged W mucus defense lubrication cant exchange gases as Well mostly cause by cigarette smoke making more mucus throughout life can due to other pollutants a history of respiratory ailments Superior vena cava Deoxygenated blood gt right atrium gt tricuspid valve lubb gt right ventricle contracts gt semilunar valve dupp gt pulmonary artery gt arterioles gt right amp left pulmonary capillary beds gt venuoles gt Reminder This next part is happening simultaneously the lubb amp dupp match up since the bicuspid amp tricuspid close at the same time amp the semilunar amp aortic valve close at the same time Oxygenated blood gt right amp left pulmonary veins gt left atrium gt bicuspid valve lubb gt left ventricle gt aortic valve dupp gt 16 arteries gt arterioles gt capillaries gt venuoles gt veins amp then back to vena cava the chemical that communicates a signal from a neuron to another cell is called a neurotramn Nerves that are activated by conscious control or spinal re ex amp deliver commamps to skeletal muscles are in the 39 39 39 39 v The majority of nervous tissue is composed of supporting cells called Ot Filtration occurs in which part of the kidneys nephrons 39 The liver converts ammonia to urea which is sent to the kidney for excretion Neuron parts include the cell body dendrites amp the axon cerebral cortex cerebrum analytical judgement decisions corpus callosum callouss betWeen hemisphere cerebellum motor control pineal gland melatonin helps regulate sleep cycles medulla oblongata breathing heart beat digestionthalamus sensory processing hypothalamus hunger body temp sex drive hormone thirst regulating pituitary glad amygdala the hippocampus memory center diseases Stroke blood clot causing a part of brain to not get 02 neurons dieAlzheimer39s accumulation of protein plagues in the brain dementia memory loss mood sWing Parkinson39s neurons degenerate lack of dopamine makes jerky muscles movement attention decreases Multiple Sclerosis degeneration of myelin sheath schWann cells glial insulation or axon is gone impulses don t Work as Well Huntington39s disease dominant genetic disorder neurons degenerate lose motor coordination Neurotransmitter imbalance dopamine increases cocaine serotonin decrease depression xtc both biploar painkillers oxycotin heroin marijuana effect limbic section of brain oxygen moves around in blood by hemoglobin blood is perfect shape for protein to grab oxygen sickle shape does not get enough oxygen blood away from heart arteries capillaries have one layer of cell usually have 4 layers pulmonary bring oxygenated blood 2 to the heart left ventricles chamber pumps out blood right ventricles chamber blood up to lungs semilunar valve to get it tricuspid biggest artery aorta clots that move embolism clot that stays in place thrombosis clot in brain stroke mendula breathing exhale base of brain montors C02 if high acidic salivary swallow bolis into epiglottis covers heads down esophagus peristalsis bile made liver stored in gallbladder send out small intestines break up fats from cholesterol need bacteria in colon folic acid dark veggies coenzyme build nucleic acid small intestine appetite suppressant PYY liver convert excess amino acid into ammonia amp urea to kidney amp out w urine how many calories need a day BMR body mass index BMI vitamin mineral sick take C mineral hemoglobin Iron calcium bones all that where filtration bowman s which cap bed goes into bowman gilmarius reabsorb salts actively discontubule hormones salt pumps aldolphrom urthro protein kidney Rbloodcelll production Nutrition macronutrients your body needs nutrients so you cant make them yourself carbohydrates energy protein amino acids fats 50 fruits n veggies 25 grains half should be whole starchy endosperrn 25 protein n fats fats saturated limit this solid room temp ex butter meat fat cheese fat too much can cause bad type of cholesterol LDL builds up in vessel good cholesterol HDL helps sweep away LDL from vessels amp unsaturated liquid room temp oils proteins 20 amino acids to make all our protein we make 10 need to get 10 essential from food complete foods have all 10 essential aa incomplete foods get a mixture of these to get 10 Micronutrients vitamins organic minerals no carbon make vit D can also get in diet helps us absorb calcium folic acid bacteria in colon makes this for us helps with nucleic acid synthesis Vit C immue Vit B lots of metabolic functions minerals calcium muscle bones nervous system clotting enzymes etc stops carbs from breaking down saliva enzyme that helps 1 salivary mucus helps swallow heads down esophagus stops from going down windpipe epiglottis smooth muscle pushes it down esophagus to stomach esophagis enters stomach chime enzyme breaks down proteins pepcid enzymes breaks down lipids lipeds pyloric sphincter from stomach to small sickle cell anemia gen dis cause rbc to be abnormal vessels 1 arteries travel away from the heart o2 blood 2 arterioles slightly smaller than artieres carry o2 blood away form capillaries 3 capillaries only one cell layer thick for gas nutrient exchange epithelial tissue w pore 4 venuoles deO2 blood toward heart 5 veins carry blood toward heart arteriosclerosis harden vessels due to chlorestrol blood pressure systolic high presrrue diastolic low hypertension high blood p stress bad diet smoking hereditary hypotension low blood pressure dehydration faint hormone in kidney erythropoietin trigger RBC production 1 cause of preventable death is tobacco cigarettes harmful affects of cigs 1 immobilizes cilia traps particles keeps clean sweeps up dust pollen pollutants 2 kills WBC smoking triggers extra mucus 3 causes respiratory ailments emphysema more likely to get bronchitis pneumonia 4 tobacco is a carcinogen causes cancer 1 type is lung most deadly cigs cause 90 of it respiratory system main function gas exchange bring in 02 exchange CO2 need to make ATP by cellular respiration CO2 is a byproduct of cellular resp toxic 1 cause of preventable death is tobacco cigarettes a carcinogen causes cancer 1 type is lung 1 immobilizes cilia traps particles keeps clean sweeps up dust pollen pollutants 2 kills WBC smoking triggers extra mucus 3 causes respiratory ailments emphysema more likely to get bronchitis pneumonia 4 shorten life span of smoker on avg 83 years 5 alter sex hormones often causes impotent in men infertility in both sexes 6 wrinkling bad breath yellow teeth osteoporosis 7 high risk of diff heart disease hard on allergies amp asthma respiratory system main function gas exchange bring in 02 exchange CO2 need to make ATP by cellular respiration CO2 is a byproduct of cellular resp toxic air nitrogen 79 oxygen 21 traces of CO2 other compound you still have 18 O2 in exhalation mouth to mouth normal relaxed breathing is in the nose lots of capillaries to warm humidify the air as it enters hair for protection gt uvula ap between nose amp mouth throat gt pharynx throat area leads to both digestive respiratory system larynx 9 pieces of cartilage rst part is the ap epiglottis which closes off the reparatory track whenever you swallow so that no food or drink goes down windpipe other pieces are vocal cords adam s apple testosterone increases cartilage esophagus nose gt pharynx throat gt esophagus behind trachea epiglottis gt larynx vocal cords adams apple gt trachea wind pipe 2 bronchi tubes head into the lungs 3 lobes on right side 2 left w notch for the heart bronchioles smaller air tubes in the lungs the ends of the bronchioles tracks called alveoli these are covered in capillaries this is where gas exchange occurs bring 02 into your blood it will be brought to the heart on the left side then pumped throughout your body amp bring CO2 out to alveoli so you can exhale CO2 leads in blood are monitored by the medulla oblongata when CO2 levels are high the MO triggers the nerves leading to the diaphragm big skeletal muscle which contracts relaxes to help you breath taking 02 exhale C02 we make this during cellular respiration toxic need to get out CO2 acidic travel around in different ways most attaches to H2O bicarbonate which buffers the CO2 some is carried by hemoglobin protein some travels around as CO2 gas motor neurons trigger muscles dendrites signal cell body nucleus trigger zone where it starts axon Shwan cells penne pasta signal travel faster insulin repair terminal buds release neurotransmitters happy relaxed seratoin quick thinking dopamine inhibits anxiety reducer gabba natural pain killer endrophines


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