Psyc325 Child Psychology Exam 2 Material
Psyc325 Child Psychology Exam 2 Material PSYC325010
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This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Kgayton@udel.edu Notetaker on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC325010 at University of Delaware taught by Ball,Shellene Marie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Child Psychology 325 Exam Two material Consonants o Articulatory movements obstruct air ow Place of articulation Where airstream is modi ed Clicker Question what is the place of articulation for the v in vase Labio dental Clicker Question If you were trying to lipread what word might you confuse with vase Face Manner of articulation How much of the airstream is modi ed Voicing 0 Whether or not the vocal folds vibrate Vowels Movement of lips and tongue change the size and shape of the vocal cavity Characterized by 0 Vibrating gottis l periodic noise 0 Vary in Tongue height Tongue frontness Lip rounding Phonetics the study of speech sound and how they perceive and produced 0 Phone a sound the can be produced by the vocal tract Phonolgoy the study of how sounds are organized in a language 0 Which sounds are in language 0 How they can be combined From Sounds to Words 0 13 months 0 prelinguistic o Vocalizations Cooing squealing o 4months o Babbling 1year 0 One word utterances High Amplitude Sucking procedure 0 Baby with paci er habituate baby with quotbaquot 0 New word pa Clicker Question What is the habituated stimulus Ba Clicker Question What is the novel stimulus Pa Do infants perceive the differences between speech sounds Yes as young as 1 month old Conditioned HeadTurn procedure 0 Infant learns association between sound change and animated display 0 Infant learns that animated display is displayed produces anticipatory head turn 0 Test Do infants show anticipatory heard turn to nonnative phonemic distinctions Do infants perceive the differences between these sounds Yes as young as 1 month old Even nonnative sound differences sound distinctions that are not used in the baby s language environment Suggests that babies are born with the ability to perceive the differences in all speech sounds quotlinguistic citizens of the worldquot Use it or lose it 0 Critical period Sensitive period 0 Optimum period Babies are born linguistic citizens of the world Just being ef cient or is there some bene t Helps babies learn words Words What do you know when you know a word Phonological knowledge what it sounds like and how to produce those sounds together 0 ln isolation you is pronounce o In context whatcha doing Morphological knowledge what the morphemes are 0 Free cat 0 Bound cats decision Syntactic knowledge 0 Parts of speech noun verb adjective determiner o How to combine words into phrases Semantic knowledge what it means What is word meaning 0 A word means whatever it refers to 0 Use unicorn for all those things you d point to as unicorns 0 Use bird for all those things you d point to as birds 0 Use happy for all those thingseventsfeelings you d use to point to as happy thingseventsfeelings When you re learning a word what you re learning is what it refers to o If I say urg you have to gure out what things are urg and what aren t and one you have that down you know the meaning of urg Lexicon the set of words a person knows Vocabulary development 0 69 months a few words 0 10 months 11154 words o 16 months 50350 words 0 67 years 10000 words 0 89 years 19000 words 0 1011 years 40000 words How do children learn the meanings of words o If we will observe how children learn languages we shall nd that people ordinarily show them the thing of which they would have them have the idea and then repeat to them the name that stands for it as 39white 39sweet milk sugar 39cat 39dog The problem of induction in order to know what the speaker if referring to you have to perceive the scene in the quotright wayquot It turns out word learning is hard 0 Most videos were guessed by fewer than 13rCI of adult viewers silent videos trying to gure out what word the parent said to the child 0 A few were easy Whole object bias tend to assume that the label applied to the entire object not a part of it Shape bias objects that have the same shape probably have the same name Taxonomic assumption tend to assume that words extend to other things of the same kind rather than to thing that are just thematically related Mutual exclusivity label probably applied to something you don t already have a name for It seems whatever the speaker seems to be paying attention to is probably what the speaker is referring to For young kinds learning succeeds when the speaker labels the object that the child is already paying attention to Crosssituational word learning statistical word learning nd the intersection of all the possible sets of meanings across all situations in which a word was used Hypothesis testing procedure for learning words Mapping I conjectured mapping l if con rmed l solidity mapping What do people remember from one learning instance to the next 0 Remember and con rm earlier correct guesses 0 Accuracy is signi cantly above chance following a correct guess 0 No memory for alternative referents from previously learning instance 0 Accuracy is at chance following an incorrect guess How could we determine if learners Keep track of all possible meanings from one instance in which the word is used to the next or only remember single guesses abandoning it Remember and con rm earlier correct guesses According to the cross situational word learning approach learners acquire the meaning of a new word by keeping track of all the possible referents for a word from each of the situations in which they ve encountered the word and identifying which referent keeps recurring across all of those situations According to the Hypothesis testing procedure if a learner makes an incorrect guess about the referent of a novel work the next time he encounters the word he will completely start over making new guess for the novel word based only on the current situation Morphology the study of units of sounds that carry meaning and how they can be combined words Stem root base Start with a root word Like root word Dislike pre xroot word Acquisition of morphology Content words appear rst 0 Cat ba mama Grammatical morphemes appear around the time children are producing three word utterances 0 ing s a Order of acquisition of morphology ing Plural Possessive The a Past tense ed Third person singular Auxiliary be FP P FP N Syntax the study of how words and phrases are combined What you usually think of as grammar noun verb and adjective Dog bites man Man bites dog changes meaning of sentence by switching order Mean Length of Utterance 0 Measure developed by Roger Brown 1973 to characterize morphological development 0 In speech production not comprehension 0 Count morphemes in 50100 transcribed utterances Mean length of utterance total of morphemes total number of utterances Stages LU Utterances 1226 2730 3540 0 5 0 3134 7 4 4L46 OWU39lbULJNl l 45 47 Imitation child repeats pieces of what the adult says Reinforcement child is rewarded for saying things the right way Figuring out the rules child gures out the rules of grammar that broadly aDMy Can t just be imitation because the child says things that adult never said Can t just be reinforcement because the adult reinforces incorrect grammar Errors suggest they are guring out rules They are just over applying it Classical conditioning a general learning mechanism whereby an organism comes to give a particular re ex response to a stimulus that didn t previously elicit that response Components of classical conditioning UR unconditioned response natural response US unconditioned stimulus stimulus that evokes the natural response CR conditioned response learned response same similar to the UR CS conditioned stimulus stimulus that evokes that leaned response Clicker Question What is a conditioned response The response that comes to be elicited a stimulus that didn t previously elicit it Little Albert Unconditioned stimulus loud noise steel bar hit by medal rod Unconditioned response fear startle Conditioned stimulus white rat animals Conditioned response fear startle How many trials does it take before the conditioned response is learned 0 Look for response when there is only one stimulus white rat 0 Typically in learning studies like this watch for the conditioned response right from the very beginning 0 Look for an anticipatory response 0 The CR fear should follow the CS white rat before the US occurs steel bar Conditioned head turn procedure 0 Infant learned associated between sound change conditioned stimulus and animated display unconditioned stimulus lnfant learned that animated display is delayed produced anticipatory head turn 0 Test do infants show anticipatory headturn to nonnative phonemic distinctions Can they generalize the learning Does learning generalize o Generalization the transfer of past learning to new situations and problems 0 Example Did Pavlov s dog salivate when they heard doorbell bell and other bell sounds Learned In classical conditioning a behavior is considered to be learned if 0 The conditioned response is elicited by the conditioned stimulus alone prior to or in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus This says nothing about how long this stimulusresponse pattern is maintained How could you save little Albert from his fate of fearing white animals Extinction diminish association through repeated presentation of conditioned stimulus CS without the unconditioned stimulus US 0 white rat but no steel bar 0 food but no bell ExUncUon Unlearning 0 Association is broken 0 Or learning new association 0 Learn not to respond 0 Previously learned response is simply not expressed 0 Evidence return of conditioned response CR in new context spontaneous recovery after delay Return of the conditioned response CR in a new context suggests that extinction involves How could classical conditioning as a general learning mechanism be useful Builds on rudimentary re exes Beyond Re exes Learning predictions about biologically important events 0 Outcomes like food are not contingent on behavior Instrumental conditioning 0 Learning to take actions 0 Outcomes are contingent on behavior Stimulussituation go signal 0 Discriminative signals whether a particular behavior response will lead to a particular outcome consequence 0 Could be an event light turns on peck and you ll get food 0 Could be a situation in a restaurant place on order and you ll getfood Compare to eliciting stimuli o In classical conditioning an eliciting stimulus is a change in the environment that is highly correlated with the occurrence of a later stimulus Suddenly a bell rings Ringing is highly correlated with food appeadng Response Learned behavior associated with the stimulus and the consequence o Press bar only if light turns on and get food only if you press the bar 0 How do you get the rat to press the bar in the rst place 0 Wait for it it will happen naturally o Shaping successive approximations to the desired response are reinforced o Chaining successive complicated sequences are gradually added to the required response Clicker Question In the example about kids learning not to hit what is the response The hitting behavior his behavior not your response Clicker Question In the example about rats learning to press a lever to get food what is the response Pressing the bar Consequence Event that occurs only once the response has been performed and only if the discriminative stimuli was presented o If light turns on then press lever lf press lever then food Light is the signal to indicate the situation food is available if you press the bar 0 Two types 0 Consequence that increases likelihood of response in the future Reward reinforcement o Consequence that decreases likelihood of response in the future Punishment Consequence 0 You might nd yourself thinking of it as the quotoutcomequot if you do Y Z will happen o If X happens then if you do Y Z will happen 0 But don t get too attached to the word outcome because it may throw you off 0 For example the consequence in the pecking turning example is food Not the bird pecksturns Clicker Question In the example about kid learning not to hit what is the consequence Clicker Question In the example about rats learning to press a lever to get food what is the consequence Clicker Question Suppose the consequence of a child s hitting behavior is getting a time out In the future the child s hitting behavior increases This indicates that the consequence is Punishment 0 Punishment is only effective if inhibition of the inappropriate behavior is the only response that will prevent the punishment 0 There can be negative consequences of punishment 0 Learner may imitate punishment 0 Avoidance learning avoid the stimulus that signals a certain behavior will result in punishment 0 Learner may not associate punishment with behavior Particularly if there is a delay 0 Anger induced by punishment can lead to aggression Expression of aggressive behavior is highly reinforcing Can reduce aggressive response if 0 Reinforcement for nonaggressive behavior 0 Punishment for aggressive behavior Token Economy Tokens symbols that can be exchanged for material reinforces services or privileges 0 Carry no inherent value 0 Coins checkmarks stickers ect 0 Can be exchanged for Candy money time off privileged access 0 Can be saved up for something bigger Excursion big prize Learning Observational Natural state of things Unconditioned stimulus heat l unconditioned response pull hand away Conditioned stimulus heat l conditioned response pull hand away Do you have to touch a hot burner to learn not to touch hot burners Social Learning theory Learners can acquire the conditioned response pull hand away without going through their own classical conditioning They can learn by observing others Memory No Learning without memory We know that a lot of learning takes place very early on and learning couldn t possibly happen without memory Infantile Amnesia the inability to recall in later life memories of experiences prior to 2 and 12 years old Neural change hypothesis 0 Need certain brain structures to mature before memories can be encoded stored and retrieved Hippocampus rst to develop but still immature in rst year Will eventually serve as the initial store for memories before memory trace is established throughout the cerebral cortex Parietal lobe second to develop after hippocampus involved in storing semantic memories separate from the contexts in which they were learned Might remember that there is an animal with a tall neck called a giraffe and what a giraffe looks like But not remember that one time you went to the zoo and fed a piece of grass to a giraffe PreFrontal lobe third to develop involved in source monitoring memory strategies and metamemorial knowledge Source monitoring keeping track of where new information comes from Memory strategies ways of enhancing memory such as noticing distinguishing features Clicker Question What is the order of maturation of the following brain structures Hippocampus then posterior parietal cortex and then prefrontal cortex Clicker Question So why does the order matter The relatively early development of the hippocampus which is involved in the initial encoding and storage of memories explains why very young children are able to remember and become habituated to events like a repeated visual stimulus The relativity late development of the prefrontal cortex which is involved in memory strategies and metamemorial knowledge explains why very young children are poor at remember speci c events Memory format change hypothesis memories are encoded in a different format than you use in later life can t access them later on Encoding the act of forming a mental representation of an event encoded as a preverbal visual imagery Storage preservation of information over time later try to remember the narrative of what happened but it wasn t stored as a verbal memory Retrieval the process of accessing a mental representation of an event Memory format change hypothesis memories are encoded in a different format than you use in later life however babies are learning words as early as six month and at two years old they can speak in sentences Furthermore older children and even adults have nonverbal memories of experiences Clicker Question which of the following is consistent with the memory format change hypothesis A child experiences the wet slobber of an energetic puppy but appears not to remember the puppy when her parents ask her if she remembers quotmeeting fidoquot Cueing hypothesis memories are encoding in a different format than you use in later life Need cues in the same format Seeing the particular layout of the giraffe area triggers the memory of feeding the giraffe that one time If memory encoded as a narrative verbal cues can trigger memory Constructing the self as longlasting episodic memories emerge they also support stronger autobiographical memories Factors contributing to autobiographical memory 0 Explicit rehearsal retelling the story over and over 0 Preverbal children don t do this 0 Development of narrative skills provide context timeline details and own perspective 0 Social sharing sharing the story with others 0 Now others can provide the cueing 0 Development of sense of self understanding their own past on a timeline Do some kids have exceptional memory 0 No just in pockets of expertise Why does becoming an expert in an area improve memory in that area 0 Have a framework in place Patterns trends are more easily noticed New information can t into it 0 Test kids outside of area of expertise they look normal not exceptional And sometimes kids forget Is this lunch or dinner What did we have for dinner What did you do at school today I don t know I don t remember 869378258 Why is there an effect of age on memory for a list of numbers Younger kids do not use memory strategies spontaneously 0 Why Don t realize that they should that it would help them that otherwise they ll forget l limitations in metamemory Parabola curve remember rst and last number best not the middle ADHD attentiondeficit Hyperactivity disorder Characterized by lack of attention or sometimes intensely focuses attention to the exclusion of anything thing else frequent motionfidgeting and poor impulse control 0 Three different types 0 lnattention o Hyperactivity 0 Combination of inattention and hyperactivity Look for clusters of quotsymptomsquot that tend to cooccur To what extent do these symptoms overlap with other disordersdisabilities o Disorders are often comorbid have ADHD and tourette s Syndrome 0 But they are also distinguishable they don t always go together Clicker Question How do you think clinicians would diagnose an attention disorder with no known biomarker Look for a cluster of symptoms seeming to have to do with attention that tend to go together and wouldn t be better explained as belonging to a cluster of symptoms associated with another mental disorder Why is it useful to diagnose Allows for communication among practitioners educators medical workers Ect Allows for targeted study of disorders 0 Underlying causes of a set of symptoms 0 Effective treatments for a set of symptoms Prevalence More common in boys than girls 0 According to the National Institute of Mental Health 0 90 of American children 1318 years 0 This number is increasing why 0 Better awareness understanding 0 Misdiagnosis Neurological underpinnings children with ADHD have had higher instances of birth trauma and serious illnesses including high fevers during their infancy may arise from delayed or impaired brain development particularly in the frontal and prefrontal cortical regions that help regulate attention as well as in subcortical regions such as the nucleus accumbens and the striatum de cits in neurotransmitters especially dopamine which affects neural circuits connecting those regions may also be involved may be linked to de cits in the immune system Medication Stimulants really think of your ability to focus when you ve had caffeine reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus work and learn Ritalin increases the neurotransmitter dopamine becomes easier to stay on task though oddly children ADHD don t have lower levels of dopamine But there are side effects decreased appetite sleep problems Therapy behavioral training reinforce desired behaviors o for child 0 for pa rents too behavioral therapy doesn t always accompany medical treatment 0 less than 14 receiving ADHD medication also receive talk therapy 0 of those who do it s not many sessions 20 receive fewer than 4 sessions per year
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