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Date Created: 08/17/14
Engineterine Studv Guide Chapter 8 Tables and Graphs Independent Cause Dependent Effect Ex Let39s assume the engineer is studying an automobile the system and is interested in the factors that affect its speed Dependant variable In this case is the speed Independent Variable Affects the speed and rate of fuel entering the engine tire pressure road grade and etc A table is a convenient way to list dependant and independent variables lndependent is usually on left column and Dependant is usually on the right column decimal points make numbers easier to read Tables are useful for presenting technical information because the numbers can be easily entered in computers or calculators Graphs are used to help visualize data A well constructed graph includes titles axis labels readable fonts and legible symbols For data that sum up to 100 pie charts are good for that The dependant variable is plotted on the Ordinate the y axis and the independent variable is plotted on the Absclssa the x BXIS rx3939a Ne Data must be categorized as Observed Data are often simply presented without an attempt to smooth them or correlate them with a mathematical model mpirical data are presented with a smooth line which may be determined by a mathematical model or perhaps it is just the authors bestjudgment of where the data points would have fallen had there been no error in the experiment Theoretica Data are generated by mathematical models nterpolation is extending between the data points Extrapolation ls extending beyond the data points Chapter 9 Statistics Statistics Encompasses scientific methods for collecting organizing presenting and analyzing data as well as making conclusions based on the data statistics plays a very important role in our lives for example without statistics our health would be in jeopardy as there would be no methods for identifying ineffective medicines Statistical quality control uses statistical methods to assess the quality of a product or process It is an extremely important manufacturing tool that is largely responsible for the success of the Japanese automotive industry Statistical measurements are used to characterize a population Select a Sample from the population Descriptive Statistics Which seeks only to describe data Statistical Inference Which seeks to make conclusions from the data Raw Data Data that have not been processed Range of data is the maximum minus the minimum The central tendency of the data is measured by the mean median and mode lVlean The average Mode Most occurring Median The one in the middle and average out the two middle if not able to cross them out Popuation is sampled than the standard deviation is used The Variance is described as the standard deviation squared The shape of this frequency is the normal distribution or bellshaped curve Cha ter 18 Accountin for mass Conservation of mass That mass can be neither created nor destroyed The universal accounting equation states Final input initial amount input output generation consumption simplifies to Final amount initial amount input output M02 0W 03 U xm I Kf b z L mHXww uWx Py m X wm 1 VL 5 lIiquot 2 hf5 7 We S quot7 quotquot W 1xi 5 X 07 J5 MJVW 39 Lln lrf i L x3 gtr3 gti 3939 0 39 L Um I I 5 r 3 xi332 39 39539 E 00 3 39 In M I W H b I X 3 LS 6quotLV l1397 U2 Mssxympmrc 5 A 39 Lim x 3 1 S39 gtlt X5799 39L 5 IVY i6X X 3 3 23 quot39 33I 9quot W i f 3 L F x m T 0 1 2quotL quotL 1 Y 3 WWW E Um I 455 A 2 i L 2 V cm Mm WW0
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