Popular in Political Science
Popular in Political Science
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Political Science 8272015 HW Assigned Reading of Chapter 1 Text Summary 11 It s Your Government Many Americans especially young Americans believe that government and politics are distant beyond their immediate world In reality government is around us it shapes our lives in important ways every hour of every day That is why it is particularly important for citizens in a democracy to become involved because government matters 12 Themes of This Book There are numerous ways to investigate and explore our political system This book focusses on three essential themes First in democracy it39s essential that citizens become participants and not merely spectators of the political process Second while many in the US believe their options for effective involvement are limited there are numerous pathways for change Indeed throughout American History different political actors have used different pathways to achieve their goals Finally issues of diversity have and will continue to shape the process and outcome of our political system America39s diversity contributes to most political controversies while at the same time adding complexity to the mix of actors seeking to affect change 13 Citizen Participation and Pathways The example of Abortion Abortion is one the most controversial issues of our day and this long heated debate has been played out through the ve pathways of change lobbying courts elections grassroots mobilization and cultural change As one side has begun to achieve goals via one pathway the other side has responded by heading down a different pathway The story of abortion says a lot about various routes of change in all of American Politics 14 Change and Stability in American Government There is no doubt that our nation has undergone signi cant change in the last three centuries At the same time however core elements of our political system have remained remarkably stable This is due to reverence for democracy and free market capitalism to a wellcrafted Constitution and to numerous pathways for average citizens to voice their concerns and redirect the course of public policy Terms 1 Politics the process by which the actions of government are determined For example by appealing to members of the city council to change the new housing ordinance several students decided to roll up their sleeves and become engaged in local politics Public policy what government decides to do or not to do government laws rules and regulations For example state public policy that you must be 21 years old to drink alcohol Democracy a political system in which all citizens have a chance to play a role in shaping government action and affording basic rights Totalitarian regime A system of government in which the ruling elite holds all the power and controls all aspects of society Pathways of action the activities of citizens in American Politics that affect the creation alteration of preservation of laws For example39 citizens can change policy by bringing in officials to help change public policy Checks and Balances A system in our government where each branch legislative executive judicial has the power to limit the actions of others Capitalism An economic system where businesses and industry are privately owned and there is little government interference Socialism an economic system in which the government owns and controls most factories and much or all of the nation39s land Alexis de Tocqueville A French scholar who traveled throughout the United States in the early 1830s His published notes Democracy in America offers a telling account of our nation39s formative years 82715 Class Notes Text Chapter One American Government Democracy in Action Behavior Modi cation Lifestyle and cultural diversity sessions ls behavior modi cation a good thing What is Politics Politics Who gets What When and How Harold Laswell But politics is normative Who gets what when and how and why Who gets to make these decisions do the people decide or the elite PoliticsThe distribution of wealth power and status What is Democracy Democracy A political system in which citizens can play aa role in shaping government action and are given basic rights Democracy requires Participation People must use the freedoms democracy provides Freedom of speech freedom of association freedom of press and voUng quotquotquotquotThese are tools not privileges Two Types of Democracy Direct Democracy individual citizens vote directly on all laws and policies Representative democracy citizens elect representatives to make decisions for the public Voting on Ballet Propositions Proposition 8 Made Gay Marriage illegal but was overturned by supreme court What Democracy is not Measuring Participation and freedoms Democratic US Canada Sweden Japan Authoritarian Political Leaders face few legal restrictions but are checked by not institutional forcesRussia China Totalitarian A dictator or ruling elite holds all the power Government controls all aspects of society North Korea llliberal Democracy Fareed Zakaria Procedural Democracy Hold Elections Substantive Democracy Have democratic values Most illiberal democracy have procedural but lack substantive Example Russia Iraq Mexico Bene ts of Allowing Participation Citizens can express their viewpoints and take actions to in uence the government without resorting to violence quotThose who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitablequot Even democracy is perfect Timothy McVeigh 1995 OKC Bombing Ecoterrorism Earth rst tree spiking ELF arson More bene ts of participation Informs government what we want and holds of cials accountable Renews Legitimacy of Government Democracy requires more than consent 912015 Class Notes Chapter 1 Voting Historically Americans have voted less often than citizens in other countries 0 Do we want more people voting Trustee or Delegate Model 0 The people were dangerous 0 quotThe rights of property originate from the diversity in the faculties of men the protection of these faculties is the rst object that governmentquot James Madison Federalist 10 0 They devised quotTrustee Representativesquot Representatives listen to their constituents sometimes but mainly do what39s best for the people even if it means ignoring them We give them some autonotomy Delegate Representatives Representatives always listen to people No matter what No autonomy Pathways of Action 0 De nition the activities of citizens in American Politics that affect the creation alteration of preservation of laws For example39 citizens can change policy by bringing in officials to help change public policy Elections 0 Elections are the means by which citizens choose their representatives 0 A variety of political actors utilize this pathway Political parties and interest groups citizens Activities include Voter registration and initiatives fundraising campaigns SelfPromotion Candidates do it to get in uence The Youth Vote 68 of voters under 30 voted for Obama 2008 2012 Decisive in Florida Virginia Pennsylvania Ohio Swing States o If Romney would have gotten 50 percent of the vote he would have one o More College Students vote democrat Lobbying Lobbying is when individuals or groups try to in uence government decisions making Activates Include Supplying information attempting to persuade applying pressure buying in uence JACK ABRAMOFF Lobbyists can be domestic and foreign NRA AND AARP Usually connects and organized groups make Lobbyists rms but MADD Mothers against Drunk Driving is an example of regular people making a campaign Cou s Individuals and groups can request judges to enforce rights or new interpretation of rights 0 Judicial Activism The courts can force government to change laws 0 Brown vs Board of Education NAACP backed her case up Exam Question Grassroots Mobilization Movements that organize large groups numbers of individuals to carry the message to government 0 Petition drives community meetings public raIIies boycotts strikes and protests More effective when they have backing of organizations Cultural Change 0 quotChanging Hearts and Mindsquot 0 Change in Societal Views can in uence change in government policy Relies upon educating the public and publishing events to change the views of citizens over time c 19605 Counter Culture Movement Gender and racial equality Television and Gay Rights Public opinion and Gay Marriage 0 Support for gay marriage in America has more than doubled from 27 in 1996 to 60 in 2015 0 Obama supported in 2012 but not in 2008 Part II Political Ideology Political Ideology De nition a consistent set of basic beliefs about the proper scope of government 0 The Big Three Conservatism Liberalism Libertarianism Conservatism Favor Traditional Views on social cultural and economic matters and demand a more limited role for government in most spheres Generally associated with Republicans Exception being The Blue Dogs Democrats Favor order and security above other values Agreement with Libertarians that Government should stay out of the economy Free Market Criticism pessimists warmongers reactionary party of the rich and less canng Liberalism Progressivism Not to be confused with Classical Liberalism Tend to support social change and cultural change and want an activities government Generally associated with Democrats Favor equality above all other values Agree with the libertarians that government should stay out of their lives out of our lifestyles decisions quotquotUnless this violates someone else39s equality Criticism ldealists paci sts party pf Hollywood and anti American Libertarianism Support individual liberty in economic personal and social realms over governmental action Generally associated with a third party but anti war libertarians anti government libertarians Favor liberty and freedom above all other values Criticism Not practical too optimistic about the market Homework 932015 Reading and Notes Text Chapter 27 eReader pp13 gtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltThe U5 C0nstituti0n The Constitution is broken down into 7 articles I The Legislative Branch Congress II The Executive Branch President Ill The Judicial Branch Courts IV Guidelines for Relations between States V The Amendment Process Vl Federal State Relations Supremacy Clause Oath for Of cers Vll How the Constitution will be rati ed The Three Branches of Government Understanding both the complexity of government and the potential for corruption the framers saw t to create a system with different branches of government legislative executive and judicial The legislature would make the laws the president would enforce the legislature39s will and the judicial branch would interpret the laws and resolve disputes according to the law Separate Institutions Sharing Powers One of the greatest challenges the framers faced was creating a system that was neither too weal nor to strong A weal government would suffer the fate of the article of confederation Checks and Balances Counter balancing in uences by which an organization or system is regulated typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups Example Congress can pass laws but the president can veto them If both houses of congress can get a 23 vote than it can override the veto The president can be impeached by the house and federal judges can be impeached Representative Republicanism Republic in which the people elect representatives to represent them in voting Federalism A system of government in which the powers of government are spread out in multiple layers This is not direct democracy Madison believed that direct democracy causes anarchy Reciprocity among the states States must accept other states and their laws A Fixed System Open to Change The writers developed a rati cation process in order for the government to change as time went on Steps to Rati cation Two Thirds of both houses vote for the proposed amendment then three fourths of state legislatures approve The Alternative method that has only been used one in American History would be Congress call national convention at the request of two thirds of the states then ratifying conventions in 34 of the states approve De nitions Sharing of Powers The US Constitution39s granting of speci c powers to each branch of government while making each branch also partly dependent on the others for carrying out its duties Expressed Powers The powers explicitly granted to the national government in the US constitution For Instance Article I Section 8 grant Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce Police Powers The powers reserved tot eh state government related to health safety and wellbeing of citizens EReader pp 13 Men are born in a state of nature and are fundamentally equal The previous statement holds true until one man enforces or attains dominance over all other men through force or politics However there are laws that are in nature We are all created under one god and we must not harm each other or take away the natural rights we all have Political Science Notes 932015 American Political Culture De nition of Political Culture Political Culture broadly shared values beliefs and attitudes about how the government should function More physiological need not be conscious in the mind of citizens Product of socialization Widely Diffuse Part of National Identity quotProposition Nationquot is the idea that it is a creed that unites us Example Declaration of the Independence or Gettysburg address or MLK speech Three Primary Origins Enlightenment6201789 faith in reason and progress liberty equality challenges authority American Practices participation belief in majority rule elections Religious principles free will justice equality and human dignity Are we becoming more secular quotCity on a Hillquot and American Exceptionalism The Ancient Greeks Aristotle wrote The Politics quotNatural Lawquot ethical principles knowable by reason Eudaimonia Everything in this world has a function A humans function is to reason Athenian Democracy but narrowly de ned Aristotle Types of Regimes Rule by one monarchy or tyranny Rule by few aristocracy or oligarchy Rule by many or all democracy or mob rule lnherently unstable so solution would be mixed regime or quotpolityquot combining elements of all three Founding Fathers President Monarchy Senate Aristocracy House Everyone Middle Ages Dominated by monarchs and the Catholic Church Thomas Aquinas reason free will and liberty Protestant Reformation 16th Century quotEqual in the Eyes of Godquot Classical Liberalism US founded on classical liberalism not to be confused with liberalism today Individual liberty each individual has worth dignity and rights Challenged traditional forms of authority and theirjusti cations Thomas Hobbes Authored Leviathan 1651 Considered rst quotliberalquot in classic sense of the word Pessimistic view of humans amp the quotstate of naturequot 0 Men were equal 0 Men would exist in a constant state of war 0 All powerful governments was only way to maintain the peace necessary for safe secure productive society 0 No revolutions Social Contract Humans give up all their rights for safety and security from the government Hobbes thought we gave up all of our rights John Locke Authored Second Treatise of Civil Government 1690 o More optimistic view of human nature and greater distrust for government 0 Natural Rightsquot life liberty and propertyquot 0 WE have right to rebel if are unalienable rights are taken away Attacked Divine Law 0 Social contract in which limited government and we retain our natural rights Hobbes vs Locke Agree that rights are the foundation of morality Agree that we enter into a social contract with government WE consent to give up some rights in order to have other rights protected Disagree on the amount of power the government needs to protect our rights Montesquieu Authored quot spirit of the Lawsquot quotSeparation of Powersquot Executive Legislative and Judicial Branches Checks and Balances Mankind is inherently ambitious The Federalists The Constitutional Convention 1787 James Madison Joh Jay Alexander Hamilton Federalist Papers 178788 The problem of factions and majority tyranny Meritocracy Solutions Multiplicity of factions Representative Government The AntiFederalists Bill of Rights Thinking Critically About American Political Culture Core Values Equality Liberty Order Pluralism Individualism But these values can con ict with one another And their application can be interpreted differently Ube y Liberty personal freedom and limited government control Requirements How much freedom is enough Should liberty be a license to do anything What about economic freedom Rand Paul and the Civil Rights Act Order People want security and certainty in their lives We respect traditions and customs Peace and Productivity Complications Too much order or too much security Order vs Equality Civil Rights Non Violent Civil Disobedience Progressive Movements Order vs Liberty Patriot Act TSA Putdowns Pluralism Pluralism power should be widely distributed in society Are Americans Stupid Who Should Rule Political Science Notes 982015 HW Chapter 10 Text Summary 101 Public Opinion Public Opinion is a far more complex phenomenon than many people appreciate Grounded in political values it tends to be very stable but it can serve as a mechanism to promote cultural change Commentators disagree over the role that public opinion should play in in uencing public of cials Some believe public opinion ought to have a limited role in American Politics arguing that people are too easily in uenced and manipulated Other political commentators believe that it is healthy in a democracy for public of cials to track public policy opinion and act accordance with it 102 The Stability of Political Beliefs Americans largely agree on a number of fundamental values including liberty individualism democratic institutions basic principles and equality Disagreements occur when the government translates these rather abstract ideas into speci c public policies Public Opinion tends to be stable though we do see substantial shifts during times of crisis or as a reaction to an important event As we saw with such issues as gay rights civil rights and women39s rights gradual changes in public opinion also occur as a result of cohort replacement re ecting and shaping our political and popular culture 103 Political Ideology Political Ideology is a consistent set of personal values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of the government 104 Political Socialization People acquire their political knowledge and beliefs through a process called political socialization 105 Social Groups and Political Values People with similar life circumstances and experiences tend to develop similar opinions and values 106 Measuring Public Opinion Polls are used to measure public opinion De nitions Public Opinion The attitudes of individuals regarding their political beliefs and institutions as well as social and political issues Elitism the theory that a select few people better educated more informed and more interested should have more in uence that others in a governmental process Individualism an attitude rooted in classical liberal theory and reinforced by the frontier tradition that citizens are capable of taking care of themselves with little assistance from the government Equality of opportunity the belief that all should have equal chances for success in education employment and political participation Equality of outcome an egalitarian belief that government must work to diminish differences between individuals in society so that everyone is equal in value in status Political Culture The norms customs and beliefs that citizens understand appropriate ways to act in a political system Cohort replacement Natural phenomenon of generational replacement due to death Catalystfor change theory the assertion that public opinion shapes and alters our political culture thus allowing change Barometer of public attitudes the theory that popular culture re ects public attitudes Interactive theory the theory that popular culture both re ects and create public opinion Political ldeology a consistent set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy regarding the proper goals purposes functions and size of government Liberal a person who generally supports governmental action to promote equality favors government intervention for equality Conservative a person who believes in limiting government spending preserving traditional patters of relationships and that big government is a threat to personal liberties Populist People who believe that the government can be a positive agent to protect the common people from the elite Libertarian people who support individual liberty over government authority in economic personal and social realms Political Socialization The complex process through which people acquire political knowledge and form poitica values also the conscious transmission of political culture and values from one generation to another Agents of political socialization Factors that in uence how we acquire political facts and knowledge and develop poitica values Efficacy the belief that individuals can in uence government Crosscutting cleavage divisions in society that separate people into groups Gender gap differences in voting and policy preferences between men and women After controlling for other factors women tend to be more democratic than men Sample a subset of the population under study if selected correctly it represents the population from which it was drawn with reliable and measureable accuracy Probability sample selection procedure in which each member of the target population has a known or equal chance of being selected Class Notes 982015 The Redistribution of Wealth Trust Fund Babies 0 You need government more than me PreMed Equality Equality no difference in the treatment of a group of people 0 Political equality One person one vote 0 Equal Opportunity Equal education and eliminate discrimination act the workplace Equal opportunity or Equal Outcomes Equality of opportunity you get the same chance and your success is made of you merit Equality of outcome regardless of outcome everyone is awarded the same Individualism Individualism a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of independence 0 We make our own destinies Rugged Individualism Alexis de Tocqueville USA 18305 Democracy in the US Materialism Individuals isolate themselves with money and material objects Individualism isolates people and can destroy civic morals Rugged individualism Soft Despotism lndividuals materialism tempered by associations free press religion self interest Contemporary View of Public Opinion Pluralism the belief that power should be widely disturbed among individuals in society All citizens should be informed and participate governmental legitimacy Political efficacy the belief that individuals can in uence government lnternal efficacy con dence in one s ability to understand and in uence events External efficacy belief that the government will respond to its citizens Historical View of Public Opinion Founders believe that public opinion was dangerous because it was short sighted Elitism the elite should control and rule society The four characteristics direction intensity stability salience importance to a person Political Science 9112015 Public Opinion Shifts in Public Opinion Large Shifts in Public Opinion can produce major transformations in American Politics Revolutionary War MLK Franz Boas From racism to Culturalism Gay Right are all examples Public Opinion Change Gradually Can change rapidly in response to major events but usually doesn39t change Technology can bring an exchange of ideas Cohort Replacement Out with the old in with the new Demographics Latinos fastest growing population Cultural Generation Gap PEW Research Center America39s Population will increase from 296 Million to 438 Million in 2050 Fully 82 of the growth will be caused by immigrants Popular Culture Who in uences who 0 Three theories have been advanced to explain the relationship between popular culture and public opinion Catalystfor change theory the assertion that public opinion shapes and alters our political culture thus allowing change Barometer of public attitudes the theory that popular culture re ects public attitudes Interactive theory the theory that popular culture both re ects and create public opinion Political Socialization Political Socialization is a lifelong process by which people form their ideas about politics and acquire political values o It can be conscious and unconscious Agents of Socialization Elites mainstream effect polarization Family basic values School civic responsibility and patriotism Peersgroups issue awarenessactivismcrazies Media knowledge reinforcement Events Foreign in uences Identity and Background 0 Most people have multiple identities impacting their political views Crosscutting cleavage can moderate our views and lead to stability 0 How might these factors impact us differently Race gender age education economic class Key Ingredients for a Good Poll A good representative sample Nonleading questions No loaded terms Socially acceptable answers Sufficed questions to assess identity and saliency Civic and Political Engagement eReader pp 127134 Notes Homework Assignment 9152015 0 Martin Luther King goes to Birmingham Alabama to for a nonviolent protest because of the racial injustice of the south and America as a whole 0 He states that he must spread the gospel and if for no other reason has ties to be here because of his church organization MLK states that injustice in Alabama will indirectly affect justice within Atlanta He cannot sit idle because injustice somewhere affects justice anywhere He expresses that if he doesn39t handle injustice in Birmingham it will spread all over the place Non violent action seeks to create negotiation Violence won t help the civil rights movement Discusses liberty and that black Americans have less of it Activism and Protest in the US Class Notes 91615 Activism and Protest in the US Grassroots mobilization is an important pathway to in uence our society our government and our social structures What is grassroots movement Natural local level Example Tea Party MADD Women with Computers created a political organization Civil Rights Movement History and Political Culture Salutary Neglect 16071764 quot SelfGoverned Colonies Colonies were left alone by Britain to fend for themselves This lead to the US revolting along with the no taxation without representation mentality Tocqueville observes collective action 1831 Town Hall democracy Activism is at the root of our do something political culture and forming groups is essential for political action
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