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Bundled Weeks 1-3 notes

by: Kerrigan Reading

Bundled Weeks 1-3 notes Life 102

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > Life 102 > Bundled Weeks 1 3 notes
Kerrigan Reading
Attributes of Living Systems
Jennifer L Neuwald

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Weeks 1-3 of notes for Attributes of Living Systems. These notes are what the first exam will be over.
Attributes of Living Systems
Jennifer L Neuwald
First Exam, Biology, life, cells, bundle
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Kerrigan Reading on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/15
I The Characteristics of Life Energy Processing Evolutionary Adaptation Order Growth and Development Response to Environment Reproduction Regulation ll Themes of Biology Organization Reductionism breaking down complexities Information Genetic material DNA the genomeall genes Energy and Matter Required by all living things Interactions Molecular organisms and biosphere Evolution Core theme of biology Emergent properties those that cannot be fully explained by their parts The structure of organisms is influenced by their function Cell the basic unit of life All organisms share the same basic genetic code which is evidence for the unity of life Ill Fundamental Characteristics of Science Ask testable questions Use evidence to answer questions Parsimony the simplest explanations are preferred Theories either supported or falsified by evidence Are very dynamic but not highly questionable Have vast amounts of supporting evidence Science is characterized by continuous discovery IV The Chemical Context of Life Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen and Nitrogen make up 962 of human body weight CHON Calcium and Phosphorous together make up 99 of human body weight The rest are minor trace elements Trace element vital to life but only in very small quantities Too much of a trace element can lead to toxicity V Electrons The majority of reactions between atoms are influenced by their electrons Electron shells have different energy levels The further away from the nucleus an electron is the greater the potential energy The Electron s valence or outermost shells determine the chemical reactivity between elements Full valence shells are not very reactive Outer valence shells can hold up to 8 electrons the first two valence shells can only hold two Inert nonreactive gases have full valence shells VI Chemical Bonds There are strong and weak bonds and each chemical bond results in a different shape and func on Strong 1 Covalent sharing a valence electron pair A Nonpolar covalent electrons are shared equally no are is more or less electronegative than another B Polar covalent Electrons are not shared equally so one area is more electronegative than another 2 lonic one element takes an electron from another element results in 2 oppositely charged ions Weak 1 Hydrogen attraction between hydrogen and electronegative atoms These bonds are constantly falling apart and coming together 2 Van der Waals Forces minor variations in charge on molecules that are very close together resulting in temporary weak bonds VWater and Life Water is the molecule of life Water is the only molecule in nature that is regularly seen in all states solid liquid and gas Water is the solvent of life Water is polar because oxygen is very electronegative causing it to pull the hydrogen atoms in resulting in hydrogen bonding 4 Emergent Properties of water 1 Cohesion Hydrogen bonds result in strong cohesion between water molecules which results in the high surface tension of water Adhesion Water adheres to other polar surfaces that it can form hydrogen bonds with 2 High Specific Heat Hydrogen bonds result in water resisting temperature changes Specific Heat the amount of heat needed to change one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius Kinetic energy caused by molecular movement and is the same as thermal energy Temperature a measure of the average thermal energy Heat a measure of the transfer of thermal energy between bodies Calorie the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius The High Specific Heat of water allows it to resist temperature changes which moderates temperatures globally and locally It also allows moderation of temperature within our bodies Water also has a high heat of vaporization which allows for sweating 3 Floating lce Solid water is less dense than liquid water If this were not the case aquatic systems could not survive and the polar ice caps would sink causing water levels to rise drastically which would result in the flooding of the planet lce or solid water is less dense than liquid water because when frozen hydrogen bonds hold water molecules further apart than when they are in a liquid phase 4 Universal Solvent Solvent dissolving agent Solute substance being dissolved Solution a liquid containing mixture of 2 or more substances Water is able to dissolve any polar or ionic molecule making it a universal solvent Hydrophilic water loving has an affinity for water This is typical of polar and ionic substances Hydrophobic water fearing does not have an affinity for water Typically nonpolar substances VlllAcids and Bases H is hydronium OH is hydroxide Both H and OH are very reactive pH is a log transformed scale measuring H and OH Concentrations of H and OH are in equilibrium in pure water giving it a pH of 7 The dissociation of pure water is rare but very important Acids increase in H concentration lower pH Bases increase in OH concentration increase pH Strong acids and bases will completely dissociate in water Weak acids and bases dissociate in water to some extent but not completely Buffer a solution that resists change when an acid or base is added ex Carbonic acid buffers human tissues by adding or removing H ions from solution lX Carbon the backbone of life Organic chemistry study of carbon compounds With bonding the number of electrons needed to reach 8 in a valence shell is the number of covalent bonds that can be formed Carbon Molecular Diversity The diversification of carbon molecules is due to chain length branching double bonds and where they occur and carbon rings Hydrocarbons only consist of Hydrogen and Carbon lsomers Structural lsomers same formula different shape Cistrans isomers also known as geometric isomers cis same element same side trans same element opposite side Enantiomers mirror images Functional Groups Hydroxyl OH alcohol dissolving Carbonyl CO ketone Carboxyl COOH acts as an acid donates H Amino NH2 acts as a base picks up H Sulfhydryl SH nonpolar not reactive stabilizes proteins thiol Phosphate OPO3 2 energy storage and transfer contributes negative charge Methyl CH3 DNA expression and regulation nonpolar X Macromolecules A Carbohydrates and Lipids Monomer mono means one Polymer poly means many Polymers are made up of many monomers joined together All living things are made of the same 4 Macromolecules Carbohydrates monomer source of fuel and building materials Lipids not made of monomers energy storage communication temperature regulation Proteins monomer most diverse catalyst provides structure and support Nucleic Acids monomers store transmit express hereditary information Polymers can be broken down into monomers through hydrolysis and built up through dehydration Diversity in monosaccharides is caused by Carbonyl group location Arrangement around asymmetrical carbons Size of carbon skeleton Monosaccharides are simple sugars only contain one sugar Disaccharides have two sugars Polysaccharides are composed of many sugars some examples are Starch plant storage molecule Glycogen animal storage molecule Cellulose plant structural molecule unbranched Chitin animal and fungal structural molecule Since cellulose is unbranched it can easily bind to itself through hydrogen bonds forming plant cell walls It is made of beta glucose monomers Starch is made of alpha glucose monomers Lipids not polymers formed from smaller molecules through dehydration reactions They are hydrophobic and nonpolar The three subgroups are Fats composed of glycerol and fatty acids carbon chain with carboxyl group Phospholipids glycerol two fatty acids and a phosphate group polar Steroids four fused carbon rings with chemical group These chemical group vary depending on the steroid Fats can be saturated or unsaturated The more H added to a fat the more saturated and less liquid it becomes Phospholipids have a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head so one side is polar the head and the other is nonpolar the tail Steroids are hydrophobic and nonpolar Hydrocarbon chains are generally hydrophobic and nonpolar B Proteins and Nucleic Acids Nonpolar covalent bonds atoms similar in electronegativity Polar covalent bonds atoms that differ in electronegativity lonic bonds atoms that are extremely different in electronegativity The 8 Kinds of Proteins Enzymatic Defensive Storage Transport Receptor Contractile and Motor Hormonal Structural Over 50 of the dry mass in a cell is protein There is no aspect of life that does not require protein There are 20 Amino Acids common to all life Bonds between amino acids are peptide bonds The 5 Components of Amino Acids Asymmetrical Carbon Amino groups Carboxyl groups Hydroxyl groups R side chain that is unique to each amino acid Each amino acid has both a common and unique part Nucleic Acids Gene a sequence of DNA that codes for a particular protein DNA Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid DNA and RNA work together to make proteins mRNA interacts with ribosomes The monomers Nucleotides 5 Carbon Sugar Nitrogenous base Pyrimidines C T and U Purines A and G Phosphate groups Dehydration links nucleotides into nucleic acids Notes Week 3 Life 102 Nucleic Acids Continued Thymine is in DNA only Uracil is in RNA only Phosphodiester bonds create a sugarphosphate backbone RNA is single stranded DNA forms a double helix Since DNA is antiparallel and complementary it makes the perfect molecule for replication DNA is held together by hydrogen bonds ATour of the Cell A Cell Size Prokaryotes bacteria one organism one cell one micrometer long Cells are small because they must exchange with their environment and their volume increases faster than their surface area B Microscopy Light and Electron Microscopy Magnification allows viewer to see a much larger image of a specimen Resolution clarity Contrast enables viewer to see specific features Staining techniques increase contrast Light microscopes work by light passing through the specimen and then through bent lenses that magnify the image Electron Microscopy Tissues are treated with metals and an electron beam is passed across the tissues Excited electrons are then detected and act to produce an image Cell Fractionation Sequential centrifugation to obtain smaller and smaller cell constituents C 3 Kingdoms of life all share common ancestor Bacteria prokaryote Archaea prokaryote Eukarya eukaryote Prokaryotic before the kernelnucleus Eukaryotic true kernelnucleus Archaea are more closely related to eukarya than bacteria Prokaryote smaller than eukaryotes no nucleus no membranebound organelles Bacteria and archaea have incredibly diverse metabolism functions and have the ability to thrive in extreme environments Free living prokaryotic cells within the human body outnumber an individual s own cells 10 to 1 D Cellular components Nucleus holds cell information DNA Nuclear envelope double membrane layer separates nucleus from cytoplasm Pore complexes protein lined pores that regulate what goes in and out of cell Nucleolus assembles ribosomal subunits Endoplasmic reticulum massive expanse of membranes involved in lipid and protein synthesis Smooth ER synthesizes lipids detoxifies Notes Week 3 Rough ER synthesizes proteins Transitioned ER wraps materials in vesicles for transport Golgi Apparatus acts in modification of proteins storage and transport Lysosomes intracellular digestion and recycling Vacuoles storage and movement selectively permeable membranes specific to plants Mitochondria converts sugar to energy through respiration Chloroplasts use light energy from sun to create food for plants and some protists Peroxisomes lipid break down and detoxification of compounds Removes and H and adds it to water Cytoskeleton provides support for cell motility movement and manipulates the plasma membrane Microtubules Tubulin polymers hollow tracks for motor proteins provide shape and support resists compression within all eukaryotes Intermediate Filaments provide structural support not involved in motility most common in animals is keratin Microfilaments twisted double chain of actin molecules combine with proteins provide motility and structural support bears tension Found in plants and animals Localized contractions of microfilaments cause amoeboid movement Centrosomes are found only in animal cells Are important for flagella and cilia Have a 9 2 structure of microtubule doublets Plant cell walls provide shape support and prevent excessive water uptake thick layer of cellulose fivers in matrix of polysaccharides middle lamella glues cell walls of adjacent cells together as cells mature they add thickening substances to create a secondary cell wall like the bark on a tree Animal cell extracellular matrix glycoproteins collagen and carbohydrate molecules Cell Junctions Plasmodesmata in plants Channels that connect cells in areas of fused plasma membrane Porelike Allows cytosol to be continuous amongst cells Fuses cells and allows for free exchange Tight junctions proteins bind plasma membranes together to form tight seals and prevent the movement of interstitial fluid Desmosomes intermediate filaments that hold cells together Gap Junctions membranebound proteins form pores between cells to allow intracellular exchange of materials and information Not free exchange but regulated


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