All 3 weeks of notes
All 3 weeks of notes PSY 10-001
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Kerrigan Reading on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 10-001 at Colorado State University taught by Andrew David Ogle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/15
Week 3 of Notes Psychology PSY100 Behavior Genetics study how heredity and environment contribute to human differences There are 46 chromosomes in 23 matched sets Each parent contributes half of these chromosomes to their offspring There is one universal human genome because all human genomes are nearly identical There is a 05 to 4 difference between the human and chimpanzee genome There is a 50 difference in genome between a human and a banana Genes guide the assembly of proteins that build the body Quasi experiment when it is not possible or ethical to assign an independent variable ex twin and adoption studies ldentical twins have identical genetics Fraterna twins have related genetic material but it is not identical ldentical twins are more alike in personality behaviors abilities disease rates specific fears brain waves heart rates and intelligence test scores than are any other pair of people Genes can be turned on or off by environmental influences Epigenetics study of how a biomolecular reaction to the environment acts on genes to alter their activity Evolutionary Psychology study of how evolutionary principles help explain the origin and function of the human mind traits and behaviors Natural selection begins with the variety of traits Environmental conditions affect survival This leads to the more fitted organism surviving and reproducing to pass on their traits Artificial selection When specific traits are selected for and bred to produce specific results ex domesticated animals and diseaseresistant crops Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment Cognitive neuroscience examens consciousness The Dual Track Mind Conscious high road mind taking deliberate actions we are aware of what we are doing Unconscious low road mind performing automatic actions we are not aware of what we are doing Blindsight 2 tracks of parallel processing Selective Attention there are constantly millions of bits of information being sensed every second Our brain is able to choose what is important and focus on this Cocktail party affect being able to speak to someone in a large noisy crowd by selectively paying attention to them Controlled by the reticular formation Popout the low road is constantly scanning our environment listening for useful information When it finds something of interest it alerts the high road lnattentional blindness when our attention is focused elsewhere we miss seeing what others may think is obvious to see Change Blindness your brain is taking in so much information visually that it chooses what is important and does not see the rest Sleep as a state of consciousness can monitor EEGbrain waves and muscle movements during sleep Week 3 of Notes can expose sleeping person to stimuli and examine effects on waves and memory wake and interview people Sleep cycles are measured by eye movements Circadian rhythm the body s natural 24 hour cycle that is matched to the lightdark cycle Lark a morning person Owl a night person The peak alertness for an average 20 year old is in the evening The peak alertness for an average 50 year old is in the morning Throughout the 24 cycle body temperature arousalenergy and mental sharpness all change Sleep Stages NREM1 NREM2 NREM3 and REM There are distinct patterns of brain waves and muscle activity coordinated with different types of consciousness and sleep Each stage lasts about 90 minutes REM rapid eye movement When dreams occur brain is experiencing the most activity During REM the heart rate rises sleep paralysis can occur breathing speeds up and the genitals are aroused The duration of REM increases the longer an individual remains asleep As you age you don t sleep as deeply and therefore spend less time in REM and less time dreaming Jet lag is due to the disruption of the circadian rhythm Rhythm is also affected by lights which suppress the relaxing hormone melatonin We sleep because sleep protected our ancestors from predators it restores and repairs brain and body builds strength and memories facilitates creative problem solving growth hormone is activated Week 1 of Notes Psychology PSY100 History and Scope of Psychology Aristotle 4th Century BCE thinking about body and mind His method was making guesses Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 Helps to make psychology a science Uses carefully measured observations In 1879 performed a ball drop experiment to measure the time it took for an individual to press a button when they noticed a ball hit the table The reaction time was longer when the individual had to realize that they were aware the ball was hitting the table Edward Titchener Structuralist Data from introspection and reporting on experience Structuralism Using introspections and reports to build a view of the mind s structure Data was unreliable and not very scientific Did not completelyaccurately map the mind Functionalism Psychological processes have a functions help us to survive as individuals and adapt as a species Wiiam James 18421910 questioning how human thought and behavior affects natural selection Mary Whiton Calking 18631930 memory researcher and first female president of APA Denied a PhD from Harvard because she was a woman Behaviorism study and experiment of observable behaviors John B Watson studied ways that consequences shape behaviors BF Skinner saw little value in introspection or mentalities Freudian Psychology in the 1900 s Sigmund Freud medical doctor and neurologist Humanism studies people who were thriving without problems Abraham Maslow developed treatments to help people feel accepted and fulfilled How Psychology has been defined throughout history Wundt and Titchener Science of mental life 1900 s Behaviorists Study of observable behavior 1920 s Study of mental behavior 1960 s Now Science of behavior and mental processes The NatureNurture Question Nurture To what extent do our traits develop in response to our environment and expenences Nature To what extent are our traits affected by our genetics Biopsychosocial levels of analysis Biology genes brain survival reflexes sensations Social influences culture education relationships Psychology thoughts emotions moods choices behaviors The perspectives of psychology Cognitive socialcultural behavioral genetics neuroscience psychodynamic behaviorist and evolutionary Psychiatrists physicians MDs are able to prescribe medications Psychologists operate in psychotherapy Errors in Thinking Hindsight bias I knew it all along Overconfidence error I am sure I am correct Predicting future performance Perceiving order in random events After I ate that sushi I got really sick The Scientific Attitude Week 1 of Notes Curiosity skepticism and humility are all components of the scientific attitude Critical thinking analyzing information arguments and conclusions to decide for yourself if they make sense rather than simply accepting them look for hidden assumptions and decide if you agree look for hidden bias politics values or personal connections put aside your own assumptions and biases to look at the evidence determine if there was a flaw in the way the information was collected consider if there are other possible explanations for the results The Scientific Method turn theories into testable predictions gather information to test these predictions analyze the accuracy of predictions Theory a set of principles that explains a phenomenon Hypothesis a testable prediction that is consistent with a theory Operational Definitions a definition decided on for the purpose of an experiment Replication Performing the same study but with different participants or in different situations to determine if the same results can be achieved from the original experiment Control group same in every way as experimental group but the independent variable is unchanged Placebo effect experimental effects caused by the expectations about the experiment can cause real perceived changes helps control groups to remain equivalent the control group is blind to if they are getting a real treatment or not many studies use a double blind procedure where neither the participants or the research staff knows if the participants are getting treatment or not Independent variable manipulated Dependent variable resultant outcome of manipulation Confounding variables anything that might have had an effect on the dependent variable Experiment when a researcher manipulates the independent variables and measures this manipulation s impact on the dependent variables Correlational studies no independent or dependent variables just an observation Mean the average of the data Found by adding all data together and dividing by the number of data taken Median the exact center of the data Mode the most recurring data
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