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HIST 2055 TEST 1 lecture 1 Lecture 1 America before Columbus 1 Questions a Whatsinaname b Origins 1 Migrations c Numbers 2 Native American culture and society a Beliefs 1 Inhabitants Names for native peoples In Canada first peoples In Austraiia aborigines In America Indians native americans Amerindians These are Demonyms members of natives names of natives quotTribe is often given to native Africans It does not apply to these above the term quotnation applys because they had their own language religion and so forth With the exception of Africa north America was the most culturally diverse place on the planet The bering land bridge how the first wave of people physically got to America from Russia about 6000 years ago We can use the history of native americans to know about their cultures The generally agreed concept is that humans started coming to this land 20000 years ago So there was about 14000 years of people coming over on the bridge Human life probably started in the new world between 4000016000 years ago Aztecs and native americans were basically the same genetic peoples The first wave of people was between 40k and 16k years ago The second wave of people coming over was between about 1600012000 years ago this was the largest and most culturally diverse It went further and deeper The third wave the most difficult and most remarkable one happened about 9000 years ago Does not affect North America all that much New genetic info suggest that it was from people that continued to use the land of North America so about 15000 years ago North America had established its own people groups Europeans ansestors were there 16000 years ago and got along enough to have kids and raise them So why did these people come over We have no clue We have guesses It had to be something tramtic enough to make them leave How many people came over Depends how much artifacts you find in the ground arrowheads mammoths killed by hunters Archeologist guess that in south America there was 25 million starting Mexico By 1492 was between 43 and 65 million people in North America this was roughly estimated but is basically the Zenith of the population From 1492 1600 s it means that native Americans had some type of contact with the Europeans small pox religion writings etc about 1820 miliion Poverty Point One of the oldest populated areas in North America 5 7000 years old It was centered around religious belief Around 50000 people lived there In Monroe LA Anasazi or quotcliff dwellers In Arizona Cahokia The most general design for a city over 100000 people have lived there Their beliefs Their belief was almost universal they believed that they were inhabiting a spiritual world that the world was a physical representation of their god There was not one god They believed is many different spirits They worshiped totums that represented animals they were the easiest benevolent creature something They had to basically play politics with spiritual world the most clear way was killing animals and thanking them for food They could not let the blood of a boar killed touch the ground or they couldn39t eat itMimax Bones of any killed animal were always buried in the ground to return life to where it came from They would not eat the baby of a pregnant animal that they killed because the spirit of the mother would haunt them They buried it and took care of it They sometimes had to kill animals not for meat for example bear They were used as blankets they would kill them out of respect They thought of the bear as the top predator in the world Kill the bear out of respect use its fur and treat it with respect They would thank the bear for giving to the greater good of their city they would then as the bear for forgiveness They would never put the skin on the ground always wear it bury the bones they did have Family structure Men did most of the governing work manual labor hunting Women would do the farming arrow heads they created physical structure men created the non physical Pregnant women were not allowed to go outside close to the hunt because if an animal saw them it would be impossible to kill that species Native americans were extremely peaceful people War was a strategic thought out process There was a general bound in harmony nationally Indians would meet in territories was most in the north and southeast The ones that lived in the same zones would adopt one or the other or adopt language of one but governing system of another In war it was destroying or dying You came out destroyed or winning so harmony was always the first option They paid attention to dreams many of the stories that were passed down to generations were dreams They were incredibly important it was like talking to god for a few seconds Native Americans were mostly centrally nomadic They farmed all the time Europeans viewed native americans lazy Women did not have an equal voice as men but had a voice Outside of the large cities were smaller villiages made up of about 10k people More nomadic The male and female council met in the small villages What did they farm 3 main crops 1 Corn maze was done mostly in southeast and 2 Squash 3 Beans These kept the society going Their conception of land was interesting 2 basic property personal property basket clothing etc and community property it belonged to the mass The concept of home did not exist only unto a point they move based largely on the seasons Mid Oct March was the cold season certain crops could not grow so they would go where they could grow those crops May sept was the fertile season 12314 lecture 2 I Europe in 1491 A In the wake of the plague B Renaissance Thinking C The world of goods II Why Spain was first A La Reconquista B Columbus C Geographic misunderstanding III The Columbian Exchange IV Characteristics of Spanish colonialism 4 V Shifts in balance of power 3 VI Long term patterns of interactions 2 1 Urban life was crowded because farms were sold and eventually turned into cities Impoverished farmers went into town and tried to make it in the city The major problem with crowding is that the human body did not know how to fight off diseases from pigs cows and so forthwater raw meat rotten meat Cities were run by the church the idea of government existed it was basically a monarchy one major king But on local level it was run by the church Vast majority of people did not own land Land was mostly owned by the king and church People would rent and work the land to pay this created a peasant class The church was based on corruption priest were wealthy basically aristocrats and then you had poor and poverished farmers Within peasant class a new world view started believed like native americans that god existed in the world and mifested himself through things of the world and also dreams were a way to talk to God look at Indians religion The peasants believed that night darkness was the devil coming to the earth and they were scared so they never went out at night This also became a racial otherization to make someone into an other muslims Africans jews hair9 member of society but had no political voice or legal recognition Bubonic plague around 1350 it became an epidemic It was called black death because skin would turn black It came from Hunflees dogs amp pigs they were a household good Came through the city of Cafa south of Turkey9 Italy paris France Killed around 30 of Europeans Another important fact the plague only killed humans they didn t understand where it came from or how to get rid of it This expanded the cities because famiy s inherited land in the cities from their kin dying One thing we can thank bubonic plague for is the Renaissance 9 Renaissance The rebirth of European society With this population growth cities became cultural and legal hubs of their given nations London for example was the first city to have 1 million people Paris Rome University came from renaissance art and philosophy etcthis was the massive changebubonic plague in human life that made people rethink everything Religion also changed It stopped being as spiritual The catholic church became more or less of what the catholic church became today The Renaissance also brought us closer Timbuktoo a very large city in Africa it was dominated by massive Muslim warlords Alexandria It was an Islamic hub of the world The only interaction that the Africans had with Europe was through trade the Portuguese invented exploration they did not settle and colonize They explored because they wanted to know Portuguese They only sailed south and east they thought that going east when we know that there is a land mass somewhere to east the idea that the world is flat very important for America The African slave trade started in the 14605 because of the renaissance Islam spread through this went up to spain parts of france middle east How they got into spain the straight gibralter was an easy way to invade They fought a war against spain of that Spain lost the first half of that war The 14905 expanding West Wanted to find shorter route to india instead of Portuga s route Columbus was born in 1451 He was an ameture philosopher he fancied himself a genius and a genius trader Prince henry the navigator and Portugal said no they already had routes to India However he was able to convince Spain to support him He was so dedicated to this idea Therefore he did not ask for much from the Spanish they only gave him 3 ships He first sailed to the canary islands He rounded up enough supplies to last him 6 months His crew almost muteny him he was not nice crewed 3 months later they landed in Dominican Republic He set up a small home base San Salvador he claimed the island for Spain He decided to load up on what he could find there He brought some back with him he only wanted to trade or enslave them The next year Spain sends him back with 1500 men they ve found sugar longgrain rice He set up colonies through this is where the Spanish exploration of the America s began The Columbian Exchange From the New World to the Old Tomatoes potatoes corn tobacco pumpkin squash blueberries From the old world to the new apples bananas onion wheat rice coffee crabgrass honey bees pigs christianity smapox influenza yellow fever rats malaria whooping cough typhus measles 4 1 Expansionist and extractive they would expand to get land and grow their own land 2 Harsh 3 Hierarchical it took months for a letter to go from Spain to the new world So you had autocrats the colonial governor wealthy people from Spain decided to go over the new world for money They became aristocrats of the colony They were the law Almost everyone else was manual labor peasants Encomienda system colonies existed to benefit the crown not the people 4 Bureaucratic Casta System cast are considered inborn Implemented first in 1580s its principle was to separate whiteness from the Peninsulares purest It was to draw a line between pure blood and non pure blood Limpieza de sangre pureity of blood Criollos someone of a general mixed race that has some connection to the past a mixed race person that was somehow related to the class of peninsulares Mestizoany other mixture or someone who has more native blood than white blood or vice versa Indios pure indian or African They developed this because there was no law from a white person marrying these natives They made a law to marry purely 13014 Early 17 century The chesepeake settlement involves Jamestown The largest claim to North American territory was by the French in Canada Very little was inhabited because it was so cold in northern candada The claim to and usage of the Great Lakes was the French s greatest assets Whats interesting and most important about the French is that they lived with relative peace with the natives They allowed and supported marriage with the nativesmiscegenation interracial mixing The French did not fear this Fur trade was huge the French essentially created it in north America They used furs to create their new fashion line to bring money in The Dutch and the Swedes made in roads but were the smallest Dutch Focused in around manhatten Focused on trade and settlement The Swedes were in Harlem and queens noviscothchia They fished and what not they wanted to expand trade The Spanish were vast in NA but never really claimed the territories They were focused in Mexico City They wanted precious metals and wanted to spread Christianity The natives had to adopt the Spanish lifestyle or be enslaved They were more domineering then the French The English quotthe First migration 9 several thousand people They did notjust go to NA they went to Ireland and this is when Ireland basically became supressed by the British and also they went to Scotland They went to the carribean Bahamas Bermuda Jamaica But they vast majority went to the Chesepeake Virgina and that area 1 colony Roanoke 1587 first attempt at a permanent settlement The most important thing is that when the second ship arrived Roanoke was abandoned A board on a tree said Croakens Either they were massacred by the Croakens or they starved and left with the Croakens Most of the first settlers were soldiers and prostitutes The first English child born in NA her name was Virgina Dale They weren t the massive army as of later What shot the British into world fame was the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 This was a massive victory this completely shifted the balance of power in Europe Britain was now basically the most powerful nation in the world READ Governmental organization of Virgina very important to future gov of America lndentured Servitude as England started expanding in NA and once Jamestown was est they could expand They brought families in mothers daughters parents They needed a form of labor and a new mode of transportation It was a legal slavery for an amount of time it was basically a contract You would be paid to work land for generally of 7 years These people were not considered subjects they were subjecthood volitioral allegiance basically a social contract of allegiance to the crown 1609 it was a court case called quotCavins case Cocke if you were born under the protection of the crown they were automatically considered subjects So if they were under contract to work land for 7 years they were no longer allegied to the crown but to your boss the person you worked for This is were slavery kind of came from Indentured were bound to the land but were not always doing manual labor Better talents would pay better It was the boss obligation when the contract is over is bring them up in society They grew tobacco and it exploded Virgina tobacco was considered the best in the world It became the currency You would buy land and farm in lbs of tobacco There is a major problem with this is that it saps the land of any nutrients it has so after the land is exhausted you have to find a different field to grow tobacco and it might not be as fertile as the others and the stock on tobacco goes way down By 1650 The Chesapeake was settled Massachusetts Bay amp New England It quickly overtook Chesapeake as the hub Outline posted on moddle 1 Plymouth colony and the pilgrims A Beginnings B Beliefs English Puritanism this is what created New England as a separate entity from the South Around the 1620s is when this area became inhabited by settlers Pilgrims they picked up their lives and just transplanted themselves there They were called quotmiiniaist they believed they were the ones that God has chosen to save the people there They also believed they were living in the end times They thought the Indians were godless they thought God did not love them They thought it was there duty to go shed the light of God to the Indians Puritans and pilgrims were not the same people The puritans wanted to revamp the system They thought that their religion wasn t keeping up with the times The pilgrims felt oppressed that they were being pushed out of great Britain and the puritan church because of their old religion so they left The puritans left because they were reformers and to go preach The puritans and pilgrims thought that every quotfreak of nature they saw were signs that the world was ending Therefore they went to spread their faith to the new world The key to both is that they were not interested in transatlantic trade They came to create a community cities so most of them were craftmen As many as 70 were families This highlights their communal They wanted a new government They did not want the crown they wanted to be their own people so they became colonist The puritans took the Bible very seriously They took it a step further Every single thing in their life was the bible telling them something Very convinced by hell If you did not live up to certain standards you would go to hell Earth quakes were a sign of God rainbows were a good sign from God rain was a way of communication God was transcendent he was above the world the natives believed that he was on it They believed in predestination You might as well live a life of morality to predestinate yourself Covenant of works the fundamental belief that work ensures The Covenant of Grace God would appear to you in the form of rainbows brushfires etcif you are doing the right or wrong thing 70 of puritans own Bibles this tells us the educated enough to read Literacy was for royalty and massive merchant class They brought education to commoners of some sort They did sermons constantly they became a way for church leaders to dominate their people they would preach for hours and hours and hours They were constantly listening to sermons Those who had been given signs of salvation had to go before a board of church elders and recount the moment they realized they were saved the context what happened how they felt etc If the elders that it was indeed God telling the person that they were saved that peraon became part of the Elect The elect were full church members but only elected men could vote in church and secular elections 40 male population Most towns had one church Everyone always went to that church They were hostile to outsiders they did not like new ministers or new puritans Each town had their own identity They would say what town they are from They would grow to feed themselves They were organized around the curch The English people relied on the natives for food and ways to tame this land in the beginning They were each scared of eachother III John Winthrop governor of Mass Bay Colony quota city on a hil basically saying that this is God s city they painted themselves as saviors Feb 4 2014 King Phillips War 167576 this defined the idea of struggle between the English and the natives After this war relations never went back to the way that they used to be It shifted into general fear and violence After the first generations the second generation became of age the communal town began to fade away They started to realize that there is a whole other world and they are making a lot more money than the puritans were So they began to break up towns and shifted their focus to the rural areasfarms and so forth what became plantations eventually So basically they spread their wings and entered to the Atlantic trading world The thing is that land did not technically belong to them It was the natives There was a native man named Metacom He had an informant in mass Bay He found out that the reason why the colonist were taking over native land his informant John Sassamon was selling the info to the leaders of colonist So the native had Sassamon killed The result of this is essentially King Phiip s War The war was very barbaricscaping killing women and children burning down towns on both sides This was the first time that towns people were not safe at war It was extremely bloody 1000s died It was the idea that they were both destroying the people and not just fighting for a cause A war of inhalation Metacom was captured and he was beheaded and his head was displayed in the town of Plymouth for 20 years It was used as a since of warning the natives would not want to do what they did again About 15 of population of New England was killed mostly in Plymouth An effect of this is that the Puritans became more conservative in a religious way so they believed God created this war as punishment for living to free outside of God s word Salem Witch Trials 1692 Nothing ever happened like it before and nothing ever happened like it again The key is that it started with convulsions three teenage kids were having convulsions and they were talking to a West Indian servant woman who is basically telling them night time stories to get them to go to bed She was speaking to them in quotvoodoo concepts and while she was reading this the girls went crazy and started barking and growling so the mother found out and blamed Tituba and she confessed that she was trying to bewitch these girls and she said she wasn39t the only one and she pointed to three white women who were single While Tituba was being tried the three little girls started convulsing and pointing out other people who were apart of this This went on for 10 months 13 people were hung and 10 people were killed What s interesting is that it ends with the accusation that Samuel Willard a pastor and president of Harvard college very well respected came down for trial and in court he came down and these three girls pointed him and the judges knew that it couldn t be him So the next trials comes up and the governor and his wife came down for trial and the girls point at the governor39s wife and the governor abolished the court and it ended An idea pf why the girls blamed all these people is because of land disputes of the south accusing people from the north and the north accusing the south The one legacy we can take is that it very much taught the people of Salem that they were going backward that they were going down the right path ideologically and moves on in a way that was less awestruck by the world LA and Nola LA was late to the game because it took the French to be interested in the Mississippi river to colonize The reason why the French were mainly interested in what becomes New Orleans is that they were very much aware that they were in the North What stood between them was the Spanish and the English So there was a large open space that was mapped but not mapped in a way that would be wanted The French sent two Jesuit priest but they did not make it all the way South They went all the way to Arkansas and they got tired and ran out of food and energy and turned home Pierre Le Moyne lberville and JeanBapiste Le Moyne Bienville They are the founders of NOLA They were determined to find the mouth of the MS river They were so dedicated to this because they thought the Spanish were also interested in it and if they could est a town at the bottom they could ally with English and fight Spanish Also the French did not really have a port in NA if they could establish a massive trading port at the bottom of the MS they would have the largest port The man who commissioned these two men is Loui De ponchitrain In 1698 the decided to forgo going down the MS river from lacrosse WS They decided to go around the coast by the English In 1698 they landed on Dauphin Island They had 300 settlers with them as soldiers Dauphin Island became the first capital of French LA They set up there because they knew the Indians there weren t sea dwellers wouldn39t have to set up big fort On Mardi Gras day march 2 1699 they made their first permanent settlement at the mouth of the MS river They named it Pointe Mardi Gras This settlement didn t last long because it wasn39t as good as Dauphin Island so they ended up forgoing it The next year lberville made their way up the MS river with the intent to settle in 17001701 they came upon a high seated flat land and they saw a totem and they named the settlement Baton Rouge and it was declared for the French crown The first permanent settlement in LA was called Fort Maurepad This brings up a very important event because of what didn t happen In 1701 lberville ran into an English boat full of potential settlers but they did not get in a fight lberville said that quotyou don t have to take my word for it but there are 10000 French army down there so the English turned back This led lberville and Bienville to establish a true port they establish Mobile It was another way point until 1716 it became a village and for the crown 1718 John Law and Englishman had been hired to turn LA as a real colony He decided to create a city actually on the MS river in 1718 lberville went up the river and defied John Law and went 166 miles up the river and named the city after the duke ofhe ended up establishing NOLA in 1718 In 1722 NOLA became the largest French settlement It was the Legislative hub and it had the first slaves introduced into the New World they were the first to arrive as slaves 2614 The Middle Colonies amp the Southern Propriety Colonies Propriety is an important word It is a different colonies than the others It becomes the private property but still belongs to the crown 1 Different context for settlements A Propriety colonies B Money making for the crown C Changing patterns of immigration 2 The middle colonies NY NJ PA DE NY amp NJ There is one fundamental thing that is different in Britain and it is religion It is not militarized it is well regulated You couldn39t just go from border to border partly because religion Charles the 1 got fed up with parliament which was run by Catholics They began to take power away from the king So He was going to appoint all Protestants as lords and such Around 164245 it all came to a void Charles I exiled from power so he raise an army and created a civil war The consequence was that colonization in the new world basically came to a stand still Charles I is beheaded In 1660 charles II became king he was catholic It was under him that colonization picked up in NW again It was more aggressive and more money making Charles II had full control of catholic parliament One very important thing that he est was the Navigation Acts established into law a theory called Mercantilism It would become the fundamental economic principle of colonialism It is based on a finite amount of money and that amount is based on gold and silver in the earth The richest country has the most gold Colonies were established to make money for the mother country They required every crop that came out of a colony must go through London first These new colonies were fundamentally based on profit and establishing a strong hold The easiest way to do this was creating propriety government The crown didn t have the money to send its own people so it would lease massive land to a proprietor and he would establish a colony and give a percentage of the money to the crown NYampNJ Were basically the first colonies of this NY was peaceful before it was given to the British it was a place where there wasn39t a settled culture and the people on the streets spoke a dozen different languages So the British in 1664 they quotinvaded New Amsterdam They said to the Dutch if you don t give us this land we are going to invade you The Dutch packed up and left and they gave them the entire section more than New Amsterdam and that39s how it became New York The Dutch were well organized The British didn39t annihilate all of that They basically fabricated their own sense of upperclassmen They built extremely nice plantations It didn t feel like colonial frontier Pennsylvania William Penn was a Quaker Quakers were called the Society of Friends The Quakers didn39t evangelize They didn t come to the new world to convert They were pacifist so that s why they couldn t force their religion Very organized educated The Quakers were very tolerable Would allow different religions in Very diverse area that was run by the Quakers The main groups that settled their were the French hugonots pre omish dutch Lutherins Quakers lived a strict life If you fought you got thrown out of the colony Accepted lifestyles as long as you didn t break their code They also didn t believe within hierchy in their religion anyone could preach William Penn he was the proprietor of Penn He received a charter from the king for a massive track of land by NY He was from a very high class family He was a business man He knew that the NW was the new trade frontier and that is where he would make his fortune He made it a safe haven for all He was there to make money and to make money for whoever would show up He attracted settlers by giving them huge tracts of land These new colonies had to convince people to come They would guarantee a free land grant Penn was larger than England itself Important development that came out of NY and NJ The idea of Consumerism Consumerism read in book In England it only happened for the rich But in America it happened for all of society The more expensive the better for you The middle colonies VA NC SC GA They were all dedicated entirely to profit SC developed slowly and developed on their own Charlestown did It was named after Charles SC The most important thing is differential politics The idea of having a governor a house a council etc It was also representative Charlestown was founded by Huguenots It was founded on the principles of Protestantism The culture of consumerism was very diverse but quickly became material based It became very wealthy very fast because of its port They were involved with Refinement knowing paintings Greek philosophy etc They focused very heavily on trade They focused on a new crop which was rice It made SC very rich for a long time Changed their version of slavery SC hit its peak late In 1729 it became a quotcity It was recognized largely because of its rice The Gullah society is a hybrid society of west African religion bases mixed in with episcopal religion The only place Jews could because they were so hated by French and Spanish is Charlestown England James Oglethorpe founder of Georgia He was the William Penn of Georgia He wanted Georgia to be a haven for people His reason for Georgia is because it was far enough away from Penn That he could attract different colonist It was founded in 1732 THERE WERE NO SLAVES 21114 Outline is on my phone Slaves in America if you were bought you weren t considered human They are treated like products The earliest form that would be used by the Americas was basically started by the Portuguese and the English All the slaves would go around to Cuba the post In the early 17 century the idea of the transatlantic train started picking up The Portuguese mad it something that we learn about today The Dutch were also involved they were the first to bring slaves to America In Jamestown 16 slaves came in and the settlers did not know what to do with these people They weren t slaves because that concept of black slavery didn t exist ti these settlers so they were quothalf free They had the same rights as an endentured servant The Middle Passage A historical memory of how the slaves got to America It took about 16 months to travel Estimate that around 30 of people died Starvation scurving diharrea and so forth But they were making gigantic profit off of this The moment slavery became something Europeans wanted the mines completely stopped The Triangle Trade Defined trade between Europe Africa and North America A very important trading commodity was rum the Americas would get the chief drunk and got him to trade large amounts of land for a few guns Slavery The idea of slavery was brought into the mainstream of western consciencness was brought about by the Romans The earliest form was basically started by the Portuguese and the English El Mina was a huge port in Ghana They worked with the Fante they were very well organized and they lived in modern villages they weren t Barbaric savages This was the first interaction that the Portuguese had with Africans and they were surprised The fantes were coastal traders for a long time before quotdiscovery They were slave traders The slaves were the Asante people The Asante were basically expansionist so them and the Fante would go to war a lot Slavery was coastal trade at that point They would trade to Portuguese By the 1500s the Portuguese established real trade in Africa The capital of the Fante kingdom was called Amamaboe It was a very large city and it was their major slave trade port The Portuguese established a fort there and this is when their trade exploded Then the New World happened Since a lot of the colonies were there to make money they decided to get slaves to help work the land Racism in America The idea of enslaving Africans was not a racial idea They enslaved Africans because they were the easiest people to enslave It was prejudice it s not an actual hatred Overtime the idea of enslaving only Africans it became a religion Africans were very rarely Christians The idea of their pagan religions were an excuse of why they were enslaving them to save them Overtime people would keep creating different reason why they were enslaving them Taxonomy 1650s1660s he invented the modern concept the idea that there was a ranking system of races European Adriatic mongoloid Africans But this idea derived from these trades The general consensus was the Europeans were the highest race This idea really started influencing reasons for trading the slaves Virginia Tobacco was essentially what caused slavery to become a valid importation concept Tobacco became basically the currency of Virginia So if you have an agriculture base the best way to till that land is cheap labor Whites are indentured blacks were enslaved This fundamentally what it became Up until the founding of Virginia slaves and indentured servants interacted quite a bit sexually This is where the idea came that you follow the status of the mother Matrilineality This was written into law in every colony This was really the first instance where you interracial blood This lead to the idea of Mulatloz these people were something else because they were not purely white so they can be enslaved By 1650 there were around 500 Africans in Virginia Interracial love was feared but generally accepted It was illegal to marry but it was not illegal to have sex Virgina was the first to become balanced upon slavery They began to wright slave laws Slave society1 vs society with saves2 1 a society fundamentally based on slaves without them society would crumble Slavery is the central icon of the society s functional ability 1675 Bacon s Rebellion the fundamental problem of indentured servitude was what to do with them after their contract was over What if the owner didn t have any money when the contract ended because your field died Nathanial Bacon was having trouble finding land to have after his service because his contractor didn t have any So he began to find his own land in the back country and if they didn t work they would become unruly Then just going to the backwoods to find land became illegal As a result Nathanial Bacon began to destroy villages and so forth The fundamental aspect that indentured servitude was no more use anymore So why not just buy slaves instead Also indentured servitude started declining because people wanted to stop coming to America Disease rate the risk of buying a slave who would bring disease Racism Labor supply 2 13 14 Types of slave Resistance defined the blatant racism that Africans were somehow savages 1 Run They would run away They would run into the forest close to the plantation It was very rare that they would make it to the North 2 Ruin By far the most common form It is the idea of killing ox or injure yourself the ox cow etcdamaging anything on the farm This would give them variety within the day It wasn39t resistance to the idea of being a slave 3 Rebellion The drastically least common Killing burning amp so forth Hardly succeeded The largest one in NA was in LA The free colored people met them and disbanded them One of the things that fueled the fear and racism was newspaper articles The articles wrote about widespread rebellion Exaggerating rebellions The Enlightenment They key to the Enlightenment is the approach they used about the absolute nature of something is knowable It also fundamentally defined the concept behind Our current government The European side One of the most fundamental ideads that came out is to understand why humans look different in other parts of the world Blacks Asians Indians etcbut it was mostly Why was the Negro black The basis that you can find in all of these ideas is called Climatic Theory and Climatists Comte de Buffon He was known as the greatest scientist of his age His major work was caedabout natural science plants mammals bugs etcn his vol 21 he approaches the differences of the Old world and the New world and then the difference of Africa and England This really pushed the Climatic Theory in North America His fundamental idea is that the air in Africa is thicker and there is a membrane called quotmembrane Mucosum and it was in the skin of Africa Because the sun was so hot and the air was humid that the water boiled in the air The reason why we still follow this is because of Monogenism It means that humans were created at one time and were the same species that developed in different times The other idea is Polygenism It claims that Africans weren39t humans Monogenism said that Africans could become white eventually like if they lived in the North Pole The French Enlightenment Luminiere was based on natural history and measurement It was defined by Buffon The concept of taxonomy came from this One of Buffon s main ideas that really upset Jefferson is that he claimed the NA was a static land It was a step child of nature He claimed that Indians were between blacks and whites They were infertile and feminine Jefferson believed that NA was the perfect land Scottish Enlightenment The key figure of this was John Locke He wrote the Social Contract It was one of the most influential political text ever The French were interested in the formation of society A better understanding of social domain how humans function how we understand ourselves and each other He came up with the idea of virtue It is the idea of selflessness The idea of recognizing that the idea of government was not about yourself Only people with virtue could lead This lead to the creation of the American Declaration and the American Nation Scottish Rousseau French he had the idea of education and that it was fundamental He analyzed how humans form He wanted to be able to tell the difference of humans and lions for example If you have education you can understand how to function in the world The American Enlightenment it was a way of using enlightenment theories to better life on the ground to create a good economy a government in which peace reigned Unfortunately it created a massive need for slaves The Yeoman farmer was the American ideal greatest form of being an American It is based on the maintenance of land Having your own land and working it Politically the American enlightenment had the biggest effect A virtuest republic Benjamin Franklin He was really the first American philosophe enlightenment thinkers he invented things for the greater good He would go to nice dinners He was very down to earth didn39t dress nice or wear wigs He didn39t write much he did it by interaction and inventions He wrote Poor Richard s Almanac George Washington He wasn39t a philosophe He was obsessed with breeding animals Bread cattle distilled whiskey Thomas Jefferson he was the thinker behind American political economics He was really the mold of what became the United States He called it sense of mentality to have a balanced life not too much work not too much horseback riding Having the balance between the head and the heart and the equal of that is the best human you can be Another very important thing was Deism Jefferson saw religion as a dogma The fundamental lesson of Deism is if anything that God created the world God exist and created humans and ideas and left it up to humans to run the world The Great Awakening 17401760s the idea of helping other and virtue created the rise of evangelical Christians What ended this was the French and Indian war and the revolution Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield JE was a Calvinist He brought the concept of evangelism to the America He was trying to bring salvation GW was one of the primary ideas of repenting 21814 Decisions for Independence 17561775 It was a need for independence Impact of the French and Indian War The British controlled the coastline and the French controlled the frontier Spain was only in Florida not much of a problem A border dispute around Canadian border sparked the war Along Ohio River is where the French built up forts The British marched on the French fort George Washington was the colonel but this is what became the Famp War 7 years war Once a conflict on NA began it spread immediately to Europe This war was like the First World War It was all of England vs France This is how important North America was to the future Why this was such a big deal is because the English killed the French ambassador It lasted 7 years in Europe but 6 years in America The French end up losing badly but in the actual fighting they actually won for the first half Later the battle of Quebec crippled the French and they slowly dwindled The British only kept French Canada but they gave Spain Louisiana They didn39t recognize LA as a valuable piece of land as did the Spanish It was kind of a peace treaty with the Spanish The most important thing to recognize is the idea of how the settlers felt afterwards The people who really made the war possible are the colonist who fought in it They created the infrastructure that made the war possible for the British It gave them the since of pride that they have done something in establishing the concept in the British colonies It gave a sense of British Nationalism Before this they felt like a frontier people but after this they basically had the full reign of North America So the idea of being a colonist for the crown was something to be proud of You were a British colonist This is why the actions of the British government hit the colonist so hard The Proclamation line 1763 the first of grievances It established an official border of the limits where the British could colonize and settle So the king established a no man39s land They said it was for protection of the colonies The colonist felt the crown was stealing from them and telling them who they could and could not trade with They felt like it was an attack on their liberty A very important thing was the creation of a standing army of 10000 regulars The problems were where would they stay The colonist felt like it was an occupation force They were technically there to protect the British but the colonist thought they were there to keep them in check It brought up this fundamental question was the crown really there to protect them Was it to allow them to have British pride but not enough to feel like they should have a voice in office Was this really protection or was it control In 1765 the parliament passed the Stamp Act the funds that went towards the stamp tax were not clearly meant to pay for something directly to the war theyjust fought It wasn39t dedicated to the colonies it was tax going from the colonies directly back to England itself They didn39t see their tax dollars producing Every piece of paper had to have a stamp It was like a tax on everything The crown didn39t go into this as oppressive They though it was actually a mild act One of the most important aspects is that it didn39t go through standard court Parliament understood that local courts would not enforce it so they created quotAdmiralty Courts It was essentially a federal court today It had more authority than local courts They were the last step for the colonist themselves There was no way for the colonist to cut around the act When they created these courts that39s when the colonist really felt that the British were trying to control them The colonist became enraged Their British pride slowly turned into a colonial pride It was more North American nationalism In response to the Stamp Act local legislatures and so forth passed resolutions to make a statement Lower houses parliament cannot tax Sam Adams Patriot brewer and rabblerouser Leader of the Sons of Liberty This didn39t exclude anyone They were able to make their point to the king They led the public outcry against the stamp act They were not peaceful They harassed stamp collectors tarring and feathering At the time this seemed like the only thing to do Sibalternz the colonized Fundamentally and naturally oppressed by something they could not fix 1766 Declaratory Acts find what it isthe colonist realized that the British were looking out for them 1767 Townshend Acts taxed luxury goods especially paint glass paper and tea Boston Massacre 1770 this happened because of Townshend acts Fundamentally painted the British in an evil way The British opened fire on unarmed protestors No one was exactly sure who fired first The British didn39t really have any excuse for it Newspapers erupted Crispus Attucks was killed first He was of mixed race He wasn39t mentioned as someone of mixed race He was just mentioned of Crispus Attucks He was used an icon of na onalp de Republicanism 1 Balance between liberty and power These are the two fundamental pursuits The heart and the head 2 Popular Sovereignty the people have sovereignty They have the voice in government This is the balance 3 Independent citizenry nationhood does exist but the people are fundamentally free and cannot be forced to believe something 4 Virtuous population the idea of thinking about society You must be virtuous to have a voice in the government American Fears Develop 17631775 1 Fear of corruption 2 Fear of a loss of independence 3 Conspiracy against Liberty Tea Act 1773 a major turning point for a way the colonist thought It said that the EIC no longer had to ship tea back to London first It could ship out of Boston for example It didn39t hurt them but it reminded them of the Townsend Acts This is when it started becoming violent mass protest things were becoming rebellious in the colonies The Boston Tea Party 90000 lbs of tea was destroyed It was a protest of the Townsend Act They were dressed up like Native Americans but why They were trying to pass themselves off as natives or they were trying to disguise themselves This lead to the Coercive Acts 1775 there were five things 1 Boston Port Act it39s the one that was enacted because of the tea party itself They closed the port of Boston until the colonist paid off the S of tea they destroyed 2 Mass Gov Act it made them rely on the crown 3 Impartial administration ofjustice act it changed the language now all courts were British courts They had to go to crown courts Basically colonial courts became a lesser court and the crown court became the highest 4 Quartering Act allowed British regulars to force themselves in the home of colonist They had to house them on request 5 Quebec act maintained Quebec as a catholic city it maintained civil law and it gave them full monopoly of the fur trade The colonist responded with training militias they were preparing for the idea of something coming in which fighting would occur They had a meeting Lexington amp Concord April 19 1775 It was the first encounter the regulars had with the militia 700 militia were sent out to protect the weapons The British were not starting a war they were just trying to take control of Boston 20 were free people of color 22014 Outline 1 Choosing sides A Tories and Rebels B Parliamentary Action C Colonial Rhetoric 1 Tom Paine s Common Sense 2 Jefferson s and Frankin s Declaration of Independence 2 Strategy and Fighting A Odds were slim B British problems C Keys to American victory Washington s ability to create a professional army French and Dutch support Britain underestimated will and persistence of Americans Turning points 3 3 The meaning of liberty and independence A Slavery and the Revolutionary Paradox B Women in the revolution C End of the Middle Ground D A slow death for deference The American revolution basically began with Lexington amp Concord Choosing Sides the colonist had a hard time getting a lot of people to fight and the regulars usually outnumbered the colonist 5 to 1 The Americans would fight in the guerria style fighting quotDon t tread on me 2530 of colonist were loyal to the crown The key to the revolutionary aspect is significantly more important What came out of the revolution the ideology Thomas Paine and Common Sense By selfclaim he was American He really exhibited the concept of what American republicanism meant He believed the kings people who inherit power were not proven virtuous This book attacks the quotdivine right It is really important to recognize that Jefferson said the Africans were not to whites or Indians in being able to manage their passions He said they were incapable their heart was more powerful than their head therefor they could not be leaders because they didn39t have virtue The common sense is what set in motion the idea of colonist Rage Militairez It wasn39t the virtues of the DOI it was the idea of fighting a war was a manly action So there is a massive difference from political and local ideology After 45 years of fighting the British had to travel so far to fight they were losing supplies and getting tired that39s why the war started turning The Ethiopian regiment any slave that fought with the British for 18 months would receive their freedom They did not succeed The British didn39t trust them to fight that much Manual labor What was the meaning of independence to people on the ground the difference between subject ship and citizen ship 225 14 Most of it is not on test 10 MC question 2 pts each 2 Esseys 80 pts focus on the bigger pictures If I came to class I should know the answers to the esseys Don39t go for length on the esseys Be concise and clear and make it clear that I understand the question Answer the question SECTION 2 What happened after the war quotthe Crucial period the end of the Rev war How are we going to make a nation out of this It started at a state level and we are now referred to as the US 0 The main fear was Tvrannv oppression The revolution defined our government for the next 250 years Therefore they didn39t want a strong federal government and that39s why it was focused at the STATE level There were radicles where they didn39t want a senate a president they wanted it to be completely state power 0 The fear of taxation 0 Militia They did not want a standing army so they only had militia They didn39t have a quotUS army They didn39t want a standing army so tyranny couldn39t take control 0 Internal improvements roads lighting railroads canals etc things that affect multiple states but remain in one state eg the interstate but state troopers 0 Presidency A single leader or a head of the state They would have the most power to likely become a tyrant The reason for this is Jefferson who said this fear only exists when people without virtue take power You can have a president as long as he is virtuous But there was no way to find out if one was virtuous on a federal level and this is what brought about the fear Articles of confederation 0 Structure of legislature Single house one state one vote 0 Taxation No power to tax 0 Judicial Power No judicial power apart from courts to hear admiralty cases 0 Executive Power No permanent executive A committee During the war the Continental Congress became legit during the war but was meant to be abolished after the war The troops were paid and it essentially functions as the government did under the Articles of Confederation It was required to create its successor It was the one that created what the government would be It tried to avoid theory It used practical knowledge to implement independence It started with the state So they drew up The Articles of Confederation 0 Confederacy a brotherhood it s not quite a union It places a power in the states t s above the states because it s lesser than the states It assumes that there is no innate power 0 Structure of legislature Single house one state one vote 0 Taxation No power to tax 0 Judicial Power It was very weak It was appointed by the legislature No judicial power apart from courts to hear admiralty cases They did not serve for life it was less than 6 years a quotfixed term gt Legislature one year terms It was one house a unicameral They had no taxation powers it couldn39t support itself but it also become tyranny gt Who voted White male landowners they were quotenfranchised This is where the concept of citizenship becomes dirtied At this moment it was the only definition of citizenship It was the only requirement of voting Whiteness was never really defined Blackness slavery Free people of color could vote in TN and NC gt Comity This was in the constitution The fundamental difference between article of confederation and the constitution It means that any law that doesn39t damage the lifestyle of other states must be kept in other states also It universalized citizenship 0 Executive Power No permanent executive A committee Single individual cannot have power 0 Separation of church and state states can do whatever they want The A of C was not universally popular People were thinking of new ways to do this In 1784 Jefferson started coming up with new ideas One of the main problems was taxation There was massive amount of land left over It technically belonged to the US but what were they to do because the gov had no power If the fed gov can t maintain its own lands how does it exist The land was a free for all Penn claimed almost all the land and Virginia claimed only a small part but there was no court to deal with this there was only state courts 9 Land Ordinance of 1786 instead of using taxes to earn money it took the Western lands and sold them and this is where corruption came in if they sold these lands who does the money to go to It went to the people that made up the government so it proved that tyranny can exist in the weakest form of power In response to this comes the Northwest Ordinance 1787 Established a guideline of how people would maintain and become a recognized state Before they were considered a territory of the government The government would appoint a governor and the people would loosely elect 510 council You could apply for state ship if you have 60000 people 5000 to create a legislature They were creating western colonies Large groups of lawless people controlled by a single appointed legislature major problem The most important thing is it banned slavery in this area
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