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Date Created: 08/22/14
SPR14 Soc 001 Exam 2 Review Topics 0 This study guide only covers material in the CORE and READINGS Lectures are their own study guide 0 The exam is Monday 324 or Tuesday 325 in class 0 There will be 50 multiplechoice questions approximately 57 questions each from chapters and lectures dealing with chapters 5 through 10 and the remainder of questions from the readings o READINGS Chapters 12 Anderson 16 Zimbardo 0 CORE Chapters 5 6 7 8 9 10 o LECTURE Materials All lecture material and rules for making tables No questions from syllabus Chapter 5 Methods I Concept A label that is applied to things with similar characteristics or attributes belong in the same category Variable The concepts involved something that is thought to in uence or be in uenced by another thing a variable has varying attributes How is a concept related to a variable Variables are the concepts that are of interest to us Direction of relationship positive negative Positive means they vary in the same direction increaseincrease Negative means they vary in the opposite direction increasedecrease Attribute a characteristic or quality that describes something Dependent and Independent variable Dependent Variable A variable that is thought to be in uenced by the independent variable Independent Variable A variable that is thought to in uence another variable Hypotheses The relationship between the different variables Lhanter 6 Methods II Observational Research Where researchers directly observe the behavior of individuals in their usual social environments natural Survey A series of questions asked to a number of people Strengths and Weaknesses of compared to other research methods 1 Strengths Obtains info from large sample size discover basic demographic information helps obtain information that can t be observed directly such as attributes 2 Weakness It s not a good way to measure peoples actual behavior this type of information can be misleading people can t give an accurate account of their behavior they may lie or not remember Guidelines for Survey questions p 87 in 6 ed Know all of these errors 0 Phrasing Phrasing the question in a patronizing way don t be insulting 0 Double negatives Avoid saying two negatives together do you oppose denying them or not 0 Marathon Don t make the questions too long 0 Doublebarreled Don t ask multiple questions together this may confuse the reader 0 Leadingloaded Avoid posing the question in a way that will in uence the decision predisposed judgments 0 Questions respondents can t answer Don t ask illogical questions or outrageous questions that people can t answer Unobtrusive methods define and compare to other methods Methods of studying behavior in which the people aren t swayed or impacted one way or another Artifacts Using a method called accretion measures in which artifacts fossils or even trash are used to study someone s social culture or information about them ie looking at someone s trash to see how much they drank the night before Content Analysis Heavily studying a text to see what it reveals about its author its time period etc ie studying a bunch of children stories to see the ratio of male characters to female characters etc Existing statistics Using already published data statistics to study there is tons of info in libraries etc Informed consent Consent obtained from a person in which they know exactly what they will be asked to do and anything involved Institutional Review Board IRB A board made up of faculty and members of the community to check research plans and ensure they are solid and have been given enough thought Quantitative social science Social science that can be expressed in numbers and is clear in its values Qualitative social science Social science that needs to be interpreted predicted or understood through a thought process Stop and review questions 61 62 Qhanter 7 Culture Culture Everything below Cultural diffusion The process by which cultural things are adopted from other cultures ie Americans have adopted sushi bars from japan and japan has adopted baseball from America Cultural leveling As cultural diffusion increases the differences between cultures lessens aka they level out ie they now have McDonalds and taco bell in India and people have iPod over there Subculture When the shared values norms beliefs or material culture set them apart from other people in that society ie the Amish and their culture in our modern world or religious differences Counterculture A special form of a sub culture in which the valuesnorms held by the subculture threaten the parent culture ie the KKK and their ideals on racism or the Nazis Idioculture Almost a culture within a culture ie 5 little league teams play a whole season of baseball By the end of the season each of those teams has their own norms and beliefs For example one team allows gum chewing while the others do not One team has the tradition of going out for ice cream after every game etc This is created through the interaction of those team members Material culture Everything humans make or adapt from raw stuff of nature computers house socks sandwiches etc Artifacts used by humans Nonmaterial culture Made up of intangible things Symbols Anything that represents something else to more than one person common dollar sign They evoke emo things because people understand what they all mean etc giving girls roses make they blush a common global reaction Language An organized set of symbols words and gestures Facilitates interaction between people Norms Rules about behavior some are more important than others ie walking into a church naked is highly frowned upon whereas talking loudly in church will get you a dirty look Values General or abstract ideas about what is good and desirable in society ie honestly is a norm that is a good value to have Beliefs People s ideas about what is real and what is not real what people accept as factual Norms Folkways casual norms violations aren t considered too serious ie talking loudly in a library Mores Very serious norms such as not assaulting someone Taboos Norms that are so deeply held that even the thought of violating them upsets people ie eating another human Culture as a Product of Action Means that culture is created by humans and different humans have different cultures Culture as a conditioning element of action Means that the world is full of problems the problems of how to shelter ourselves cover ourselves so we aren t naked how to eat etc and we have similar solutions these problems because they have been set by our culture the culture has been established long before us and we just follow it r 8 Soci re Achieved Status A status that someone worked toward ie graduating college being successful being a murderer Ascribed Status A status that people are placed in aka bom into ie rich family gender race GroupPrimary Group Groups in which people learn the rules of social life and cooperation ie family is a primary group Examples Include family gang friends usually have a small size involve personal relationships last long term are informal the groups are harder to enter and exit Secondary Group Groups in which your status is important ie you and your best friend are a primary group but the biology class you are both in is your secondary group Examples include University city nation class usually a large size impersonal can be long term but usually short term usually formal groups are easy to enter and exit Master Status The status of someone that trumps the other status they hold ie He is an Indian doctor he has two statuses but the race status trumps the doctor status Role The total expectations related to behavior that a particular social status holds ie someone in the status of teacher has a role of educating someone in the role of murderer has a role of murdering Role Con ict When two statues con ict in their roles ie a police officer whose son is arrested for drugs is in a con ict their officer status has a role of serving justice but the parent status has a role of protecting their kid from jail ie the status of student says you have a role of studying for the exam tomorrow but your friends are going out and your status as a friend has a role of spending time with them Status A position that a person occupies in a social structure Status inconsistency When a person with a particular ascribed status achieves a status that doesn t match it ie a 50 year old man goes back to college to get a degree r 9 Insti11Lmns Attributes of institutions 0 Inherently conservative but change slowly They resist change ie our society is still hesitant to accept gays but we are getting there 0 Unplanned Institutions are Unplanned When society is faced with a problem it comes up with a solution to fix it 0 Are interdependent examples from CORE Societies affect each other and can bring about change ie when World war 2 started women started working in the factories 0 Frequently differ from one society to another Societies have similar needs but are different in many other ways Institutionalized Social Statuses Roles Values Norms Examples of Institution social structure Family mother father Support family blood is thicker Don t ght each my family his kids other kin do chores than water other provide family her love family Religion Priest Educated about Respect the Attend church Temples Worshiper sacred worship sacred and have Services Mandirs Disciple Rabbis faith Follow Holy Synagogues Teachings Economy Stockholder Produce goods Profit is good Equal pay for Banks stores employee supervise customer work Work employer employees work service should hard customer be good Law Police judge Enforce law Innocent until Tell the truth Law firms citizen lawyer follow rules proven guilty under oath obey courts police punish equality of law the law departments lawbreakers Selfsuf ciency When the society provides a repertoire of opportunity sufficient enough for individuals to meet their fundamental needs without going to another society Enough resources to meet its survival need Social institution A system group of patterns and behaviors that function across an entire society They all have roles values norms ie family religion medicine education science law enforcement government military etc Society defined The totality of people and social relations in a given geographic space Societal needs and their institutions Every institution matches with some form of social needs ie society needs defending 9 government and military protect us society needs education 9 schools and universities provide it to us r 10 Socialization Agents of socialization Help a child develop the self by providing interaction ie family peers school workplace Anna and Isabelle Compared Significance of Early Human Contact Anne and Isabelle were locked in an attic until they were six Anna died after 4 years because of lack of human nurturing Isabelle was able to catch up to her age group but she was nurtured by her mother during seclusion Human contact is very important in the development of an individual CooleyLooking Glass Self Cooley stated that we develop our social self through how others see us aka through our rel ected or looking glass self ie when we are giving a speech we think about how we look to the others how we sound etc ie if we trip while walking we think about who saw us and if they were laughing or not Mead The I and the Me Idea that the self is made up of two parts The Me is the part that is based on how one sees how others see them thinking about what others think about you The I is the part that is unique to your naturally The I and Me usually have a conversation ie I want to kick them out of 1006 But what will they think of Me How will that make Me look I am not going to kick them out because it ll make Me look like a douchebag Play and games How a child develops the I and Me Play is the idea of imitating ie a child plays as a police of ce he develops the outside perspective and develops an idea of judgments and other peoples thoughts In play there are no specific rules and the child makes it up as they go Games have rules and specific roles Games are the idea of roleplaying taking on a position and following its rules to see how that person s perspective is ie the child plays a game of baseball and plays the different positions on the field Generalized other Once a child develops the ability to take on other points of view they have developed the generalized other Rites of passage Ceremonies or rituals that mark important transitions from status to status in the process of socialization ie you get a knife the day you tum 16 in some cultures 9 signi es you re a man now Socialization the process by which people acquire cultured competency and through which society perpetuates the fundamental nature of existing social structures The social seli An organized complex of attitudes beliefs Values and behaviors associated with an individual Spitz prisonorphanage study A study in which kids were raised in a prison day care and an orphanage In the prison they were cared by their own mother In the orphanage they were cared for by a bunch of nurses The prison kids fared much better socially
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