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Date Created: 08/23/14
Basic Chemistry Final Exam Study Guide Acids and Bases Definitions Svante Arrhenius acids produce H ions in aqueous solutions bases produce OH ions in aqueous solutions water required so only allows for aqueous solutions only protic acids are allowed required to produce hydrogen ions only hydroxide bases are allowed Gilbert Newton Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors bases are electron pair donors least restrictive of acidbase de nitions Properties of Acids taste sour don39t taste them the word acid comes from the Latin acere which means sour acids change litmus a blue vegetable dye from blue to red their aqueous water solutions conduct electric current are electrolytes react with bases to form salts and water evolve hydrogen gas H2 upon reaction with an active metal such as alkali metals alkaline earth metals zinc aluminum Properties of Bases taste bitter don39t taste them feel slippery or soapy don39t arbitrarily touch them bases don39t change the color of litmus they can turn red acidi ed litmus back to blue their aqueous water solutions conduct and electric current are electrolytes react with acids to form salts and water Examples of Common Acids citric acid from certain fruits and veggies notably citrus fruits ascorbic acid vitamin C as from certain fruits vinegar 5 acetic acid carbonic acid for carbonation of soft drinks lactic acid in buttermilk Examples of Common Bases detergents soap lye NaOH household ammonia aqueous Formulas of Common Acids amp Bases Binary Acids A binary compound consists of two elements Binary acids have the pre x hydro in front of the full name of the nonmetallic element They have the ending ic Examples include hydrochloric and hydro uoric acid Hydro uoric Acid HF Hydrochloric Acid HCl Hydrobromic Acid HBr Hydroiodic Acid HI Hydrosulfuric Acid H2S Ternary Acids Temary acids commonly contain hydrogen a nonmetal and oxygen The name of the most common form of the acid consists of the nonmetal root name with the ic ending The acid containing one less oxygen atom than the most common form is designated by the 0115 ending An acid containing one less oxygen atom than the ous acid has the pre x hypo and the 0us ending The acid containing one more oxygen than the most common acid has the per pre x and the z39c ending Nitric Acid HNO3 Nitrous Acid HNO2 Hypochlorous Acid HClO Chlorous Acid HClO2 Chloric Acid HClO3 Perchloric Acid HClO4 Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Sulfurous Acid H2SO3 Phosphoric Acid H3PO4 Phosphorous Acid H3PO3 Carbonic Acid H2CO3 Acetic Acid HC2H3 O2 Oxalic Acid H2C204 Boric Acid H3BO3 Silicic Acid H2SiO3 Bases Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Potassium Hydroxide KOH Ammonium Hydroxide NH4OH Calcium Hydroxide CaOH2 Magnesium Hydroxide MgOH2 Barium Hydroxide BaOH2 Aluminum Hydroxide AlOH3 Ferrous Hydroxide or Iron 11 Hydroxide FeOH2 Ferric Hydroxide or Iron III Hydroxide FeOH3 Zinc Hydroxide ZnOH2 Lithium Hydroxide LiOH Buffer A buffer is an aqueous solution that has a highly stable pH If you add acid or base to a buffered solution its pH will not change signi cantly Similarly adding water to a buffer or allowing water to evaporate will not change the pH of a buffer How it is made A buffer is made by mixing a large Volume of a weak acid or weak base together with its conjugate A weak acid and its conjugate base can remain in solution without neutralizing each other The same is true for a weak base and its conjugate acid How it works When hydrogen ions are added to a buffer they will be neutralized by the base in the buffer Hydroxide ions will be neutralized by the acid These neutralization reactions will not have much effect on the overall pH of the buffer solution When you select an acid for a buffer solution try to choose an acid that has a pKa close to your desired pH This will give your buffer nearly equivalent amounts of acid and conjugate base so it will be able to neutralize as much H and OH as possible Atom An atom is the basic unit of an element An atom is a form of matter which may not be further broken down using any chemical means A typical atom consists of protons neutrons and electrons Examples of Atom Any element listed on the periodic table consists of atoms Hydrogen helium oxygen and uranium are examples of types of atoms Examples that are not Atoms Some matter is either smaller or larger than an atom Examples of chemical species that are not typically considered atoms includes particles that are components of atoms protons neutrons and electrons Molecules and compounds consists of atoms but are not themselves atoms Examples of molecules and compounds include salt N aCl water H20 and ethanol CH2OH Electrically charged atoms are called ions They are still types of atoms Monoatomic ions include H and 02 There are also molecular ions which are not atoms eg ozone 03 Basic Characteristics of an Atom Atoms cannot be divided using chemicals They do consist of parts which include protons neutrons and electrons but an atom is a basic chemical building block of matter Each electron has a negative electrical charge Each proton has a positive electrical charge The charge of a proton and an electron are equal in magnitude yet opposite in sign Electrons and protons are electrically attracted to each other Each neutron is electrically neutral In other words neutrons do not have a charge and are not electrically attracted to either electrons or protons Protons and neutrons are about the same size as each other and are much larger than electrons The mass of a proton is essentially the same as that of a neutron The mass of a proton is 1840 times greater than the mass of an electron The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons The nucleus carries a positive electrical charge Electrons move around outside the nucleus Almost all of the mass of an atom is in its nucleus almost all of the volume of an atom is occupied by electrons The number of protons also known as its atomic number determines the element Varying the number of neutrons results in isotopes Varying the number of electrons results in ions Isotopes and ions of an atom with a constant number of protons are all variations of a single element The particles within an atom are bound together by powerful forces In general electrons are easier to add or remove from an atom than a proton or neutron Chemical reactions largely involve atoms or groups of atoms and the interactions between their electrons States of Matter Solids A solid has a de nite shape and volume Examples of solids include ice solid water a bar of steel and dry ice solid carbon dioxide Liquids A liquid has a de nite volume but takes the shape of its container Examples of liquids include water and oil Gases A gas has neither a de nite volume nor a de nite shape Examples of gases are air oxygen and helium Some introductory chemistry texts name solids liquids and gases as the three states of matter but higher level texts recognize plasma as a fourth state of matter Plasma Plasma has neither a de nite volume nor a de nite shape Plasma often is seen in ionized gases Plasma is distinct from a gas because it possesses unique properties Free electrical charges not bound to atoms or ions cause plasma to be electrically conductive Plasma may be formed by heating and ionizing a gas Stars are made of plasma Lightning is plasma You can nd plasma inside uorescent lights and neon signs Steps for Finding the Empirical Formula Assume you have 100 g of the substance makes the math easier because everything is a straight percent Consider the amounts you are given as being in units of grams Convert the grams to moles for each element Find the smallest whole number ratio of moles for each element Solution for Finding the Empirical Formula Assuming 100 g of the compound there would be 63 g Mn and 37 g 0 Look up the number of grams per mole for each element using the Periodic Table There are 5494 grams in each mole of manganese and 1600 grams in a mole of oxygen 63 g Mn X 1 mol Mn5494 g Mn 11 mol Mn 37 g O X 1 mol O1600 g 0 23 mol 0 Find the smallest whole number ratio by dividing the number of moles of each element by the number of moles for the element present in the smallest molar amount In this case there is less Mn than 0 so divide by the number of moles of Mn 11 mol Mn 11 1 mol Mn 23 mol O11 21 mol 0 The best ratio is MnO of 12 and the formula is MnO2 The empirical formula is MnO2 Example Law of Multiple Proportions Problem Two different compounds are formed by the elements carbon and oxygen The rst compound contains 429 by mass carbon and 571 by mass oxygen The second compound contains 273 by mass carbon and 727 by mass oxygen Show that the data are consistent with the Law of Multiple Proportions Solution The Law of Multiple Proportions is the third postulate of Dalton39s atomic theory It states that the masses of one element which combine with a xed mass of the second element are in a ratio of whole numbers Therefore the masses of oxygen in the two compounds that combine with a fixed mass of carbon should be in a wholenumber ratio In 100 g of the first compound 100 is chosen to make calculations easier there are 571 g 0 and 429 g C The mass of 0 per gram C is 571gO429gC133gOpergC In the 100 g of the second compound there are 727 g 0 and 273 g C The mass of oxygen per gram of carbon is 727gO273 gC266gOpergC Dividing the mass 0 per g C of the second larger value compound 266 133 2 Which mean that the masses of oxygen that combine with carbon are in a 21 ratio The wholenumber ratio is consistent with the Law of Multiple Proportions Molecule A molecule is a combination of two or more atoms that are held together by chemical bonds such as covalent bonds and ionic bonds A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that still displays the properties associated with that compound Molecules may contain two atoms of the same element such as 02 and H2 or they may consist of two or more different atoms such as CCl4 and H20 In the study of chemistry molecules are usually discussed in terms of their molecular weights and moles Ionic compounds such as NaCl and KBr do not form traditional discrete molecules like those formed by covalent bonds In their solid state these substances form a threedimensional array of charged particles In such a case molecular weight has no meaning so the term formula weight is used instead The Mole A mole is de ned as the quantity of a substance that has the same number of particles as are found in 12000 grams of carbon12 This number AVogadro39s number is 6022x1023 The mass in grams of one mole of a compound is equal to the molecular weight of the compound in atomic mass units One mole of a compound contains 6022Xl023 molecules of the compound The mass of 1 mole of a compound is called its molar weight or molar mass The units for molar weight or molar mass are grams per mole Here is the formula for determining the number of moles of a sample mol weight of sample g molar weight gmol
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