Week 8 and 9 notes
Week 8 and 9 notes MFJS 2210
Popular in Introduction to Media and Culture
Popular in Film
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Date Created: 03/08/16
February 24th 2016 Decodind amp Media Experience Traditional Theories of the Media Audience Hypodermic Model Direct and powerful influence Orson Welle s WOTW 1939 Mass Society Theory Mass media as homogenizing the public less personal ties post WWll suburbs but united through mass media The Minimal Effects Model Twostep flow of influence 1 Media transmitted information to opinion leaders 2 leaders influence those with personal contact Agenda Setting Media tell us not WHAT to think but what to think ABOUT Priming Mass media attention to particular issues prime audiences to be more sensitive economics candidates Cultivation Theory Continued lengthy and ritualistic viewing that leads to homogenized public and mainstreaming Mainstreaming Heavy television viewers internalize many of the distorted views of the social and political world presented by television ie crime and violence You are the researcher Which audience theory would you use for the following 1 You want to analyze how mass media played a role in murder whereby a citizen used torture tactics learned from viewing Zero Dark Thirty 2 You want to analyze how heavy media coverage of Hilary Clinton s high revenue for speaking engagements has caused the public to question her interest in helping the middle and workingclass 3 You want to analyze how young tween heavy readers of Cosmopolitan magazine have started to internalize the idea that they need to wear makeup please boys and being to experiment with sexuality 4 You want to analyze why there was more emphasis on race in news media coverage of the Baltimore protests versus the Waco motorcycle gang shooting Minimal Effects Model amp Facebook Our friends become the opinion leaders Direct Models of the Audience Critidue Hypodermic Model Limited Effects Agenda Setting Priming 1 Media audiences were not taken seriously 2 Audiences were the recipients of external stimuli that elicited an observable response 3 Audiences were understood as PASSIVE Question What is missing from this type of analysis Audiences CONSTRUCT meaninds What does it mean to be an active audience member 1 Media cannot tell people what to think or how to behave in any direct way 2 People are not as stupid gullible or easy to dominate as direct models have us to believe More autonomous How are audiences understood as active 1 Through individual interpretation so media products producers construct messages but the intended message is interpreted by audiences 2 Through collective interpretation of media audiences engage with media in social settings groups read commentary about media 3 Through collective political action Audiences organize collectively to make formal demands on media producersregulators 4 Through producing their own audiencecentered media Audiences as media producersquotorosumersquot 1 Media activists 2 Technology has opening opportunity to create meaning and conversation 3 Audienceproducer boundary as BLURRY 4 Downside Difficult for usergenerated media producers to reach a wide audience BUT Mainstream blog hyperlinks crowdfunding etc Media Activism Hollaback Track where street harassment happens and post a photo of the perpetrator Citizens are engaged in media and take it upon themselves to create new media What about ideology and hegemony If we know that dominant meanings circulate in media and produce hegemony how can we then say that the audience is active and autonomous Limitations on the active audience and interpretation Can be taken too far All AGENCY and no STRUCTURE 1 Our social locations age occupation race gender etc help structure our daily lives and our media experiences 2 Media are built around familiar images and traditional themes ideology 3 Meaning is constructed by sociallylocated audiences under specific historical conditions 4 Interpretation is likely to be the most common PREFERRED The task then is to be mindful of how meaning is constructed by socially located audiences under specific historical conditions P 268 How does social location SHAPE interpretation agency Zero Dark Thirtv amp Polvsemic Reading 1 Depiction of the effectiveness of interrogation techniques 2 Portrayal of the brutality and moral complexity of torture Is there one that is correct or wrong Ambiduitv of Media Texts amp Profitabilitv Given the substantial competition for the attention of audiences this kind of openness is a highly desirable feature for massmarketed media p 266 More interpretive Larger audience Moral ambiguity The Sopranos Racial ambiguity The Cosby Show Textual Analvsis amp Polvsemic Readinds Transparent What types of audiences may be interested The Real Housewives How might audiences interpret this franchise How might this differ abroad Adult Swim The Eric Andre Show Interpretations vary How might our social locations affect our interest in this program March 4th 2016 Global Media amp Media Literacv Cultural Imperialism Complications 1 Theory does not distinguish between different types of media film is more influential internationally than print 2 Theory assumes a passive audience and fails to account for multiple interpretive strategies in different cultural contexts 3 Theory undermines the role played by local media 4 There are limits to the appeal of Western culture in other nations Global Digital Divide Question Can the media system truly by global if dominant ownership and control remains in the hands of conglomerates based in a few wealthy nations Perspective The global has more to do with CONSUMPTION than PRODUCTION BUT Media is not equally accessible across the globe economic inequality access to hardware and software Global digital divide gap in access to information and communication technologies Glocalization not in reading Localized Americana Media contentservices tailed to specific cultural consumers Not because of regard for culture but a commercial imperative Global flows coopting the local Example News Corporation s STAR TV STAR India STAR Greater China STAR Select Middle East Glocalization Format Television format franchising Format constitutes an internationally traceable package of program elements that can be sold under licensing agreements into other television markets What is sold information about the program in home country including scheduling target audience ratings and audience demographics description of program and rules artwork graphics catchphrases and computer software Then local context is arranged into IMPORTED package Glocalization of Television Formats Example America s Got Talent Owner Simon Cowell s British company SYCOtv Purchased in Afghanistan Armenia Australia Belgium etc Influence of America s Got Talent Related by original programming modeling Afghan Star Glocalization MTV UK Programming Geordie Shore reality show based on Jersey Shore The Valleys reality show living your dreams in Cardiff Beauty School Cop Outs reality show beauty school GlobalDominant Hollywood Hollywood films are shown in more than 150 countries Dominates the market share in most countries Within the EU 72 of films shown in 2004 were from Hollywood The Avengers Disney 1 in 2012 6234M in North America 151 B globally Transnational Bollvwood World s largest film industry in terms of production and viewership More films produced than Hollywood but influence is confined to the Indian subcontinent and the South Asian diaspora Films are shown in more than 70 countries Worth 35B Geocultural Nollvwood Began in 62 distribution through cheap VHS now reaches African global diaspora through marketers and bootleggers Themes Good overcoming evil religious conflict moral dilemma family dysfunction magic love lust greed etc Shiftino Receptions The questions in the research instrument focus groups were designed primarily to elicit detailed information on students perceptions of Asian American media representations and ways in which they might act to improve images p 301 Comparative analysis Our research question was to explore whether the development of the Internet and the possibilities of alternative media would indeed change the Asian American representations and affect people s perceptions of Asian Americans p 301 Key Issues Political economy of media Stereotypes Ideologies of race Alternative media creation ComprehensiveCritical Media Literacy New Media amp Limited Possibilities Internet alternative access and possibilities Need to remember political economy and structure 1 New media is dominated by conglomerates 2 Mainstream consumers continue to seek out dominant and mainstream sources newspapers television and online content connected to recognizable sources 3 Lack of knowledge of how to harness the tools of new media to create alternative forms of representation New Media Possibilities In the 2011 study only 4 of the 15 Asian Americans and zero of the European American or African American respondents mentioned the existence of alternative productions such as Wong Fu Productions Because our identities are shaped by both social identity and selfidentity if alternative images can t be distributed Comprehensive Media Literacv Respondents had a that s the way it is mentality about the lack of meaningful Asian American representations Conceptual Limitation The inability to conceptualize alternatives Comprehensive media literacy Teaching students how to read the underlying meanings of media images and the conditions of why and how they are produced but also how to write new alternatives How can we create our own media Blogging amp Social Media Journalism Need to choose a publication that will give you a voice Filmmaking Major amp Independent MarketingAdvertising Graphic novels Novel Alternative Media Brainstorm What are some issues that are underreported What mediums can be used to create alternative meanings and messages Who is our audience How do we distribute the media What impact are we trying to make
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