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Psy101095959 Study Guide for Final Chapter 4 States of Consciousness 1 Sleep 2 Chemical 3 Hypnosis 4 Meditation 5 Peak Experience Sigmund Freud s Iceberg Theory Theory of Consciousness 0 Level above the water is the Consciousness 0 Level below the water is the Preconsciousness 0 Level below the Preconsciousness is the Subconciousness or the Unconsciousness Levels of the Iceberg Consciousness 0 Is what you are thinking at this exact moment 0 You can only think of one thing atatime 0 You can think of many different things in a short time frame but you can only think of one thing at a time 0 Muscle memory is not thinking 0 Multitasking is the ability to juggle separate individual trains of thought Preconsciousness 0 Right below the surface of the consciousness 0 ls accessible from the conscious level of awareness 0 Nothing gets to the preconscious without first coming through the conscious level of awareness 0 The preconscious level of awareness is where you store your reality beliefs and experiences 0 It always effects the consciousness and it always effects your behavior because if forms your personality The things in the preconsciousness are constantly pushing up on the consciousness When you put something in the preconsciousness from the conscious level of awareness you also put there with it your feelings emotions and beliefs that were originally attached to it and when it comes from the preconsciousness back to the consciousness it brings all that baggage with it which affects your behavior and personality How well you put something into the preconsciousness is going to determine how efficient you will be in retrieving it The more distractions there are the less efficient you will be in placing something in the preconsciousness and retrieving it in the consciousness Anything that stands out is easier to remember The more repetitive you put something in the greater your chances of pulling it out of the preconsciousness UnconsciousnessSubconsciousness Everything that is there has gotten their without your permission or consent Everything that is there is bad ugly or stressful The subconscious is not accessible from the conscious level of awareness When something in the unconscious level of awareness pushes up it erupts and carries with it all the emotions and experiences with it Chapter 5 Sleep Why do we sleep 1 To conserve energy 2 To give the body and mind time to recuperate and build 3 To rest the body and mind Types of sleep REM Rapid Eye Movement Also known as paradoxical sleep or dreaming stage Vast majority of dreams occur in the REM sleep During REM sleep the mind is awake while the body is asleep All sleep studies are based on an eight hour sleep night NREM Non Rapid Eye Movement Delta is the most relaxing rejuvenating rebuilding sleep there is and your body requires it first With each stage of sleep that you progress down the sleep becomes deeper and the brain waves become slower and slower Circadian Rhythm is how you progress through the sleep stages throughout the night You dream during the REM Stage and therefore dream more later in the night The difference between short sleepers and long sleepers is the amount of Rem they receive each night Long sleepers get more REM before they wake up and therefore don t wake up as rested as short sleepers The spindle stage is used to check your environment as a way of making sure you are safe to go into a deeper sleep Some books count the initial phase and others don t count the REM stage Why we dream Freud s Theory Freud 11 ea1ns are tfte regaf road to t e unconscious eaefof awareness 0 Freud believed that dreams originate in the unconsciousness or preconscious level of awareness and that dreams have meaning 0 Dreams allow us to deal with things in the unconsciousness or preconsciousness 0 Since everything in the subconsciousness is ugly and stressful even in our dreams we may not be able to handle them and therefore we disguise them so that we don t have to face the reality even in our dreams but it still gives us a chance to work on the thing in the subconscious Freud Dreams have Manifest content and latent content Manifest content The symbols that are used to disguise the dream in an attempt to make it less stressful and anxiety producing It is how the dream shows itself to you Latent Content Is the latent but true meaning behind dreams 0 Freud believes that dreams are one of the tools the ego uses to satisfy the ID and at the same time pacify the Superego 0 How much you dream depends on how much you ve done Chapter 6 Theories on Dreams 1 Deactivation Synthesis Hypothesis 0 States that dreams are simple byproduct of random stimulation of brain cells and therefore since they are random most dreams have no meaning 2 Mental Housekeeping Theory 0 States that your dreams are directed towards clearing and dealing with problems that you have encountered during the day 0 States that we need to dream to get rid of stressful information that bothers us either in the conscious or preconscious level 3 Lucid Dreaming Theory States that since our brain is awake and functioning we know that a dream is a dream and therefore we actually control our dreams and their direction Carl Jung Dreams help us recognize ignored or suppressed aspects of our personality Calvin Hall Dreams are a letter that we write to ourselves The more we understand our dreams the clearer the insight into ourselves Three Major Sleep Disorders 1 Insomnia Condition were you have difficulty falling asleep staying asleep waking up to early and not being able to get back to sleep 2 Sleep Apnea Condition caused by blocked air passages believed to be related to SIDS 3 Narcolepsy An uncontrollable irresistible unpredictable sudden urge to sleep There is no known cause and no known cure Psychological Dependency Is the mental desire to achieve the effects produced by a drug and it acts as a driving compelling force Physical Dependency Is when your body has reached a state that continued drug use is required just to maintain some state of normality This happens because your body has built a tolerance Withdrawal Painful physical and psychological reaction to discontinued use of a drug or chemical Tolerance A decreased sensitivity to a drug or chemical which requires stronger and more frequent use All tolerance for all drugs works in the same way except one ALCOHOL Alcohol Plateus Drug Catagories Depressants Narcotics Sedatives MAN MADE Poppy Morphine Chemically Heroin Alcohol I Barbituats Opium Opium Based Produced Opium Based Methodone Based 0 Num Senses 0 Relieve Pain 0 Creates a state of euphoria 0 Builds a tolerance 0 Physically and psychologically adicitve 0 Withdrawal is extremely painful Stimulants Nicotene Caffine Afrodeziacs Cocaine Amphetamine Stimulates Increases Increases Stimulates the Stimulates the brain neruons giving heartbeat your sexual brain in the same areas associated you a pleasant respiration and desire Way real with vigilance happy feeling metabolic rate performance accomplishments mood and heart Makes you and stamina do action more alert 0 Raise the system 0 Num Senses 0 Relieve Pain 0 Creates a state of euphoria 0 Builds a tolerance 0 Physically and psychologically adicitve 0 Withdrawal is extremely painful Hallucinogens Lethargic Acid Dythalamines LSD I Tetra Hydra Canabinal THC Effect the senses Build no tolerance Create sensual experiences unique to the drug Not physically or psychologically addictive Real danger is ashbacks Chapter 7 Hypnosis Hypnosis encourages a strong sense of suggestibility 1 Requires an increased willingness to respond to proposed changes 2 In order to be successful it requires a passive and receptive attitude 3 Is extremely useful in a therapeutic setting and in decreasing or eliminating pain There is no such thing as pain until we create it The Dissociation Theory When one part of your mind is conscious about what s happening but part of your consciousness is sharing that space but not in a cognitive way Highway hypnosis The natural progression from hypnosis is sleep No one can be hypnotized against their will under normal circumstances Under normal circumstances people will not do something against their beliefs While hypnotized people cannot perform beyond their capabilities Best uses Quitting Relaxation Memory retrieval AnxietyStress Reduction Phobias 6 100 reduction of pain Phobia An unwanted and unwarranted fear U 39gt i No hypnosis is going to be effective if you don t want the end result Meditation Is a relaxed state of consciousness that allows you to focus the power of your brain There are only two types of meditation 1 Concentrativc Meditation 2 Opening up Meditation Concentrative Meditation A conscious effort towards total detachment from the external World through s process of intense concentration and contemplation Opening up Meditation Deliberately directs your focus of attention on one particular special and unique feature in the environment creating a heightened sense of awareness on one environmental stimuli USES 1 Pain 2 Bodily Functions Peak Experiences Altered state of consciousness that requires and mandates that you reach a level or peak of physical activity which allows you access to an altered state of consciousness In the altered state of consciousness there are occurrences that are indescribable in scientific terms because you cannot set enough controls Chapter 8 Learning Is a process geared toward creating the possibility of a permanent change in behavior usually accompanied by practice experience experiments and cognitive thought Types of Learning 1 Conditioned learning 2 Cognitive Learning 3 Observational Learning Conditioned learning 1 Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov 2 Operant Conditioning B F Skinner Classical Conditioning Is when a neutral stimulus that does not normally cause a re ex is paired with a stimulus that does cause such a re ex action or behavior after several pairing the neutral stimulus will begin to cause the action behavior or response standing alone Before the pairing the response is known as the Natural Response After the pairing the Response is Unconditioned Response When the Neutral Stimulus begins to cause the action behavior or response standing alone it is known as the CR Conditioned Response Conditioned Responses need to be periodically reinforced or the conditioning will cease to be effective The more you reinforce the pairing the stronger the CR and the longer lit will last Classical conditioning involves learning automatic responses to stimuli that do not usually or necessarily cause such a response There is along with this theory something called a conditioned emotional response or the Association Property Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Is solely based on learning by the consequences of your behavior known as the UCR All Behavior Has Consequences If you are trying to get someone or something to behave in a certain way there are two tools that you use in this theory and they are 1 Reinforcements 2 Punishments Reinforcements Anything that is likely to cause an increase in the strength of a behavior or frequency of response 0 Always trying to get someone to do something 0 With reinforcements you are always doing something nice for the person of the receiving end Determining whether or not something is good or bad is always as seen through the eyes of the person of the receiving end Punishments You are always trying to get someone to stop an action behavior or response 0 Always doing something bad to the person which causes resentment Reinforcements and punishments always work best when the person on the receiving end is in and part of the decision making process Reinforcements and punishments are either positive or negative informal or formal Formal There are rules and guidelines that are followed for both reinforcements and punishments Informal There are no rules and guidelines that are followed for both reinforcements and punishments Positive Reinforcement Is when something good or desirable is added so that someone will increase an action behavior or response Negative Reinforcement Is when something bad or aversive is removed or taken away in order to increase an action behavior or response Positive Punishment Is when something bad or aversive is added or applied in order to decrease an action behavior or response Negative Punishment Is removing or taking away something good or desirable in order to decrease an action behavior or response For Skinners system to work four things are needed Feedback Timing i Consistency 4 Order of presentation Feedback Must provide clear and immediate feedback when the person does or does not do the response Timing You must apply reinforcements or punishments as soon as possible after the response has or has not been given Consistency You must always be consistent when applying punishments or reinforcements Order of Presentation You must be sure to reinforce or punish after the behavior has or has not been done
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