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PUR 3000 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Chapter 7 Communication 1 Definition of communication a Also called execution most visible part of public relations work b Communication is the implementation of a decision the process and the means by which objectives are achieved c Goals of communication are to inform persuade motivate or achieve mutual understanding d To be an effective communicator a person must have basic knowledge of i 1 what constitutes communication and how people receive messages ii 2 How people process information and change their perceptions iii 3 What kinds of media and communication tools are most appropriate for a particular message II Objectives of communication a Message exposure mass media through newsletters and organization39s websites b Accurate dissemination of the message The basic information remains intact as it is transmitted through different channels c Acceptance of the message Audience retains the message BUT ALSO accepts it as valid d Attitude change the audience believes the message AND makes commitment to change behavior as a result of the message e Change in overt behavior Audience changes their behavior or purchase the product III Five communication elements a Source b Encoder c Signal d Decoder e Destination f OR Wilbur Schramm s model i A sender ii Message i Channel iv Receiver v Feedback IV Processing perceptions including these specifically a twostep flow theorv chapter 9 i Another mass media influence acts as an opinion leader affecting the receiver39s impression ofthe initial message ii The message goes through an opinion leader and then is transmitted to a follower iii Both the opinion leader and the follower receive the same message iv The follower received the message but the opinion leader not b Interaction theory amp media dependency theory i Tell me and I will forget ii Show me and I will remember iii Involve me and I will understand iv The less direct contact we have with an issue the more we depend on media c Media uses and gratifications theory i Assumes that people make highly intelligent choices about which messages require their attention and fulfill their needs ii If this is true the PR communicator must tailor messages that focus on getting the audience39s attention d Uncertainty Reduction Theory i The theory suggests that in initial interactions between two people the primary goal is to reduce the level of uncertainty in the situation According to the theory people find uncertainty in interpersonal relationships unpleasant and are motivated to reduce it through interpersonal communication e Situational Theory i Active vs Passive audiences ii Primary target audiences may be different on different occasions iii Primary public might be comprised of different people at different time iv Be flex vi ibe bc the public is not static vii High involvement vs low involvement f Social learning theorysocial construction of reality theory i The social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors attitudes and emotional reactions of others ii The social construction of reality theory contends that reality is socially constructed and that the sociology of knowledge must scrutinize the manner in which this occurs g source credibility h Cognitive Dissonance i People desire to have consistency in their lives ii If campaigns demonstrate 2 conflicts beliefs they will feel cognitive dissonance iii Discomfort from the contradictions in their belief system which they will want to resolve i Fivestage Adoption Process i Awareness H Interest iii Evaluation iv Trial v Adoption j Diffusion theory iv V vi Diffusion the process of spreading out z Diffusion Theory 3 1 Relative Advantaqe A product innovation is perceived as better than existing alternatives 1 Better performance increased comfort saving in time and effort or immediacy of reward Compatibility How innovation fits into a person39s way of doing things 1 Overcome perception of incompatibility through heavy advertising to persuade consumers Complexity An innovation s degree of perceived difficulty 1 The more difficult the slower the rate of adoption Trialability An innovation can be used on a limited basis prior to making a full blown commitment 1 Trial reduces risk of dissatisfaction with a product after having permanently committed to it through outright purchase vii Observability Consumer or others can observe the positive effects of new product usage 1 Higher the visibility more rapid the adoption rate V What are some of the basic rules for writing with clarity so messages can be understood a The key is to produce messages that match in content and structure the characteristics of the audiences i Use symbols acronyms and slogans b Avoid jargon c Avoid clich s and hype words d Avoid euphemisms an inoffensive word or phrase that is less direct and less distasteful than the one that represents reality preowned e Avoid discriminatory language Chapter 9 Public Opinion and Persuasion What is public opinion and whenwhy did the concept of public opinion mature a Sum of individual opinions on an issue affecting those individuals collection of interested views i Opinion is based on selfinterest b Concept matured in 20th century with public opinion polling between two world wars became empirical Discuss the basic aspects of public opinion as it relates to public relations a Selfinterest i Once selfinterest is involved opinion is difficult to change b Passive v active i Passive Individuals in this category pay attention to a message only because it is entertaining and offers a diversion Use communication channels like billboard or radio spots ii Active These people are already interestedengaged are in search of more sophisticated supplemental info C Event sensitivity i The event is a catalyst for people to engage with others about a shared interest d Elusiveness i ambiguity Understand who are opinion leaders formal v informal and explain their characteristics Highly interested in subject Better informed on the issue Heavy consumers of mass media Early adopters of new ideas Good organizers Particular socioecodemographic characteristics 9 quot D99039 Formal Opinion Leaders i Positions as elected officials presidents of companies or heads of membership groups ii Also called power leaders h Informal opinion leaders i Those who have clout with peers because of some special characteristic IV VI VII ii They generally exert considerable influence on their peer groups by being highly informed articulate and credible on issues Know the following theories a Agendasetting theory i Salience tells audience what to think about not what to think ii Media sets agenda for public discussion b Media dependency theory i Media effects more powerful when the public can39t verify through experience ii C Cultivation theory i repetition cultivates a mediated reality d Framing theory i How story is framed from journalistic or public relations practitioners Define persuasion and explain the purpose of persuasion a Formalized by the ancient Greeks b Persuasion is a communication process in which communicators attempt to change awareness attitude belief or behavior in a context of free choice C Purposes i Change or neutralize hostile opinion ii Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes iii Conserve favorable opinions d Principles of persuasion pg 225 What are Aristotle39s three proofs related to persuasion i Aristotle ethos source credibility logos logical argument pathos emotional appeaD What is propaganda and compare it to persuasion a quotPropaganda is the deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions manipulate cognitions and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of VIII IX the propagandist Jowett amp Donnell i Difference from persuasion is that propaganda sells a belief system or constitutes political or ideological dogma ii Really about manipulation rather than discussion Discuss ethics issues related to persuasion Do not use false evidence Do not intentionally use unsupported reasoning Do not falsely represent yourself Do not use irrelevant appeals as diversions Do not make false links to favorable values motives or goals Do not cover up consequences Do not use baseless emotional appeals 339 99039 Do not oversimplify complex situations i Do not feign certainty j Do not advocate what you don39t believe yourself k PG 239 Define and know the differences between a Passive assertive and aggressive communication styles i Passive 1 Anxiety driven 2 Taken advantage of 3 Avoids confrontation 4 Intimidated ii Assertive I More effective amp appropriate Focus on specific issues and problems Recognizes values and beliefs Doesn39t violate others rights Open and tolerant 9quot39gtS quot Attack issues and not persons a Assertiveness A Limited Riqht b To experience and express your feelings To feel positive about yourself under any conditions To make mistakes without feeling embarrassed or guilty To own your own opinionsconvictions To protest unfair treatmentcriticism To be recognized for your significant achievements and contributions 9 quot D 9 iii Aggressive 1 Intimidation control fighting manipulation 2 No regard for other person39s feelings 3 Angerdriven 4 Lose respect and trust iv X Have a basic understanding of the factors in persuasive communication such as a Audience analysis i Audience analysis eg Psychographics any attributes relating to personality values attitudes interests or lifestyles ii Masows Hierarchy of Needs 1 food security belonging love selfactualization iii Audience analysis tools 1 2 Channehng Psychographics attempts to classify people by lifestyle attitudes and beliefs b Source credibility i Expertise sincerity trustworthiness attractiveness charisma ii Transfer technique associate celebrity39s popularity with product C Appeals to selfinterest i People motivated by 8 basic appeals 1 9 39 Pquot39gtS quot Power Respect Wellbeing Affection Wealth Skill Enlightenment Physical and mental vitality d Clarity of message i Direct simply expressed one primary idea ii Expert Peter Drucker e Timing and context i Message is more persuasive if environmental factors support the message or if message is received within the context of other messages and situations with which the individual is familiar ii Value of information and its newsworthiness depend on timing and context f Audience Participation g Suggestions for action i Principle of persuasion is that people endorse ideas only if the sponsor proposes an action ii PR practitioners must not only ask people to do something but tell them HOW to do it h CO391t 1t and StlquotUCtUlquot Of messages i Drama 1 Humanize an issue 2 Application story called case study technique ii Statistics iii Surveys and polls iv Examples V Testimonials Vi Endorsements Vii Emotionalappeals 1 Fear arousal Viii Persuasive speaking 1 Lack of message penetration 2 Competing messages 3 Selfselection 4 Selfperception Chapter 10 Con ict Management Dealing with Issues Risks and Crises I What is strategic conflict management and how does this relate to public relations a Many organizational and societal conflicts fall under the purview of public relations b Public relations professionals must develop communication strategies and processes to influence the course of conflicts to the benefit of the organization and when possible to the benefit of the organization39s many constituents c Key components i Strategic for the purpose of achieving particular objectives ii Management planned deliberate action iii Competition striving for the same object position or prize as others iv Conflict sharp disagreements or opposition resulting in a direct overt threat of attack from another entity II Phases of strategic conflict management a The Conflict Management life cycle i Proactive Phase includes activities and thought processes that can prevent a conflict from arising 1 Issues management Environmental Scanning ii Strategic Phase an issue that has become an emerging conflict is identified as needing concerted action by the PR professional 1 Crisis management Risk communication iii Reactive Phase once the issue reaches a critical level of impact on the organization the PR professional must react to events in the external communication environment as they unfold 1 Crisis communication conflict resolution 2 Litigation Public relations employs communication strategies and publicity efforts in support of legal actions or trials iv Recovery Phase In the aftermath the organization should employ strategies to either bolster or repair its reputation in the eyes of the key publics 1 Reputation management image restoration III What is issues management a Term coined by Howard Chase in 1977 b IM born in the era of business reform c Issues management is the organized activity of identifying emerging trends concerns or issues likely to affect an organization in the next few years and developing a wider and more positive range of organizational responses toward the future IV What are the elements of a proactive and systematic issues management effort basic steps as defined by Chase what are the benefits of issues management a Proactive and systematic approach to i Predict problems ii Anticipate threats iii Minimize surprises iv Resolve issues v Prevent crises b Chase and Jones described process as five basic steps i Issues identification scanning and monitoring ii Issues analysisassessing potential impact on the organization iii Strategy options 1Set higher standards 2 work with human rights groups to monitor possible violations 3 establish a new policy iv Action plan v Evaluation c Threat Appraisal Model PR practitioner must consider both situational demands and organizational resources d A Matrix of Contingency Factors Contingency Theory i External threats ii Industryspecific environment iii General politicalsocial environment iv External pubic s characteristics v The issue under consideration and internal factors General corporateorganizational characteristics Characteristics of the public relations department Top management characteristics Internal threats 9quot39gtS quot Personality characteristics of internal involved person 6 Relationship characteristics V What is crisis communication definition basic strategies and how do you communicate during a crisis a quotAn unplanned event that is a major threat that can have a negative effect on the organization industry or stakeholders if handled improperly i Only 14 unpredictable ii 78 caused by mismanagement 50 don39t have a plan b Crisis Management quotThe process of anticipating and preparing for threats that have the potential to damage an organization39s reputation with important constituents and influence the organization39s surviva III c When does crisis management start Before a crisis happens Most business crises can be preventable Proactive crisis management Environmental Scanning Issues Management Predict problems Anticipate threats A common problem is the lack of crisis management plans even when a crisis is smoldering d How to communicate during a crisis Put the public first Take responsibility iii Be honest iv Never say quotNo comment v Designate a single spokesperson vi Set up a central information center vii Provide a constant flow of information viii Be familiar with media needs and deadlines ix Be accessible x Monitor news coverage and telephone inquiries xi Communicate with key publics VI What is risk communication definition what are the guiding concepts of risk communication and what are the basic approaches to communicating risk a Risk communication Defined as verbal or written exchange to communicate information regarding risk to public health safety and environment Often communicate with hostile uninformed or concerned audiences b Guiding concepts of risk communication Risks voluntarily taken tend to be accepted better eg smokers More control individuals have less perceived risk More complex situation higher perceived risk Familiarity breeds confidence When experts disagree perceived risk increases Severity of consequences affects perceived risk c Approaches to communicating about risks i Understand pubic39s concern ii Simplify and clarify technical messages iii Meet public on its turf iv Develop ongoing dialogue v Be inclusive vi Powershare VII Crisis response content crisis responses strategies a Crisis response strategies i Attack the accuser ii Denial iii Shifting the blame iv Excuse organization says it had no control over the crisis v Justification no serious damages or injuries vi Ingratiation actions taken to appease the publics involved eg donations vii Bolstering viii Corrective action ix Full apology b Crisis Response Content i Instructinglnformation 1 What happened What to do to protect themselves physically in the crisis 2 How the crisis will affect publics daily routines ii Adjusting Information 1 Trying to meet publics emotional needs fear confusion anxiety sympathycompassion etc 2 Corrective Action iii Reputation Management 1 Crisis Response Strategies c VIII What are reputation management and its three foundations a Reputation is the collective representation of an organization39s past performance or the track record of the organization in the public s mind i Reactive Phase of Conflict Management b 3 foundations of reputation i Economic performance ii Social responsiveness iii The ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders c Research technique reputation audits can be used to assess and monitor an organization39s rep IX What is image restoration a Reputation repair and maintenance through effective issues management risk communication and crisis management techniques X Is it easier to maintain a good reputation than restore a negative reputation a Much easier to keep up a good reputation than to restore a negative reputation XI Does image restoration take up a lot of an organization39s resources a Image restoration takes up a lot of resources and uses up a lot of built up goodwill Chapter 11 The Audience and How to Reach It I What are the differences between audience stakeholders and stakeseekers a Audiences general and target b Stakeholders and stakeseekers stakeholders relate to those who already have a vested interestalready involved in an organization while stakeseekers are trying to become involved c A successful campaign must be aimed at those segments of the mass audience that are most desirable for its particular purpose and must employ those media most effective in reaching them II What are some of the general characteristics of audiences a Increasingly visually oriented TV b Single issue decisionmaking c Increase in personality and celebrity d Distrust of authority and leadership e Growth of international audience III Have a basic understanding of audiences issues such as a Diversity b Shifting audience dynamics c Fragmentation i Fragmentation of audiences ii More specific typically more effective iii More specific typically more expensive iv Use public relations marketing and advertising databases and primary research to identify audiences d Internal and external e Determine your own target audiences when possible IV Define a Demographics i Perceptions behaviors attitudes and actions are connected to demographics ii Profile a group that shares some traits using demographics iii Demographic characteristics change over time accompanied by changes in action patterns b lifestyles c psychographics i Lifestyle patterns in which people live and spend time and money ii Psychographics research procedures that measure lifestyle or value personality attitudes and the like iii VALS Values and Lifestyles most popular lifestyle and psychographic tools Understand the basic tenets related to matching audience with print television radio and online media a Television Emotional impact incredible range of stations now specific and general Also sponsored films CDs and videos Opportunities for public relations Guest appearances v News releases story pitches vi VNRs video news releases vii Program ideas viii Silent publicity advertising placement ix Public service announcements b Print i For detail and contemplation ii Pitch stories commercial purpose iii Understand organization of newspaper iv Created v naturally occurring stories v Magazines Books vi Internal organizational print outlets c Online i Customized information of target audience supplemental information constantly changing how it39s used ii Helps with realtime responses iii Blogs chat rooms iv Maintain home pages v Less to no gatekeepers I Radio for flexibility and specific targets and speed can go almost anywhere with audience ii Understand stations format and submit material suitable iii Public relations opportunities iv Newscasts general news v Community calendars vi Actualities brief reports from the scene of action Talk shows disc jockey shows VI VII viii Editorials public service announcements Understand the basic elements of media opportunities such as the relationship between the media and public relations practitioners relationship with newspapers and relationship with other media such as magazines and books online radio television and movies a b c d About the relationship between media and public relations practitioners Treat and respect like professionals who are extremely busy Editors pride themselves on making their own decisions Stories submitted by nonprofits are better received than corporations attempt at free advertising Media Opportunities i Newspapers 1 Public relations generates about 4550 of news items 2 Commercial institution 80 revenue from advertisements 20 from sales 3 Protected by First Amendment can39t be forced to publish material 4 Understand the organization of newspaper deadlines hierarchy structure What is a public service announcement a b c d e Two major differences between commercials and PSAs Public Service Announcements PSAs Commercial announcements use controlled media Advertisers pay for the right to choose the form placement and timing of messages PSAs are uncontrolled media outlets make decisions about whether to use the PSA or not and when to use it Commercial announcements tend to promote marketplace transitions PSAs promote social causes and behavior change Paid commercial announcements promoting social causes and behavior are NOT PSAs Chapter 13 New Technologies in Public Relations What are the new technologies that are used in public relations and how are they used a b c d e The use of technology is the leading trend in public relations Email distribution external mailing lists Web conferences Teleconferencing satellite and radio media tours video and audio news releases WWW sites Blogs Social Media What are the new types of softwaretools being used in public relations a b c Intranet internal communications Discussion groups chat rooms Listservs Online newswires online monitoring services What are the key aspects of the Internet in relation to public relations a Immediate time real time Reach is worldwide Uncontrolled quotTraditional media gatekeeper have lost their power in today39s printand click world Issues tracking research Media management Controversial security problems amp legal questions Malicious and irritating practices Spheres of influence Mediasphere and blogosphere quotPu concept web represents the pull concept bc the user actively searches for sites that can answer specific questions Push concept is that of information delivered to the user without active participation i Traditional mass media radio tv newspapers are examples of that Webcasting used by major of organizations News media unique characteristics i Easy updating of material i Instant distribution of information i An infinite amount of space for information i iv The ability to interact with the audience PR standpoint a 3 types of blogs corporate employee and third party Chapter 14 News Releases Newsletters and Brochures I Have a basic understanding of the following communication tools a News releases the most widely used document including basics as described in lectures i Traditional media rely on basic news releases for 2 reasons 1 The reality of mass communications today is that reporters and editors spend most of their time processing information not gathering it 2 No media enterprise has enough staff to cover every single event in the community ii Document that provides information to mass media outlets newspapers broadcast stations magazines iii The most common PR tactic 1 50 of news in Wall Street Journal comes from news releases 2 75 ofjournalists use PR sources for stories iv Multimedia News Release 1 AKA Smart News Release SMR 2 b Publicity photos i Only photos that appeal to media gatekeepers are published ii Quality photos must have good contrast 72 dp iii Subject matter iv Composition v Action vi Scale vii Camera angle viii Lighting ix Color x c Media advisories i Advisories or alerts let journalists know about an upcoming event d Fact sheets i Give the 5 W39s and H of an event in outline form ii Also provide background e Pitch letters i PR personnel pitch journalists with story ideas ii Can be telephone calls emails or text or tweets f g h iii Good pitch is based on research and a creative idea that will appeal to the journalist or editor Newsletters Brochures Annual reports What makes good news stories a Know all the materials that go into a media kit and how are media kits used j k a b c d e f 8 h Often referred to as the press kit AKA press kits Provides editors and reporters with variety of information and resources Prepared for distribution at Major events community relations New product launches integrated marketing campaign News press conferences crisis events Traditionally 9 x 12 folder with inside pockets Contents usually consist of i Basic news release ii News feature about the product or service iii Fact sheet about the product organization or event 1 definition A supplementary reference tool that summarizes key points about an event product or company for media iv Photos v Bios on the spokesperson or chief executives vi A basic brochure vii Contact information Ekits i Electronic media kits called EPKs are the norm and are distributed via email a website CD or flashdrive Mat feature release i Originally called mat cause it was sent in mat form ready for the printing press How do public relations practitioners distribute written communication materials a 5 major methods i Firstclass mail ii Fax iii Email iv Electronic wire services v Online newsrooms b Electronic news services such as Business Wire provide an efficient way to distribute news releases around the world Chapter 15 Radio Television and the Web I Know the following terms a VNR i VNR Video News Releases ii 90scond VNRS20000 to 50000 iii News report 90second voice over narrative iv Identification of clients and sponsors v Broll vi Provide script spokesperson info contacts I ANR Audio News Releases ii ANR vs news release iii written for the ear iv more concise v more conversational vi more expensive to produce c Public service announcements i An unpaid announcement that promotes the programs of government or voluntary agencies or that serves the public interest ii Only nonprofit civic and voluntary organizations are eligible to use PSAs iii Corporate Advertising Even if the messages presented are in the public interest corporations have to purchase time or space for their ads d Product placements i Definition PR specialists arrange for selected items to appear on movies or TV shows ii Mutually beneficial for product and producers of TV shows or films iii PR practitioners should be alert to publicity opportunities on TV programs and movies e Issues placements i Definition Convincing popular TV programs to write an issue or a cause into their plotlines ii Variety of groups are involved Nonprofit organizations Specialinterest groups Government 39gtS quot Pharmaceutical companies f SMT i Definition Prebooked oneonone interviews via satellite from a fixed location with journalists or talk show hosts ii Dos and don ts of satellite media tours iii Do include relevant local angle iv Do have a visually appealing set v Do use a credible spokesperson vi Don39t make it similar to a commercial vii Don39t be dishonest about content g Podcasting h Blogs i Webcasting j Broll i Broll unedited video without narration ii k Speak method I Mockinterview m Media tour i 3 kinds of media tours 1 Most common is a trip called a junket 2 Familiarization trip quotfam trips 3 Widely used in hightechnology industries n Wikis some can be found in Chapter 16 What is a familiarization trip FAM trip a Are offered to travel writers and editors by the tourism industry Convention and visitor bureaus pay all expenses in the hope that the writers will report favorably on their experiences Know all materials that go into a VNR package Understand the differences between AN R VNR and print news release a ANR differs in 3 ways from online news releases i Most important difference is that a radio news release is written for the ear ii ANR is more concise and to the point iii Writing style online news release is more formal and uses standard English grammar and punctuation In a radio release a more conversational style is used What makes a good ANR or VNR a Provide a radio station with a recording of someone with a good radio voice reading the entire announcement This is called actuality VI VII VIII XI XII b Have an announcer and also include what is called a soundbite from a satisfied customer or a company spokesperson c What makes a good SMT What is important in writing and giving a speech What is important in preparing a news conference What is important in preparing a media interview Understand every aspect of media training p439 amp p 440 for 9th Edition a A valuable method in training executives to deal with media is a mock interview b Video taping for reviewing QampA sessions c Two parts of media training what to say amp how to say d Educate executives how news is produced and processed PSA definition Differences among PSA corporate advertising commercials Chapter 17 Corporate PR Corporate Social Responsibility areas of CSR a Beliefs attitudes and feelings towards a company gained through either direct or indirect experience information about the company39s past behavior and summary judgment about the company and its products Brown and Dacin 1997 Madrigal 2000 b Environmental Relations i Corporate Philanthropy ii Education Commitment iii Employeeinvolvement iv Public Health Commitments v Corporate sponsorship vi How Fortune companies use CSR recent trend Corporate Philanthropy has a number of benefits for the corporation Strengthened reputation Increased media opportunities a b c d e Improved community and government relations f Employee recruitment and retention g Enhanced marketing h Research and development i Increased profits Have a basic understanding of environmental relations employee relations investor relations etc Why corporate sponsorship has been popular i Corporate sponsorship Reasons why it39s been popular 1 0 Enhancing reputation through corporate associations 2 Product brands gain visibility 3 Focal point for marketingsales campaigns 4 Generating publicity and media coverage ii An important aspect of CSR is increased corporate concern for the environment and the maintenance of sustainable resources Simply making claims to an environmental conscience Greenwashing is NOT effective iii Another manifestation of CSR is corporate philanthropy which is the donation of funds products and services to various causes 1 Marketing communications Many companies use the tools and tactics of public relations to support the marketing and sales objectives of their business In many cases marketing public relations is coordinated with a company39s messages in advertising marketing direct mail and promotion Often called marcom in industryjargon
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