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Honors English Spring Study Guide 2012 By Robert Kang Literary Devices Simile A figure of speech that makes a comparison with using like or as Ex Fast as cheetah Metaphor A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things without using like or as Ex I am a bird I am a cheetah Personification A situation in which human characteristics are attributed to nonhuman things Ex The Sun wrapped her arms around me The painting speaks to me Imagery A word phrase or figure of speech that addresses the senses suggesting mental pictures of sights sounds smells tastes feelings or action Ex sweet mouthwatering oranges juicy oranges Repetition The duplication of words or phrases in order to stress significance Ex Cold cold winter Clean clean house Irony A statement that uses contradictory statements or situations to reveal a reality different from what appears to be true characterized by often poignant difference or incongruity between what is expected and what actually is stated Ex A firehouse burns down a police station is burglarized A fish drowns Diction A writer s choice of words phrases sentence structure in order to provide a particular tone or mood to the poem Tone The attitude of the author toward the reader or the subject matter of a literary work Mood The atmosphere or general feeling created in the reader by the work at a given point Rhetorical question An interrogative device that forces readers to reason and think rationally a question posed only for dramatic or persuasive effect a question to which the asker does not expect an answer Appeal to reason An author s attempt to force readers to think rationally often through deductive and inductive reasoning to convince them of hisher argument Appeal to emotion An author s attempt to pull on the heart strings of readers to convince them of his her arguments Hyperbole An extreme exaggeration Allusion Referring to another significant text historical figure or event to support the argument Point of view Someone s own personal opinion attitude perspective about something Syntax Arrangement of words in sentences clauses and phrases and the study of the relationship of their component parts Symbolism The use of symbols to represent something representation of a particular quality or idea Ex Esperanza s dream house Theme The main principal subject or idea of a book Ex the American Dream Antithesis J uxtapositionl structure of two countering idea using two parallel Ex And so my fellow Americans ask not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your country Onomatopoeia A term referring to the use of a word that resembles the sound it denotes Ex rattle sizzle boom quack crash Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources Oxymoron Two contradictory Words that are used together Ex sweet sorrow original copy bitter sweet moment Parallel Structure Two grammatical structures similar in form and function connected by a conjunction sometimes uses repetition to further emphasize the argument Not all parallel structures are repetition Testimonial Narration of a first or third person account to support the argument Bandwagon Attracting public support by unifying the audience Ad hominem Attacks the character of the person rather than the logic of their claims Ex If he has lied to his wife then he won t be a good candidate Speech Vocabularies l Ethos Refers to the character of the speaker Appeal to Authority Where it is argued that a statement is correct because the statement is made by a person or source that is commonly regarded as authoritative EX Abraham Lincoln 2 Pathos Refers to the emotional impact on the audience EX reaction Appeal to Emotion Potential fallacy which uses the manipulation of the recipient s emotions rather than valid logic to Win an argument Also this kind of thinking may be evident in one who lets emotions andor other subjective considerations in uence one39s reasoning process 3 Logos Refers to the structure of the argument Ex If A B then C Appeal to Logic A reasoned and reasonable judgment using a system of logic Characterization INDIRECT the way in which a writer states characters personalities in an unclear Way which can be inferred by their actions language etc Ex Tom says dominant race must watch out or these other races will have control of things p13 This indirectly characterizes Tom s racist perspective DIRECT the way in which a writer states characters personalities directly EX Now Tom was a sturdy strawhaired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner p7 Con ict INTERNAL based on character s own thoughts and feelings EXTERNAL based on the character s interaction and experience with others or the outside World Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources A Raisin in the Sun Poetry Harlem Wine by Countee Cullen This is not water running here These thick rebellious streams That hurtle esh and bone past fear Down alleyways of dreams This is a wine that must ow on Not caring how or where So it has ways to ow upon Where song is in the air So it can woo an artful ute With lose elastic lips Its measurement of joy compute With blithe ecstatic hips Harlem by Langston Hughes Note Written in 1951 during a time of frustration the poem re ects the struggles the African American community faced during segregation What happens to a dream deferred Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun Or fester like a sore And the nrun Does it stink like rotten meat Or crust and sugar oVer Like a syrupy sweet Maybe it just sags Like a heavy load Or does it explode Mother to Son by Langston Hughes Well son I ll tell you Life for me ain t been no crystal stair It s had tacks in it And splinters And boards torn up And places with no carpet on the oor Bare But all the time I se been a climbin on And reachin landin s And turnin comers And sometimes goin in the dark Where there ain t been no light So boy don t you tum back Don t you set down on the steps Cause you nds it s kinder hard Don t you fall now For I se still goin honey I se still climbin And life for me ain t been no crystal stair Sonny s Blues Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources Music Cited edited Music plays a central role in defining the characters and culture of Harlem in Sonny s Blues At a young age Sonny decides he wants to grow up to become a musician a decision that his brother did not accept till the end Sonny lists the great jazz musicians of his era Charlie Parker who had broken out of the traditional conventions of jazz to create a new freer form of musical expression The music relied on instinct rather than on rigid structures Sonny contrasts his music idols with those of the previous generation whose rigid classical form of musical expression is no longer valid For Sonny the world is an entirely different place from the one his older brother grew up in and consequently Sonny showed the new artistic forms to convey the reality The music that Sonny plays and loves is based less on a strict formal order than on a pure expression of the soul Bebop was a radical new form of jazz For musicians like Sonny the freedom of expression through bebop was an opportunity to live freely defy social conventions and norms and create something utterly original Important Quotes Citedl edited 1 Yet when he smiled when we shook hands the baby brother I d never known looked out from the depths of his private life like an animal waiting to be coaxed into the light The narrator notes this about Sonny when Sonny was released out of prison Both experiences the drugs and prison altered Sonny but he remains the same at heart The narrator notes that he never knew his baby brother well even though he can see traces of Sonny buried beneath the darkness of prison life and drug addiction Taking care of Sonny was a difficult responsibility and Sonny s brother tries to bring back Sonny to the light trying ultimately to be save Sonny While in prison Sonny lived like a caged animal trapped in the misery of his life He is physically free now but whether he is free of his addiction and sorrow is still unclear 2 All that hatred down there he said All that hatred and misery and love It s a wonder it doesn t blow the avenue apart Sonny following his release from prison makes this observation about the street outside the window He has just passed a religious revival being held on the street which promises salvation even though none will actually be granted Baldwin s story is as much about Harlem as it is about Sonny s life This observation captures perfectly the complicated nature of the community It is neither wholly terrible nor wholly wonderful but rather a mixture of love and hatred This mixture is what makes Harlem such a vibrant place but it also threatens to destroy Harlem and the people who live there Baldwin s concem with the particular streets in Harlem is evident throughout this story The avenue Sonny is referring to is most likely Lenox Avenue one of the most important streets in Harlem which Baldwin frequently wrote about 3 For while the tale of how we suffer and how we are delighted and how we may triumph is never new it always must be heard There isn t any other tale to tell it s the only light we ve got in all this darkness Near the middle of Sonny s performance at the end of the story the narrator makes this claim about the music s function The statement also holds true for Baldwin s writing Sonny s Blues is a story about suffering and triumph subjects that have been addressed countless times by other writers Baldwin believed that these were the only things worth writing about and throughout his prolific career he returned to the same themes again and again Each exploration was a chance at Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources redemption an opportunity to make meaning out of the cruelty and hardships in life Sonny is trying to do precisely that with his music just as Baldwin tried to do that with his stories and essays Art becomes the redeemer the means by which we can save our souls Sonny39s Blues Theme of Drugs and Alcohol Drugs are a central theme in quotSonny39s Bluesquot impacting both the users and those who love them Heroin destroys lives families and artistic talent On the other hand it also offers a momentary escape from the characters depressing and oppressive physical environments and serves as a coping mechanism to help them deal with the human suffering that surrounds them While Baldwin doesn39t judge the characters that use drugs he does present drug addiction as horrible gut wrenching and ultimately destructive force Sonny39s Blues Theme of Suffering The idea of suffering hovers inescapably over quotSonny39s Bluesquot Every character suffers in some way from grief from poverty from addiction from limited opportunities in life The constant presence of suffering wears the characters down and while some are resigned to it others continue to fight it even if they know they can never really escape it Suffering is expressed in multiple ways in this story through music through drug use on people39s faces through the ways they interact with each other and even through recurring nightmares Although suffering is more immediately present for some characters it39s a part of all of their lives Sonny39s Blues Theme of Family Family can make us crazy and angry they can love us and drive us away at the same time This is precisely what happens in quotSonny39s Bluesquot The two brothers in this story clearly love each other but they don39t understand each other and they don39t condone each other39s lives It39s precisely because they love each other so much that they have the power to really hurt each other But they also illustrate how strong the ties are that bind them because in the end they find their way back to each other and reaffirm how much they need each other It39s a hard road they travel to get to this point but they do get there Family operates on another level as well in the sense that some characters create their own family separate from the one they39re born into The narrator creates a family with his wife and children this is the more traditional family and Sonny creates a family with his fellow musicians Although the narrator doesn39t get this Sonny is able to surround himself with people who love the same things he loves But these same people this same family are also a negative in uence since some of them fuel Sonny39s drug problem Sonny39s Blues Theme of The Home The home is a physical place in quotSonny39s Bluesquot but it39s also an idea It39s a place to escape from a place to return to a place with both horrible and wonderful memories Home is comfort con ict grief suffering and caring all rolled into one Its residents are actual family and created family Home is literal but it39s also symbolic since in many ways home is simply the feeling that one belongs Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources ARaisin in the Sun A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Dreams Hopes and Plans In A Raisin in the Sun the Younger family is given an opportunity to actualize its various dreams hopes and plans when a 10000 check comes in the mail The play explores the complications inherent in turning dreams into reality In particular A Raisin in the Sun creates a situation where the Younger family is asked to put its dreams on hold in exchange for money setting up the play s central conflict A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Race A Raisin in the Sun depicts ordinary Americans who happen to be black and explores how the fact of their race inhibits them from accomplishing their dreams In other words A Raisin in the Sundemonstrates how race can complicate the American Dream For the most part however race is a latent backdrop in the play this enables Hansberry to craft a universally appealing tale and allows us to understand the precise influence of race in one family s life A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Pride Pride is portrayed in an extremely positive light in A Raisin in the Sun Since the play is depicting people who have little else to their name pride is a means for them to hold on to their dignity and affirm their worth as human beings When a neighborhood representative shows up and offers to buy out their house the family doesn t hesitate to kick him out The novel frames this decision as pride versus money and although money does win out for a little bit the Younger family maintains its pride in the end A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Family Family is portrayed in A Raisin in the Sun as an incredibly discrete unit that must project a certain image in the world Within the family relatives may quarrel nag and insult each other but when guests come over certain proprieties must be observed A Raisin in the Sunexplores these complex family dynamics Furthermore this theme intersects with Dreams Hopes and Plans as children in a family inspire dreams and keep them alive A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Poverty Socio economicay the Youngers are at the bottom of the ladder This notso great position affects Walter Younger the most While his wife and mother are reasonably accepting of their situation and Beneatha is more concerned with sociopolitical issues Walter has an obsession with money and views it as a transformative power Due to his poverty money has a particularly strong hold on Water s psyche A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Suffering The Younger family is cooped up inside a small apartment in the slums barely making ends meet with Walter Ruth and Lena all working menial jobs Throughout their sufferings they keep dreams and pride alive Their suffering makes it much harder to turn down Karl Lindner s offer to buy out their home Suffering imbues the play via the set design and the actors portrayals of their characters rather than being a blatant statement suffering is treated as a fact of the Younger family s life A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Dissatisfaction What will all the suffering and sacrifice going on it s not difficult to predict that the characters in A Raisin the Sun are for the most part dissatisfied This dissatisfaction affects Walter Younger the Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources most however because it prompts him to undertake foolhardy actions The rest of his family in contrast has learned to deal with their dissatisfactions in a more controlled manner A Raisin in the Sun Theme of The Home A Raisin in the Sun takes places entirely in the Younger family s cramped apartment Although it s technically their home Mama dreams of shifting their home to a bigger house because she believes owning their own larger space will create a better home A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Gender Notions of masculinity and femininity are woven throughout the play Walter in particular feels his socio economic situation much more strongly given that he s supposed to be the quotmanquot of the family He uses manhood as an argument for why his wife should support him why his mother should give him money and why he needs a better career The play also represents various women the traditional Mama the supportive Ruth and the progressive Beneatha who are alternately praised or demeaned for their adherence or disobedience to traditional feminine standards A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Choices Individuals in A Raisin in the Sun frequently assert their right to make choices without consulting other family members Ruth decides to put a down payment on the abortion of unborn new child without telling anyone Lena decides to spend 3500 on a house for her family in a white neighborhood also without consulting anyone Walter decides to invest in a liquor store over the objections of his family and Beneatha faces a choice between marrying for financial stability or marrying for sociopolitical reasons All of these choices ultimately follow a money versus principe paradigm which culminates in the play s final scene where principle wins A Raisin in the Sun Theme of Sacrifice In A Raisin in the Sun incredible sacrifices are made for the benefit of the family Some family members are more willing to shoulder sacrifice than others however which leads to conflict Accepting sacrifice for the benefit of the family is a recurring theme throughout the play culminating in its final scene The Value and Purpose of Dreams A Raisin in the Sun is essentially about dreams as the main characters struggle to deal with the oppressive circumstances that rule their lives The title of the play references a conjecture that Langston Hughes famously posed in a poem he wrote about dreams that were forgotten or put off He wonders whether those dreams shrivel up like a raisin in the sun Every member of the Younger family has a separate individual dream Beneatha wants to become a doctor for example and Walter wants to have money so that he can afford things for his family The Youngers struggle to attain these dreams throughout the play and much of their happiness and depression is directly related to their attainment of or failure to attain these dreams By the end of the play they learn that the dream of a house is the most important dream because it unites the family The Need to Fight Racial Discrimination The character of Mr Lindner makes the theme of racial discrimination prominent in the plot as an issue that the Youngers cannot avoid The governing body of the Youngers new neighborhood the Clybourne Park Improvement Association sends Mr Lindner to persuade them not to move into the allwhite Clybourne Park neighborhood Mr Lindner and the people he represents can only see the color of the Younger family s skin and his offer to bribe the Youngers to keep them from moving threatens to tear apart the Younger family and the values for which it stands Ultimately the Youngers respond to this discrimination with defiance and strength The play powerfully demonstrates that the way to deal with discrimination is to stand up to it and reassert one s dignity in the face of it rather than allow it to pass unchecked Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources The Importance of Family The Youngers struggle socially and economically throughout the play but unite in the end to realize their dream of buying a house Mama strongly believes in the importance of family and she tries to teach this value to her family as she struggles to keep them together and functioning Walter and Beneatha learn this lesson about family at the end of the play when Walter must deal with the loss of the stolen insurance money and Beneatha denies Walter as a brother Even facing such trauma they come together to reject Mr Lindner s racist overtures They are still strong individuals but they are now individuals who function as part of a family When they begin to put the family and the family s wishes before their own they merge their individual dreams with the family s overarching dream Motifs Motifs are recurring structures contrasts and literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text s major themes The Home The Younger apartment is the only setting throughout the play emphasizing the centrality of the home The lighting seems to change with the mood and with only one window the apartment is a small often dark area in which all the Youngers at one time or another fee cramped While some of the play s action occurs outside of the apartment the audience sees this action play out in the household Most of what happens outside of the apartment includes Travis s playing out in the street with the rat and Water s drinking and delinquency from work The home is a galvanizing force for the family one that Mama sees as crucial to the family s unity The audience sees characters outside the famiy Joseph Asagai George Murchison Mrs Johnson Mr Lindner and Bobo only when they visit the apartment These characters become real through their interactions with the Youngers and the Youngers reactions to them The play ends fittingly when Mama lagging behind finally leaves the apartment Symbols Symbols are objects characters figures and colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts Eat Your Eggs This phrase appears early in the play as an instruction from Ruth to Walter to quiet him Walter then employs the phrase to illustrate how women keep men from achieving their goas every time a man gets excited about something he claims a woman tries to temper his enthusiasm by telling him to eat his eggs Being quiet and eating one s eggs represents an acceptance of the adversity that Walter and the rest of the Youngers face in life Walter believes that Ruth who is making his eggs keeps him from achieving his dream and he argues that she should be more supportive of him The eggs she makes every day symbolize her mechanical approach to supporting him She provides him with nourishment but always in the same predictable way Mama s Plant The most overt symbol in the play Mama s plant represents both Mama s care and her dream for her family In her first appearance onstage she moves directly toward the plant to take care of it She confesses that the plant never gets enough light or water but she takes pride in how it nevertheless flourishes under her care Her care for her plant is similar to her care for her children unconditional and unending despite a lessthanperfect environment for growth The plant also symbolizes her dream to own a house and more specifically to have a garden and a yard With her plant she practices her gardening skills Her success with the plant helps her believe that she would be successful as a gardener Her persistence and dedication to the plant fosters her hope that her dream may come true Beneatha s Hair When the play begins Beneatha has straightened hair Midway through the play after Asagai visits her and questions her hairstyle she cuts her Caucasianseeming hair Her new radical afro represents her embracing of her heritage Beneatha s cutting of her hair is a very powerful social statement as she symbolically declares that natural is beautiful prefiguring the 1960s cultural credo that black is beautiful Rather than force her hair to conform to the style society dictates Beneatha opts for a style that enables her to more easily reconcile her identity and her culture Beneatha s new hair is a symbol of her antiassimilationist beliefs as well as her desire to shape her identity by looking back to her roots in Africa Important Quotations Explained Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources 1 MAMA Oh So now it39s life Money is life Once upon a time freedom used to be ife now it39s money I guess the world really do change WALTER No it was always money Mama We just didn39t know about it MAMA No something has changed You something new boy In my time we was worried about not being lynched You ain39t satisfied or proud of nothing we done I mean that you had a home that we kept you out of trouble till you was grown that you don39t have to ride to work on the back of nobody39s streetcar You my children but how different we done become Explanation for Quotation 1 gtgt This exchange occurs in Act I scene ii when Mama asks Walter why he always talks about money Walter responds that money is ifequot explaining to her that success is now defined by how much money one has This conversation takes place early in the play and reveals Mama39s and Walter39s economic struggles These lines demonstrate the ideological differences between their generations Throughout the play Mama39s views are at odds with Walter39s and Beneatha39s views For Walter money seems to be the answer to everything Money he believes allows people to live comfortable and carefree lives It also seems to define a man by measuring his success and ability to provide for his family For Walter who feels enslaved in his job and life money is the truest freedom Throughout A Raisin in the Sun characters connect money to discussions of race Mama says Once upon a time freedom used to be ife now it39s money I guess the world really do change Walter grew up being freequot in the way that Mama means but he faced other problems such as the lack of financial and social freedom that he talks about here Walter believes that freedom is not enough and that while civil rights are a large step for blacks in the real world for the Youngers the South Side of Chicago in the 1940s and 1950s bIacks are still treated differently and more harshly than whites Mr Lindner who later comes to persuade the Youngers not to move into his a white neighborhood embodies one example of this racist treatment Mrs Johnson later speaks of reading about the bombing of a black family39s house in the colored paper and complains that the racist white people who were responsible for the bombing make her feel like times have not changed as if they still live in turbulent Mississippi a hotbed of racism during the mid twentieth century Close 2 WALTER You wouldn39t understand yet son but your daddy39s gonna make a transaction a business transaction that39s going to change our lives That39s how come one day when you bout seventeen years old I39ll come home I39ll pull the car up on the driveway just a plain black Chrysler I think with white was no back tires the gardener will be clipping away at the hedges and he39ll say Good evening Mr Youngerquot And I39ll say Hello Jefferson how are you this evening And I39ll go inside and Ruth will come downstairs and meet me at the door and we39ll kiss each other and she39ll take my arm and we39ll go up to your room to see you sitting on the floor with the catalogues of all the great schools in America around you All the great schools in the world And and I39ll say all right son it39s your seventeenth birthday what is it you39ve decided Just tell me what it is you want to be and you39ll be it Whatever you want to be Yessir You just name it son and I hand you the world Explanation for Quotation 2 gtgt This speech from Act II scene ii which Walter delivers to Travis as he tucks him in bed closes an important scene and foreshadows the climax of the play Walter explains to Travis and to the audience that he will move quickly to invest the money that Mama has just given him part of it meant for Beneatha39s future schooling costs Walter seems to be rehashing conversations he might have heard while he was working as a chauffer to rich people That he envisions having a gardener makes it seem that Walter wants to live a life that he has seen others enjoy and be like the people he has serviced He explains his dream of the future in detail as if it were being presented before his eyes He paints the future vividly even describing what sort of tires his cars will have and how busy his day will be with important matters He never speaks in the conditional mood which entails words such as ifquot and would3939 and Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources suggests uncertainty but in the future tense using the word will throughout This use of the future tense makes his dream appear to be something that will inevitably come true Yet Walter39s dream is not entirely materialistic He envisions a better relationship with his wife Ruth in which they kiss and hold hands a far cry from the relationship they have now He also explains to Travis that he will have his choice among all the best colleges and that they will have enough money to send him to whichever one he chooses At heart Walter wants to provide for his family and reduce their cares Close 3 ASAGAI Then isn t there something wrong in a house in a world where all dreams good or bad must depend on the death of a man BENEATHA AND YOU CANNOT ANSWER IT ASAGAI I LIVE THE ANSWER Explanation for Quotation 3 gtgt This exchange occurs near the end of the play in Act III as Asagai and Beneatha fight after Bobo comes to tell the Youngers that the money Walter has invested is gone Beneatha is terribly depressed and cynical knowing now that the money for her future education is also gone and that her future and her dreams are likely ruined Asagai gets her more angry by arguing that her dream and her means for achieving it are inextricably bound up in the death of her father and Walter39s financial savvy While Beneatha considers herself to be independent Asagai argues that she has been anything but Asagai goes on to describe his dream he wishes to return to Nigeria bring back what he has learned and share it with the people of his homeland so to improve their lives In other words Asagai believes in bringing modern advancements from Western society back to Africa to improve the quality of life there He is optimistic about his dream while understanding the difficulties that lie ahead This exchange also allows Asagai to ask Beneatha to marry him and return to Africa with him in a few years He will teach and lead the people he says and she can practice medicine and help take care of people While Beneatha hesitates a bit when she says that she will consider going with him it seems she will undoubtedly take him up on his offer Asagai and his dream enable Beneatha to discover a new energy and shape a new dream for herself Close 4 MAMA There is always something left to love And if you ain39t learned that you ain39t learned nothing Explanation for Quotation 4 gtgt Mama makes this comment to Beneatha in Act III near the end of the play as Beneatha expresses her disappointment in Walter for losing the money in the liquor store venture and also for apparently having decided to give in to Mr Lindner Mama tells Beneatha that Walter needs her to be supportive She also says that instead of constantly crying about herself Beneatha should cry for Walter and everything that he has been through and try to understand how hard he has been trying to make everything better for his family One can argue that Mama speaks these words not only to Beneatha but also to the audience Along the lines of this interpretation she seems to be saying that if the audience hasn39t learned to love then it hasn39t learned anything yet from the play Since the audience when A Raisin in the Sun premiered in 1959 would have been entirely or almost entirely white we can see Mama as a power ful voice for social change Close Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources 5 WALTER We have decided to move into our house because my father my father he earned it for us brick by brick We don t want to make no trouble for nobody or fight no causes and we will try to be good neighbors And that s all we got to say about that We don t want your money Explanation for Quotation 5 gtgt Walter delivers these words to Mr Lindner in Act III after learning that his investment in the liquor store has been stolen The other family members strongly disagree with Water s decision to accept Mr Lindner s buyout but Walter standing firm decides that he will take control of the situation Water s refusal here comes as something of a surprise since it requires him to shift his priorities Whereas earlier his desire for money trumps others needs he now focuses all of his energy on family Walter has finally stood up to his worries has overcome his obsession with money and his equating of money with success and has decided to stand by his family We are told by the stage directions that Mama nods eyes closed as if she were hearing a great sermon in church Beneatha and Ruth are finally proud of Walter and everyone believes that Walter now has finally become a man The Youngers will no longer defer their dreams Instead they will face the future as Walter does Mr Lindner directy and strongly without blinking Close Disclaimer some are adopted from internet sources
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