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Chapter 14 - Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases

by: kpatt29

Chapter 14 - Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chem 122

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Chemistry > Chem 122 > Chapter 14 Aqueous Equilibria Acids and Bases
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These notes cover all of chapter 14 along with practice problems.
General Chemistry II
Dr. Shaina Mattingly
General Chemistry
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by kpatt29 on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chem 122 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Shaina Mattingly in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Chapter 14 — Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases 1 I. Arrhenius Definition: A. Arrhenius acid — dissociates in water to give hydrogen ions (H ) B. Arrhenius base — dissociates in water to give hydroxide ions (OH ) Arrhenius definition does not account for basicity of NH or other bases without OH and C. only accounts for aqueous solutions II.Brønsted-Lowry Defintion: A. Brønsted-Lowry acid — anything that can donate a hydrogen ion (H ) 1. CH COOH, H SO , HCl 3 2 4 + B. Brønsted-Lowry bas— — anything that can accept a hydrogen ion (H ) 1. NH 3 CH C3O , HSO , SO4, H 4— — C. H is very reactive (3 O ) is the hydronium ion III.trong acids: (fully dissociate) A. HCl — hydrochloric acid B. HBr — hydrobromic acid C. HI — hydroiodic acid D. HNO —3nitric acid H SO — sulfuric acid E. 2 4 F. HClO 3 chloric acid G. HClO 4 perchloric acid H. Ka= equilibrium constant of acids 1. when using, do NOT include water! IV.strong bases: (metal hydroxides) A. all metal hydroxides: 1. Group 1A — LiOH, NaOH, KOH … 2. Group 2A — Mg(OH) , Sr(OH) , Ca(OH) … 2 2 2 V. Brønsted-Lowry Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs A. products of a weak Brønsted-Lowry acid base reaction are also acids and bases 1. a 2. a HA+ B BH +A aH donor H acceptor H donor H acceptor 3. acid base acid base 4. a 5. a 6. a 7. conjugate acid-base pairs B. amphoter—c — spec—es that2—an ac—ept OR —onate a proton 1. HCO ,3H PO2, H4O , HSO4 4 , HSO 3 VI.Acid and Base Strength: A. strength of conjugate acid-base pairs affect the direction of reaction to reach equilibrium B. transfer of a proton will occur from the stronger acid to the stronger base C. stronger A + stronger B weaker CA + weaker CB 1. equilibrium reaction will favor the side that has the weaker acid VII.ater is amphoteric equilibrium constant for water is called the ion-product constant for water: A. + — 1. K w [H O3][OH ] VIII.actors that affect acid strength A. strength of binary acids: 1. increasing strength as you move down the periodic table 2. determined by the ability to release a proton from HA t2 H O 3. increasing size, increasing bond length Chapter 14 — Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases 2 B. strength of oxyacids 1. stronger the pull on the O—H bond, the weaker the bond 2. the weaker the O—H bond, the stronger the acid 3. the more oxygen atoms on the acid, the stronger the acid IX.pH scale A. H 2 + H 2 H 3 + + OH — base acid acid base + — —14 B. K = K = [H 3 ][OH ] = 1.0 x 10 @ 25 °C 1. [H 3 ] > [OH ] acidic 2. [H 3 ] = [OH ] neutral 3. [H O ] < [OH ] basic 3 C. pH — measure of the strength of an acid, the lower the pH, the stronger the acid 1. pH = —log[H ]+ 2. [H ] = 10 3. pH < 7, acidic 4. pH = 7, neutral 5. pH > 7, basic D. pOH — measure of the strength of a base 1. pOH = —log[OH ] — — 2. [OH ] = 10 E. pH + pOH = 14 F. shortcut: 1. apply shortcut if aK x 100) < (initial [HA]) a 2. pK a —lo—pK ) 3. K a 10 G. as Kaincreases, so does strength H. as pKa decreases, strength increases X. acid-base properties of salts A. neutral: 1. anions from a strong monoprotic acid (Cl , Br , I , NO— , ClO , ClO ) 2. cations from a strong base (Li , Na , K , Ca , Ba+2) 3 4 3 B. basic: 1. conjugate bases of weak acids C. acidic: 1. conjugate acids of weak bases 2. ammonium and cations from ammonium salts D. amphiprotic 1. if Ka< K bASIC 2. if Ka> K bCIDIC XI.Lewis Acids and Bases A. acid — electron pair acceptor 1. metal ions, boron compounds, at least one empty orbital B. base — electron pair donor 1. often nitrogen and oxygen containing compounds


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