Week 2 AND 3 Class Notes
Week 2 AND 3 Class Notes HIST 145
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Tiara Notetaker on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HIST 145 at Towson University taught by Dr. Andrew Diemer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see HIST 145 - HIST OF U.S. TO THE CIVIL WAR in History at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Eng England or English w with est established Euro Europe or bc because note important Europeans gt leads to NS NorthSouth Weeks 2 and 3 Week 2 Class Notes Classes 98 910 gt 98 Captivity Narratives Background The captivity narratives we discussed in class were written by Europeans who were taken by Natives All three whether they escaped or were released wrote of their experiences Narratives Going to the Source 1 Alvar Nu ez Cabeza de Vaca 1542 p 33 2 Father Isaac Jogues 81 1647 p 36 3 Mary Rowlandson 1682 p 39 Discussion Questions 0 What can we learn from this document Think factual information 0 What are the dangers of this document Think bias point of View what is misleading 0 What can we learn by comparing these three documents What are their similarities What are their differences gt 910 The Witches of New England 0 1692 Salem Village MA accused older women of being witches They acted out pretended to be under their spell gt 99 prosecuted 16 executed 0 Witchcraft was prevalent in Eng but had died out by then Main Question Why does this occur in Salem Puritans and Fear of Decline Wanted to keep the church pure gt Rigorous system of becoming a member to ensure the seriousness of the believer gt Fewer and fewer full members Puritans are scared they are becoming more like the church of England Catholic Church w less serious membership Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson Make criticisms of Puritan church Persecuted leave to Rhode Island gt Puritans afraid of who else is rejecting opposing Puritan theology Commerce Many fishermen aren t Puritan in Boston Puritans scared that the religious character of their colony is being lost English Monarchs 1 Henry VIII Protestant 3 Elizabeth I Protestant 2 Mary Catholic 4 James I Catholic 5 Charles I Catholic marries a Catholic Parliament Puritans vs Anglicans majority Protestant Parliament vs King who holds the power gt English Civil War English Civil War Charles 1 Catholic also King of Scotland Scotland rebels Protestant eventually starts Presbyterian church King needs money from Parliament to control Scotland Parliament gives him a list of grievances to fulfil King declines but really needs their money gt Long Parliament King tries to arrest members gt King raises and army vs Parliament s army gt King captured arrested for treason executed by Parliament Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell rules instead of a King Son Richard doesn t lead well Charles 11 Son of Charles I who had ed to France gets called back by Parliament to be King Son James II Grew up in France Builds an army More Catholic than his father Daughter Mary Older than James Protestant Married to William Installed by Parliament to be King and Queen removes James II Fun fact College of William and Mary named after them See httpwwwbritanniacomhistoryh6fhtml if you are confused about the order of British Monarchs I was Glorious Revolution 1688 Parliament overthrows James II and replaces him with William of Orange King William s War New Eng Indians current day Maine fight w Fr against New Eng Conclusion Answer All of these reasons contribute to why the scare in Salem occurred Tensions were already high from i Membership decline in the Puritan church ii Rebels like Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson iii Commerce that broke up the Puritans only environment iv Looooooooong drawn out con ict between the monarchs and Parliament So why not accuse people of being witches Just add it to the list Week 3 Class Notes Classes 915 917 gt 915 Slavery and Servitude Main Question How did the shift between servants to slaves occur 0 Indentured Servants Englishmen working to pay back their fee for transportation to the New World English criminals Given land at end of servitude period Chance to acquire land in Eng is very slim bc it is limited gt Worth the risk of dying before labor period is over Eng rich purchased indentured servants because their life expectancy was low so it was cheaper than paying for a life long slave that would die in a few years As the life expectancy grew longer gt investing in life long slaves Eng control in slave trade gt investing in slaves Servants outliving their pay period gt gaining land gt land shortages Tobacco Eng raised taxes Navigation Acts colonists had to sell to other countires through Eng Over supply gt lower costs gt harder to make a profit Exindentured servants claimed land west gt fights w Indians Rich planters were in charge of the government Indian wars w exindentured servants messing up their kind trade relations Indian wars gt great expenses Rich planters hoping the exindentured servants will lose and come back to work for them so they don t assist in the wars Nathaniel Bacon Leads poor exindentured servants in a full out war against Indians Burns much of Jamestown capital gt Governor Berkeley ees Berkeley sends for help 1000 soldiers arrive Bacon is already dead exindentured servants farms confiscated 23 rebels executed gt Bacon s rebellion failed Dangers of Indian Servitude Many are Eng and desire their rights In need of land gt African slaves because they will never be free so they won t need land or a say in government Class Reading Excerpts of the Laws of Colonial Virginia 1 All people have to have weapons except for Africans or they will be fined Question Why are they required to have weapons Question Can Africans still have weapons It didn t say they couldn t 2 Any child born will take on the status of the mother To prevent Africans from having free children In Eng it s the father that controls the status of a child property name royal throne Indicates that this happened often 3 Baptizing a slave does not make them free To prevent slaves from taking this easy escape route Keeps Africans lower than Europeans even if they are both Christian color is beginning to matter 0 Race is a social construct Beliefs can change We have made choices to divide people into groups religion nationality race Race here is determined by those who wrote the laws Economy is their incentive Race did not start this it was an end result They did not go looking to treat people differently but in order to keep them as slaves and under their control they now have to be treated differently and color is a status that won t change so they based all of their laws off of it Conclusion Answer The shift between indentured servitude and African slavery took place because Demographic reason As life expectancy increased it was more profitable to purchase life long slaves when life expectancy was low it was more profitable to by indentured servants b Economic reason England became involved with the slave trade which promoted the purchasing of them c Social reason Decreasing the freedom of slaves increased the freedom and status of indentured and exindentured servants Political reason Indentured servants desired to have normal rights which led to rebellions As they expanded west they fought with Indians which led to wars Replacing them with slaves erases those problems because they would not need their own say in government or their own land 9 9 gt 917 Slaves and Pirates in the Atlantic World Main Question Who is in control of the Atlantic 0 Atlantic Slave Trade The Middle Passage 14 million purchased in Africa to be sent to N S and Central America 2 million died before ever boarding a slave ship 2 million died on the slave ships 15 million died within the first year of labor The dead were thrown over board gt sharks following the ship gt throwing those who protesting overboard to the sharks 0 Elmina famous Euro port in Africa 0 Majority of slaves sent to Central and S America Climate fertile soil more profit However living conditions gt high death rates Slaves reproduced and repopulated better in N America African coastal governments becoming rich and powerful for selling their slaves But they didn t have ships etc so Europeans controlled the Atlantic The need for Navies To protect slave trade To protect goods being transported to sell Pirates Not government sponsored like privateers Life on a British ship gt Pirates Mutiny against captains take control of their ship and other crew If a ship was captured by pirates they were given the chance to join or be killed Pirate life was democratic authority in uenced by crew not by royal throne Pirates shared the wealth instead of a captain being paid more One ship many nationalities Blackbeard theatrical exaggerated to scare the ships he captured 1739 Stono Rebellion Majority of S Carolina s population slaves Many slaves in Charleston had come from Congo Catholic spoke Portuguese Spanish colony in FL persuades them to help fight against Eng Sept 10 Catholics celebrate the virgin Mary s birth Day 20 slaves meet near Stono river burn plantations pick up other slaves as they go Colonists rally and crush the rebellion The Spanish aren t antislavery but they saw this as an opportunity to use Africans against Eng 1741 New York Burning Had more slaves than every other colony except Charlestonquot Series of suspicious fires One witness sees a black man eeing from the scene Many slaves spoke Spanish and were Catholic believed to be working for the Spanish gt 100 slaves put on trial gt 17 hung 13 burned 70 banished Repeat of the witch hunts Conclusion Answer Not one single European nation controlled the Atlantic gt the need for Navies gt Pirates rebelling against Navies for control of the ocean
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