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Chapter 1- Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 1- Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology PSYC379

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC379 > Chapter 1 Understanding Cross Cultural Psychology
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology
Eric B Shiraev

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About this Document

Notes from Wednesday (9/9) and Monday (9/14)
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology
Eric B Shiraev
75 ?




Popular in Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC379 at George Mason University taught by Eric B Shiraev in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Organization name Student name acastil7amuedu U l l a ll ll l l 2 l 7 Km 39 p flquot U l w U My lt FT to lquot W 99 Mom lt FT to lt lira L L l 7 x E 99 Ef Cm a Cl 131 l l Patterns of uncertainty orientation Be on schedule plan calculate and predict improvise take it easy assume and beHeve Wealth yet risk scarcity yet security Traditional culture ie Muslim women covering themselves Traditional and nontraditional cultures can interact Nontraditional culture Examining cultures Thomas Talhelm the most crucial cultural difference is agricultural West s staple is wheat East s is rice The East is more collectivist than the West the West is more individualist than the East vertical collectivism power subordination achievement collectivism and individualism can be studied in vertical social structures such as formal contacts bt a supervisor and an employee a religious authority and a believer social hierarchy horizontal collectivism relationships harmony equality collectivism and individualism can also be studied in horizontal social structures including love partnership friendship family communications etc collectivism and individualism can be studied on the level of socalled strong ties family members and close friends and also on the level of weak ties strangers and casual acquaintances cultures measured high on embeddedness regard the family or extended ingroups as the key social unit focus on the welfare of the ingroup and limit concern for outsiders this means that the more embedded a culture is the less people in this culture care for or help strangers uncertainty orientation common ways in which people handle uncertainty in their daily situations and lives in general eg punctuality uncertainty avoidance degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity power distance extent to which the members of a society accept that power in social institutions and organizations is distributed unequally traditional culture term used to describe cultures based largely on beliefs rules symbols and principles established predominantly in the past confined in local or regional boundaries restricting mostly intolerant to social innovations traditionalism is an evolving concept norms of appropriate and inappropriate behavior are fluid nontraditional modern culture term used to describe cultures based largely on modern beliefs rules symbols and principles relatively open to other cultures e marriages bodypainted absorbing and dynamic bikers in San Francisco sciencebased and technologydriven relatively tolerant to social innovations the people of different cultures have different views on the relations bt God and people the individual and the group the citizen and the state parents and children husband and wife rights and responsibilities liberty and authority equality and hierarchy race large group of people distinguished by certain similar and genetically transmitted physical characteristics ethnicity cultural heritage shared by a category of people who also share a common ancestral origin language and religion nation large group of people who constitute a legitimate independent state How do race ethnicity and and share a common geographical origin history and frequently language nationality affect you as a the terms state country and nation are often used interchangeably person In most cases however we prefer to speak about states because how do you see the term nation has several meanings We may think of nation as a yourself legal term or as a collective identity how do others see A case in point ethnicity in Middle East and Asia you most Arabs and Jews belong to the same Semitic group how do you Turkic groups in the Stan s respond Persian groups mostly in Iraq and Iran Where are you religious affiliation indicates an individual s acceptance of knowledge from beliefs and practices related to a particular faith Europe North amp South America are predominantly Christian Almost 23 of Muslims live in Asia Since the beginning of polling 80 years ago abut 90 of Americans report that they believe in God However the strength of their beliefs vanes About 1 billion people on earth don t affliate themselves with a What are some of the religion beliefs of Hinduism Hinduism has about 1 billion followers roots are found in texts and ritual hymns called Vedas dated Notable Hindu gods Brahma 1500 BCE and earlier and further developed in the oral Vishnu Shiva Ganesha and teachings or Upanishads fundamental and sacred text of Krishna Hinduism dharma ultimate law or universal order governing objects and people karma universal rules of cause and effect Singapore has the highest multiple gods both male and female in various forms religious diversity benevolent and malevolent rule the universe Hindus cherishes the belief that all living creatures undergo a cycle of rebirth and their souls transmigrate from one body to another Hindus pay extraordinary attention to the search for the meaning of the individual psychological experience Buddhism has about 400 million followers primarily SE Asia originates in India and has its roots in Hinduism based on belief that although life is full of suffering liberation from suffering is possible It occurs when people accept the right point of view of the world and start practicing their beliefs founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama followers regard him as the Supreme Buddha or the enlightened one Buddhism rejects hedonism and asceticism by offering the third way of moderation Like Hinduism Buddhism has profound interest in human mental activities especially consciousness lslam has about 157 billion followers Sunni 84 Shia 14 origins in Arabian Peninsula based on Koran book of divine guidance God Allah revealed guidance through the angel Gabriel to the prophet Muhammad in years 610 AD through 632 AD sayings of Muhammad are known as the Hadith and considered second in importance to the Koran as the main source of the Sharia which is Islamic law Sunnah contains lslamic customs and stories about Muhammad s life The Koran the Hadith and the Sunnah are the most authoritative sources of knowledge for Muslims about how to think and act Spiritual and political battles divided lslam into Shia and Sunny Christianity largest groups Catholics Protestants Orthodox Mormon etc At the beginning of the first millennium Christianity was spreading beyond its original birthplace near Jerusalem Written Gospels about the life of Jesus and his teachings known as New Testament circulated widely around the Mediterranean Early in 3rd century New Testament was translated from Greek to Latin thus allowing Christianity to find millions of new followers 4th century Christianity became Rome s official religion and later an integral part of European culture most significant change that affected Christian Europe was the Reformation which as a spiritual movement essentially challenged the monopoly of the Catholic Church in all spheres of life religious faith was becoming increasingly a matter of individual conscience contributed to fundamental belief in the possibility of individual freedom and basic human rights choice and privacy Atheism denies existence of God France is one of the most secular countries in the world China and Japan have almost 50 of their people who are atheist there are levels or dimensions of religiosity which involves believing emotionally bonding with knowledge behaving and belonging Semantic analysis of religions across the world shows that they underline similar basic features including justice humanity wisdom temperance and call for selfimprovement four types of knowledge in psychology scientific knowledge type of knowledge accumulated as a result of scientific research on a wide range of psychological phenomena popular beliefs everyday assumptions ranging from commonly held beliefs to individual opinions about psychological phenomena ideological valuebased knowledge a stable set of beliefs about the world the nature of good and evil right and wrong and the purpose of human lif all based on a certain organizing principal or central idea legal knowledge type of knowledge encapsulated in the law and detailed in official rules and principles related to psychological functioning of individuals


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