Test 1 Notes!
Popular in Social Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SOP3004 at Florida State University taught by Christopher Beck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
Reviews for Test 1 Notes!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/17/15
8252015 Social Psychology is the scienti c study of how people think about in uence and relate to one another 0 Broadly de ned as the study of how people think feel and act 0 People can help you or make you doubt yourself or insert their opinion into your situation Issues can be evaluated in each eld of psychology Sociology Neuroscience Clinical Cognitive Developmental OOOOOO Personality The Power of the Situation changes in situation have an in uence on who you are and how you act 0 Stanford Prison Experiment 0 Milgram Experiment 0 Cinderella Social Psychology usually includes the interaction between the person and the situation which leads to observable behaviors 8272015 Before social psychology these elds were common developed after WW2 O Behaviorism o Psychoanalysis Common Themes 0 Power of situation I Our situations determine our possibilities Advantages and disadvantages It also determines limitations 0 Biological Roots I We are evolved and cultural the environment we evolved to thrive in a different environment Before civilization 0 ie fear of spiderssnakes cravings for calorie dense food aggression 0 We construct our reality I We view it through our own lens with our own beliefs 0 We have duplex minds that enable intuitions I Unconscious and conscious behaviors I Automatic and nonconscious vs controlled and conscious We are unaware of these but they can dictate our behavior We are not able to consciously concentrate on everything We unconsciously listen to the conversations around us and we will respond to certain ques 0 ie someone at a party says your name and you heard even though you didn39t hear the rest of the conversation o Sel sh impulse VS Social conscience I Nature says Go Culture says Stop 0 We want to maximize gain 0 We may want to do something but do not because of social norms I Competing internal and external drives 0 Prevents us from maximizing our own gain because we pay attention to cultural social norms Contemporary Themes 0 Focus on Self I Selfesteem Do we believe we have value I Selfcontrol Do we have will power 0 becomes harder throughout the day some things drain it I Selfawareness Knowledge of your own character feelings motives and desires I Selfpresentation How we present ourselves to others in different situations Affected by who we are around and why 0 Focus on Con ict Social interaction I Prejudice and stereotyping 0 Gender issues 0 Racial issuesafter 911 antiarab feelings became stronger I Group Dynamics social loafing 0 Sometimes the presence of others will make you do better or worse What do Social Psychologists do 0 The goal is to have a broad understanding of how human beings think act and feel 0 Focus on the normal daytoday behavior 0 ABC Triad I Affect how people feel ie angry I Behavior what people do ie drive aggressively I Cognition what people think ie think others are out to get you 0 Use the Scientific Method I Empirical questions can be answered through systematic observation and experimentation This is the best way to access reality Hindsight bias it39s easier to justify something after you ve heard it Social psych commonly talked about on average behaviorsresults A Common sense doesn t always work Scientists should aim to be objective seekers of knowledge No bias 0 It39s important to understand research methods 0 If your bias you could stack the odds in the favor of your eXpected outcome Study Social psych with O Correlational Research I Understand how variables are associated with one another 0 Ask participants how often they have done a specific thing and how they feel 0 Compare relationships 0 Correlation coefficients 0 l to l 0 Strength is strongest when closest to l or 1 0 As you approach 0 it39s weaker 0 Correlation does not prove causation 0 Experimental Research I 2 Key features 0 Control Manipulation of independent variable everything else must be held constant 0 Random Assignment Equal chance of any participant being in any group Must be a representative sample of participants I Operational de nitions are important 0 What does it meanhow do we measure the variable I Validity How close it measures what we are trying to test I Reliability Consistency in results 0 Across items 0 Across time I Reliability is necessary for validity it can t be valid if it39s not reliable Something can be reliable and not valid though I Interpreting results 0 Main effect When an IV has an effect of similar magnitude and direction across other levels of the independent variable 0 Interaction When the effect of one IV on the DV depended on the value or level of the other IV 912015 The Self Concept 0 Who are you o A Lot of who we are has to do with other people I Group membership 0 Our culture has a lot to do with who we are as well I Independent I Interdependent 0 We spend a lot of time thinking about ourselves 0 Spotlight effect We think that others are paying a lot of attention to us 0 Illusion of transparency we think that others can read us SelfAwareness 0 Attention directed at self I private and public 0 Helps motivate us if goals are possible 0 If there are large discrepancies between who we are and who we want to be it feels bad and we try to escape it o Are we ever fully selfaware o Recency effect we tend to prefer the last thing they ve seen A Different Types of SelfGuides 0 Actual self the person you are right now 0 Self Guides Possible selves I Ideal self The self it is your goal to be I Ought self The self it is your duty to be I Feared self The self you fear becoming o SelfDiscrepancy Theory our view of ourselves includes how well our actual self matches our self guide I Discrepancy a mismatch between our actual self and a self guide I Discrepancies motivates change and results in emotion I Self discrepancy theory people39s specific emotional reaction to a discrepancy depends which self guide they do not meet 0 ActualIdeal Sad o ActualOught Anxious O Actualfeared Relief How do we know ourselves 0 Looking through others looking glass how do I think others see me I Imagining how they appear to others and trying to get feedback about what others think I Responses from other I Important others are particularly in uential Looking inside who are you I Great for describing what we are thinkingfeeling but not why Looking at others comparing yourself to others Looking at yourself look at how your behavior is has been 0 Looking at close others Thinking that if all the people around you have a trait than you do too Self Concept 0 0 Social comparison Examining the differences between you and others I UpwardDownward comparisons o Downward I m better than they are Self perception People observe their own behavior to determine how they are feeling Vicarious self perception I People have a merged identity with close others How we view close others is important to how we view ourselves I We try to associate ourselves with people who will make us look good Basking in Re ected Glory WE won I We try to avoid those who make us look bad Cutting of re ective failure they lost Self Evaluation Maintenance Theory I If a close other excels in an unimportant task then we BIRG I If they excel in a personally related task we feel envy 0 There are three options when this happens 0 Distance yourself from this person 0 Can lead to sabotage o Decrease the importance of the activity Appraisal motive The desire to learn the truth about oneself Consistency motive The desire to get feedback that con rms what a person already believes about themself Selfenhancement motive The desire to learn favorable attering things about yourself SelfServing Bias People take credit for success but deny blame for failure SelfEnhancement Biases I Unrealistic Optimism Nothing bad will happen to me I False consensus Everyone agrees with me I False Uniqueness I m a special snow ake SelfEsteem A person39s overall selfevaluation of sense of self worth Terror Management Theory I We will die someday but we want to live forever I Thinking of death increases our adherence to cultural norms I Conforming with culture increases our selfesteem I IF we have highself esteem we think of death less Sociometer Theory I We have an innate need to belong I We have a gauge to tell us if we are being accepted I People who feel accepted by other have high self esteem High SelfEsteem More initiative Buffer from negative life events SelfRegulation Selfcontrolwillpower I 3 Major Parts 0 Overriding short term desires in favor of long term benefits impulse control 0 Active management of ones many needs and goals 0 Any process of monitoring or altering one39s responses thoughts feelings behaviors I SelfRegulation predicts 0 Good Relationships 0 Success 0 Less criminality 0 Better mental health I SelfRegulation Failure 0 Very common 0 Eating behaviors 0 Drug and alcohol consumption 0 STD s 0 Domestic Abuse I Limited Resource Models 0 All types of control rely on one limited energy supply 0 Behavior Control 0 Emotion Control 0 Thought Control 0 Impulse Control I Stroop Task name the color of the word but ignores What the word reads CH 5 Genes Culture and Gender 9102015 Evolutionary Theory 0 Foundation of all studying biology predictions can be made about new developments Provides framework for behavior 0 Evolutionary Perspectives 3 major components I Variability A small percentage of genes change randomly 0 ie smaller eyes larger Wings extra toes 0 These may be passed on to next generation I Heritability A large percentage of genes are passed onto next generation I Natural Selection Some Variations are more bene cial for survival than others 0 Bene cial traits are more likely to survive and Will likely be passed on o Harmful traits are less likely to be passed on because these traits lead to death more often than others 0 More adaptive traits survive 0 Sexual Selection EEA Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness 0 Modern humans are thought to first emerge 130000 years ago 0 Many aspects of today s environment are different from EEA I Some traits that we have were more useful in EEA o Aggression o Calorie dense foods 0 Now that these thing do not benefit use the cause issues I gtquotEEA is the periodenvironment when humans first emerged I Evolution explains psychology in terms of what was adaptive in EEA not now A Fear and Error Management Theory 0 Error Management Theory EMT 0 We are biased to make errors in more adaptive direction I Not attending to potential threats is more dangerous than overattending I OverAttending is less harmful than underreacting miss 0 The misses are what get you killed 0 ie thinking a hose is a snake Genes and Environment 0 About 50 of our personalitybehavior are due to genes 0 The environment I Experience affects brain development I More enriched environment causes less brain connections 0 Nature vs Nurture False dichotomy not a competition 0 Interaction The effect of one factor depends on another factor I Genes lt gt Environment 0 People react differently in different situations I People choosecreate their environment 0 Epigenetics environment in uences gene expression I ie temp affects sex of babies 0 Neural networks affected by usage Culture 0 Evolved cultural animal 0 Dunbar study Analyzed brain size in animals compared to body weight 0 Larger brains corresponded to more social animals 0 Dunbar Conclusion Larger brains allow us to relate to each other 0 Shared understanding survival I Humans rely on other humans for survival I Divisions of labor 0 Progress culture allows learning to be passed on from one generation to the next 0 Peer in uence determines about 4050 of behaviors and decisions I More so than parenting Cultural Psychology Branch of social psych that studies how thoughts emotions and behavior differ across cultures 0 Collectivistic vs individualistic cultures I Collectivist interdependent o More focus on external reasons for behavior 0 More focus on connection with others I Individualistic independent 0 More focus on internal reasons for behavior 0 More focus on being different from others Combining the perspectives 0 Evolution provides basic goals and what you have to work with 0 Culture shapes how you achieve goals I Selfenhancement is a natural goal but how people selfenhance is determined by culture I Emotions are natural how and when you display these emotions are determined by culture 9152015 Gender Differences o Males and females are similar at conception 0 Gender is determined after 7 weeks 0 Gender roles A set of eXpectations or norms for men and woman I Vary by country and time 0 Gender roles are changing k Independence vs connectedness o BoysMen focus on independence I Play is more physical and aggressive I Jobs focus on salary and dominance I Men prefer social dominance I Men tend to interrupt women more than vice versa 0 GirlsWoman focus on connectedness I Engage more in social interaction I Jobs focus on caring for others I Spend more time on caring for family I Display for empathy Gender Equality 0 Woman make 78 to every 1 that men make on average 0 Men are not supposed to cry 0 There is more variation within genders than within 0 Biological and social forces are strong in regard to gender differences CH 3 Social Cognition Attribution Why we or others engaged in a certain behavior Fundamental dichotomy for explaining behavior I Internal attribution Dispositional He loves to dance I External attribution Situational It39s a dance party When do we make internalexternal attribution Fundamental Attribution Error tendency to make dispositional attributions for others behavior even when plausible situational explanations exist Dispositional Related to personality and internal traits o ActorObserver Bias Tendency to make internal attributions for others behaviors Especially for negative one39s Tendency to make external attributions for our own behaviors Do we always contribute our behavior to external causes No I We take credit for success but not for failure SelfServing Bias Take credit for success internal attribution Blaming others for failures external attribution We don39t make internal attributions as much for people we are close too Kelley39s Covariation Model gtquotquot On Exam I Consistency 0 Does the person behave similarly in this situation on other occasions If they always act this way it is consistent behavior I Distinctiveness 0 Does the person act the same way in other circumstances If not their is high distinct I Consensus 0 Do other people behave similarly o If others partake in the same behavior than their is a high consensus If their is high everything we will make an external attribution If their is high consistency but low distinctiveness and consensus we will make an internal attribution I If their is low consistency there can t be distinctiveness or consensus and it is ambiguous Overcon dence Phenomenon O O O Tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one39s beliefs We think we are better at things than we really are This is because of how we test our beliefs I We try to con rm our theories but we do not try to discon rm them Con rmation Bias We tend to search for information that con rms our preconceptions Heuristics Mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of events O 0000 Rules that eXplain how people make decisions and judgments when facing compleX problems without all the information Learned by evolutionary processes Ef cient and often lead to the correct answer Prone to predictability type answers Availability Heuristic Tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event by how easy instances of it come to mind I Overestimate when you hear about something more I Does this always work 0 Not so much when you re sad 0 Works more when you are happy Simulation Heuristic Tendency to be in uenced by the ease of with which you can imagine or mentally stimulate an event I Ex If you missed your ight by two hours you will be less upset than if you missed it by 5 minutes Anchoring and adjustment Tendency to be in uenced by a starting point when making decisions I Different anchors starting points produce different adjustments answers Conjunction Fallacy Believing that the combination of two events is more likely than one event itself Representativeness Heuristic Tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event by how well it matches your expectations False Consensus Effect Overestimate the number of people who share one39s opinions and beliefs I Because of anchor and adjustment I If everyone shares your opinion you have higher selfesteem I Availability heuristic Gambler s Fallacy Believing that a chance event is affected by previous events Priming The process by which recent eXperiences increase the accessibility of a schema trait or concept I Activates particular associations in memory SelfFulfilling Prophecy People39s eXpectations lead them to act in ways that cause others to confirm their beliefs
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'