Test 1 Notes
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CLP4143 at Florida State University taught by Jesse Cougle in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
8272015 0 The de nition for abnormal behavior Not a single solid de nition Each tends to only capture a piece 0 An atypical behavior When viewing a bell curve a few standard deviations away from the mean This means rare behaviors However some conditions are very common 0 Not culturally eXpected Violate social norms distinguish abnormal from eccentric Deviantantisocial behavior 0 Personal distress emotional pain and suffering to self or others 0 Causes dysfunction 0 Diagnosis 0 Diagnoses can be harmful and exacerbate the symptoms they give people an eXpectation that they will feel the symptoms This is a controversial topic 0 They help communication among health professionals beneficial for researchers 0 Psychological dysfunction 0 Breakdown in function emotionally behaviorally cognitive o Interference with everyday tasks 0 ScientistPractitioner Framework Is an approach taken that involves the interaction of clinical work and science 0 Consumer of scienceinforms practice 0 Evaluator of practiceutilizes science 0 Creator of scienceSynthesizes both 0 History of Abnormal behavior 0 Supernatural theories believed early on divine intervention curses demons personal sin treatment will be harsh and irrational sometimes I Etiology sin I treatment positive environment 0 Biological theories physical disease breakdown of bodily systems treatment involves biological treatment including surgery o Psychological theory Mental disorders as a result of trauma or maladaptive behavior Treatment involves therapy I Asylums were developed to treat these I Shock therapy was used I Focused on providing normal nurturing environments and interactions I Moral therapy 912015 0 Psychological Perspective 0 Psychoanalytic theory I Sigmund Freud I Psychological problems fueled by unconscious repressed con icts I Psychoanalytic brings these problems to light and the treatment is selfawareness I Key terms 0 Free association 0 Resistance 0 Dream interpretation 0 Transference o Freud s Legacy I Positive Promotes tolerance destigmatize mental illness he listened to people over a long period of time instead of giving them orders I Negative This was not testable the concept of repressed memories has been criticized therapists could potentially create these negative memories most principles have been discredited 0 Behavior Therapy I Used very testable tactics I Learning principles applied to the treatment of mental illness I Very objective Pavlov Classical Conditioning Watson Classical Conditioning and Phobias Thorndike and skinner Operant and Instrumental Conditioning Systematic desensitization Criticism 0 Approach only treats symptoms not underlying causes 0 Ignores beliefs interpretations which may be important maintaining factors I Strengths o Exposurebased treatment is very effective with anxiety disorders 0 Easy to administer o Humanistic Therapy I Carl Rodgers Clientcentered therapy I Assumptions 0 Mental illness derives from attempting to earn others positive regard o Selfawareness and selfacceptance will lead to a cure o Unconditional positive regard o ClientCentered Therapy I Nondirective approach I Active listening I Unconditional positive regard I Carl Rodgers 0 Rodgers Legacy I Negative Subjective not scientific I Directive Therapy was found to be more effective for most problems I Positive First one to systematically analyze therapy outcome 0 Cognitive Therapy I Thoughts intervene between events and emotional reactions I Present Focused I The Masseuse Identify negative behavior Socratic questioning to challenge maladaptive thoughts Behavior exposuresenvironment Strong research reports this Clients must have a certain level of insightintelligence May be difficult to implement Depression is usually triggered by lifeevents Internal beliefs affect how you turn out depressednot depressed 9 3 20 l 5 CH 2 Integrative Approach to Psychopathology Nature vs Nurture o A classic con ict I Nature BiologicalGenetics I Nurture Enviormental 0 Modern theories recognize the connections between the two A The Old Biological Paradigm o Abnormal body processes cause psychopathology o Referred to as medical or disease model I Medical model has in uenced terminology I It has been broadened Behavioral Genetics 0 The study of genetics of personality and abnormality 0 Genetic Basics I 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs I 22 pairs are for bodybrain development I 1 pair determines gender I Most disorders are related to altered individual genes 0 Researching Genetics I Family History Studies o Tracing family history to see if a certain disorder runs in the family I Twin Studies 0 Helps determine the contribution of genetics to disorders 0 Concordance rate The probability that one twin has a disorder if the other has it as well 0 If there is a genetic component the concordance rate should be higher for MZ than DZ twins 0 ie 1 of population has schizophrenia Concordance rate between DZ twins is 15 Concordance rate between MZ twins is 50 0 However environment may play a role too 0 We can study twins that were separated at birth 0 Studies found that children39s behavior relates more to biological parents 0 Abuse and divorce have a significant effect on children 0 Parenting in uences manners values discipline etc Structural Brain Abnormalities o The location of brain damage in uences specific psychological problems 0 Structural damage can come from blunt force trauma or diseases that deteriorate the brain Neurotransmitters o The messengers that carry impulses from one neuron to another 0 Disorders result from I Too little or too much neurotransmitter in a synapse I Too few or insensitive receptors 0 The major neurotransmitter I Serotonin implicated in everything I Dopamine Regulates reinforcementrewards affected by alcohol related to muscle control I Norepinephrine Produced in brainstem fight ight reaction cocaine prolongs these effects k Neuroscience and psychopathology o Psychosocial in uences on the brain I placebos I psychotherapy I stress and early development 0 Relationship between brain and behavior is bidirectional DiathesisStress Vulnerability Stress model 0 Biological I Vulnerability Genes brain anomalies biochemistry I Stress Onset of a diseases exposure to toxins 0 Social I Vulnerability Maladaptive upbringing exposure to chronic stress I Stress Major loss Traumatic event 0 Psychological I Vulnerability Unconscious con icts poor skills maladaptive cognition I Stress Perceived loss of control violation of trust k Reciprocal GeneEnvironment Model 0 Genes shape how we create our environment 0 Inherited predispositions that increase likelihood to engage in activities or seek out situations 0 examples divorce depression Florida Hurricane Study 0 Adults who were hit by a hurricane were studied 69 months after the hurricane DNA was collected serotonin gene was studied 0 The found interactions between level of exposure social support and the person39s well being 0 Limitations What were these people like before the study I selfreport Genes and Environment 0 Anxiety disorders and child abuse I People with anxiety disorders are more likely to report abuse this does not mean abuse causes anxiety though A Behaviorism Focused on Tangibility 0 Learning reinforcements and punishments cause normal and abnormal behavior 0 Learning and fear many people with fears do not remember what caused the fear originally o Operant conditioning Shaping behavior by giving rewards for good behaviors and punishments for bad behaviors Global Assumptions Most negative emotions and maladaptive behaviors are a result or dysfunctional global assumptions 0 Thinking Errors I Should statements I Dichotomous thinking Mind reading Fortune telling Catastrophizing CH 3 Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis 9102015 A Introduction to Assessment 0 Assessment The process of gathering information about symptoms and causes of symptoms 0 Diagnosis A label attached to a set of symptoms that tend to occur with one another I To make a diagnosis we must know 0 Current symptoms Recent events History of psychological problems Family history of disorders Coping I Psychological and neurological factors 0 Physical examination 0 Drugs 0 Cognitive functioning 0 Intellectual ability I Differential Diagnosis There are several different possible disorders a person may be suffering from the differential diagnosis is distinguishing the particular disease from others with similar symptoms I Social Cultural Factors 0 Social resources 0 Sociocultural background 0 Acculturation adapting culture that you are surrounded by 0 Reliability The consistency of a test I TestRetest Reliability If you administered the same test multiple times would the results be consistent I InterRater Reliability The degree of agreement between raters o Validity The accuracy of a test I Face Validity Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure I Concurrent Validity How well does this test correlate to previously administered tests Psychological Tests Standardized procedures to measure performance symptoms or personality traits o Standardized Administered to many people established norms Clinical Interview A few openended questions Structured Interview Series of questions with concrete criteria Neuropsychological Evaluations Used to detect neurological impairment indicated by specific cognitive and finemotor deficits o The BenderGestalt Test Brain Imaging 0 Used to assess structural damage I CT I MRI I PET 0 Pen and Paper tests identify speci c de cits k Intelligence Testing 0 Craniometry Bigger brainsgreater intelligence 0 Diagnose mentally retarded and those with brain damage 0 IQ does not intelligence 0 Standardized tests do not sample all forms of intelligence Stereotype threat Fear of doing something that would con rm inadvertently con rm a stereotype Symptom Questionnaires A quick assessment of a wide variety of symptoms These do not make diagnosis on their own 0 They are easy to administer and aid in diagnosis 0 Ef ciently monitor symptoms Personality Inventories Questionnaires to assess people39s typical way of thinkingfeelingbehaving Validity Scale 0 Can not say When subject is evasive or indecisive o Lie L Subject presents themself in idealized manner 0 Frequency F Subject is confused anXious or trying to fake symptoms a high score means the pro le is invalid 0 Correction K Subject is defensive and attempting to obscure symptoms Proj ective Tests Assume that people presented with ambiguous information will interpret it in a way that represents their conscious or unconscious concerns or feelings k Thematic Apperception Test TAT 0 Choose 10 of 31 picture cards to act out a story this can help identify emotions con icts and how the person conceptualized themselves and others SelfMonitoring o Therapist targets problem areas and speci c types of behaviors thoughts and emotions 0 Event triggers 0 Thoughts Uni ed Classi cation 0 DSM The holy book of psychology 0 Has diagnostic criteria and is a work in progress 0 DSM 1 published in 1952 Vague in uenced by psychoanalytic theory 0 DSM 5 published in 2013 More speci c observable criteria and speci cations for duration of symptoms 0 American psychologists conduct reviews of published literature 0 It re ects a process of consensus and compromise o It is used in legal decisions and insurance decisions The MultiaXial system Used in DSM 3 and 4 but scraped in 5 o 5 dimensions on which a clinician evaluates behavior Clinical disorders Personality disorders and intellectual disability General medical conditions I Psychosocial and enviormental problems I Global assessment of functioning o DSM 5 focuses on severity of disorders Categorical vs Continuous 0 Where does normal stop and psychopathy begin 0 The disease model Assume you can de ne where normal stops and psychopathy begins I Is it long lasting differences from normal humans or extreme variation of personality traits 9172015 Research in Psych 0 Theory Explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behaviors and events 0 Hypothesis Testable predictions that a theory makes 0 Scienti c method Cycle Theory gt Hypothesis gt Research gt Re ne theories gt etc Generation of Hypotheses 0 Where do research hypothesis come from I Theoretical models I Clinical observations I Results of previous research 0 Predicted answer to a question 0 Can never prove only disprove or support 0 They must be testable Measuring Key Variables o How to measure or operationalize the critical variables for the hypotheses I Levels of measurement I Example abuse causes depression 0 How do you de ne abuse and depression I Measurements must have high reliability and validity Research Designs 0 Case Studies I Extensive observation I Freud I Time consuming 0 Descriptive Research Design I Sole purpose is to describe a behavior or type of subject I Includes population studies I Is not concerned With relationships betweens subj ectsvariables O Correlational Research Design I Focuses on statistical relationships between variables I Nothing is manipulated though The correlation coefficient captures the strength and direction of the research Correlation does not mean causation Misinterpretations o Directionality problem Two variables exist together but which is the cause and which is the effect 0 Third variable problem Just because there is a relationship between two variables doesn t mean one causes the other Another variable could be in uencing them 0 Spurious correlations two things correlate but actually have no relation 0 Experimental Research Design I Manipulate the IV Observe the effects on DV Attempt to determine causation Internal validity is very important 0 How confident are you that the IV is causing the effect on the DV 0 Also known as a confound o How do you control for threats to internal validity External validity is also important 0 To what degree can the findings be generalized to the public Efficiency vs effectiveness 0 Efficacy randomized controlled trial 0 Effectiveness Real world clients Group experimental designs 0 Single blind Double blind Matched control group Placebo Randomization
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