Test 1 Notes!
Popular in Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to DEP3103 at Florida State University taught by Ryan Peters in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
8272015 Child development is understanding the constancy and change from conception to adolescence It is an area Within developmental science Domains of development These all in uence each other 0 O O 0 Cognitive Physical Emotional Social k Periods of development O 0000 O Prenatal Conception to Birth Infancy and Toddlerhood Birth to 2 years Early Childhood 26 years Middle Childhood 611 years Adolescence 1118 years Emerging Adulthood 1825 years A theory is an orderly integrated and evidence based set of statements that describes eXplains and predicts behaviors A Basic issues in development 0 0 Continuous gradually vs discontinuous distinct stages development One course of development or many I Does everyone reach milestones at the same time or in the same way I What factors affect development 0 Nutrition 0 Parentssocial development 0 Economic status 0 Nature or Nurture I Nature inborn biological givens based on genetic inheritance I Nurture physical and social world in uence biological and psychological development before and after birth 0 Stability vs Plasticity I Stability usually associated With heredity o Lifelong characteristics 0 Early experiences establish patterns I Plasticity Responsive to experience 0 There are different patterns of developmental growth Context of development 0 Unique combination of personal and environmental circumstances this results in different developmental paths 0 Factors I Heredity I Biological make up I Environment I Circumstances A Balanced View 0 Both continuous and discontinuous changes occur 0 Development has unique features and universal features 0 Heredity and environment are interwoven 3 Grand Theories of Development 0 Psychoanalytic Theory Emotions I Irrational unconscious desires and motives underlies behaviors I They often develop in childhood or social changes psychological crises not sexual urges I Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson o Behaviorism Actions I Classical conditioning I Operant conditioning reinforcers and punishments I Social learning modeling and efficiency 0 Cognitive Theory IdeasBeliefs I Stages of cognitive development 0 Sensorimotor O2yrs o Preoperational 2 7yrs 0 Concrete operational 711 0 Formal operational 11 Ethology o Concerned with the adaptive value of behavior 0 Sensitive Period I Optimal time for capacities to emerge I Especially responsive to the environment I Development is hard to induce later on I Boundaries for sensitive period aren t as de ned as they are for a critical period A Evolutionary Developmental Psychology 0 Studies the adaptive values of human competencies I Cognitive emotional social I How they change With age I What behaviors are and aren39t adaptive I Complete organismenvironment system Vygotsky39s sociocultural theory 0 Transformation of culture to a new generation I Beliefs customs skills 0 Cognitive development is a socially mediated process Ecological Systems Theory 0 Child develops Within a compleX system of relationships I Simple components I Nonlinear interactions I No central control I Emergent behaviors o Hierarchical organization 0 Information processing 0 Dynamics 0 Evolution and learning 0 Chronosystem CH 2 Research Strategies A Research in Developmental Psych 0 Start With empirical evidence evidence based on observation experimentation or eXperience not a theory Then you build a theory by looking for more empirical evidence Research cycle I Theory gt Research Questions gt Research Strategie gt Hypothesis gt Data gt Theory gt etc Quantitative vs Qualitative I Quantitative Develops and employs mathematical models The sample is usually large and represents the populations and statistical analysis is usually used I Qualitative Understanding the underlying motivesreasons The samples are small and chosen deliberately The analysis is not statistical Observational Research A method of testing a hypothesis by unintrusively observing and recording their behavior I Systematically Quantitative O Naturalistic O Structured I Subjectively Qualitative Ethnography Descriptive qualitative technique to understand a culture or social group I Researcher lives in community and observes the subjects for extended periods of time I Tries to capture unique values and social processes Limitations of Observational Research I Observer bias observer records what they expect to see instead of what they really see It39s better to use those with no knowledge of the hypothesis I Observer in uence participants may react in unnatural ways Clinical Interviews I Flexible conversational style to probe for the participants point of view I Limitations The participant may not accurately express themselves and they may not recall an event correctly The exibility will make the response vary o Structured Interviews and Questionnaires I Each participant is asked the same question in the same way which eliminates interviewer bias I Limitations Not as indepth and some people may answer in a socially desirable way 0 Neurobiological Methods I Measures the relationship between nervous system processes and behaviors This allows us to infer perceptions emotions and cognitive abilities I Measures of autonomic nervous system activities that are sensitive to psychological state 0 Blood pressure heart rate pupils stress hormones 0 Methods of Measuring Brain Function I EEG I ERP I VlRI I PET I NIRS o EyeTracking Looking while listening 0 CaseStudy A large amount of information is gathered on one subject I Usually used when a person has an unusual condition Reliability vs Validity 0 Reliability is the consistency and repeatability of a measure I TestRetest Interrater o Validity is how accurately evidence captures the characteristics that the researcher is trying to prove I Internal Study conditions I External Generalizability Correlations 0 Correlation Coef cients l to l the closer to either end the stronger the closer to O the weaker 0 Correlation does not equal Causation Experimental Design o Permits inference about cause and effect 0 Independent variables I Manipulated variable I Supposed to cause the other variable to change 0 Dependent variables I Measured not manipulated I Should be in uence by the other variable 0 Confounding variables cause an alternate eXplanation variables that the researcher did not control for I We need to control for them in order to have a causal link I Random assignment of groups helps control for them A Designs for Studying Development 0 Longitudinal Same participants studied at different ages I Advantages Allows for study of common patterns and individual differences in development Also allows the study of relationships between early and later life events and behaviors I Disadvantages Biased sampling Selective attrition Practice and cohort effects The study itself may become outdated o Crosssectional People of different ages all studied at the same time I Advantages Efficient not plagued by attrition practice effects or changes in the field I Disadvantages Can not study individual differences and differences in age may distort results of different groups 0 Sequential Same groups of different ages studied repeatedly as they age I Advantages Permits tracking of age related changes Reveals cohort effects Permits longitudinal and crosssectional comparisons I Disadvantages May have the same problems as crosssectional and longitudinal but should help identify difficulties 0 Microgenetic Same participant studied repeatedly until they master a task It is an adaptive longitudinal approach I Advantages offers insight into how change occurs especially for cognitive development I Disadvantages Can be time consuming or difficult Ethical Science 0 We must be careful not to violate the rights of our participants 0 Children39s research rights I Protection from harm I Informed consent I Privacy I Knowledge of results I Beneficial results 0 Risks I Mainly psychological Young children are unable to make reasoned decisions I I Older children are susceptible to selfimagine pressure I Unique characteristics bring variability I Researcher must weigh the risks vs the benefits CH 3 Biological Foundations Prenatal Development and Birth 982015 Genetic Foundations 0 Chromosomes store and transmit genetic information I 22 pairs of autosomes one pair of seX chromosomes 0 Genes are segments of DNA that code for functional gene products that in uence phenotypes o Genome is the full set of genes and noncoding DNA sequences of an individual 0 DNA Double heliX made up of base pairings I Replicates via mitosis I All humans are 991 equal SeX Cells Gametes duplicate through meiosis Gametes have 23 chromosomes Sperm is male Ovum is female Crossing over is the sharing of genetic material between chromosomes 00000 When gametes are fertilized it leads to a zygote I The zygote has 46 chromosomes k Patterns of Genetic Inheritance o Alleles are forms of a gene that in uence the same trait on a pair of chromosomes I They appear in the same place on each chromosome I One is inherited from each parent I Homozygous two alleles are the same I Heterozygous alleles are different 0 Genotype The form of the gene 0 Phenotype Is how the gene is eXpressed o Incomplete dominance both alleles are eXpressed leading to combined or intermediate trait o The sicklecell allele sickle cell has recessive inheritance malaria resistance is dominant o Alleles code for hemoglobins I Sickle cell allele codes for version of the hemoglobin that sticks together when their is low oxygen Gene Regulation 0 Switches Stretches of DNA that control when where and to what extent a gene is active I Genes are usually controlled by multiple switches 0 Regulatory molecules I AKA transcription factors I Activate and deactivate genes by adding switches 0 They can recruit or block RNA polymerase I All cells have the same genes but different regulatory molecules 0 Mutations are sudden but permanent change to the genome I Germline mutation Takes place in cells that give rise to gametes so they can be passed onto future generations 0 Modi es adds or breaks the switch 0 Can also modify the gene I Somatic Mutation Normal body cells mutate causes cancer but can not be passed onto offspring 0 Adding a switch can lead to extra toesfingers I A single mutation causes switches to be added 0 Genes are simple components that interact with other genes in a decentralized way through genetic regulatory networks Genomic Imprinting o Mothers and Fathers alleles are chemically marked and silenced so the result is only one working copy from each pair 0 Chemical tags stay in place during the organism39s life but are reset during meiosis o Polygenic inheritance I Quantitative characteristics vary in the population along a continuum I Quantitative variation usually indicates polygenic inheritance which is an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotype k Chromosomal Abnormalities o Mainly results from mistakes during meiosis I SeX chromosome abnormality result from problems with X or y chromosomes 0 The risk of chromosomal abnormalities in babies increases with age of the mother 0 Xlinked inheritance is when a harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome I Generally affects males more Genetic Counselling and Testing 0 Beneficial for those having difficulties conceiving those waiting past age 35 to have children and those with a history of inherited diseases 0 Some people avoid counseling because it could jeopardize their marriage and insurance coverages Also it does not change the outcome 9102015 Conception o Zygote moves down fallopian tube from fertilization to implantation lasts for 12 weeks I Rapid cell division and beginning of cell differentiation I Protective membranes develop from trophoblast after implantation o Amnion encloses amniotic uid 0 Chorion surrounds amnion and yolk sac I Placenta Special organ that brings mothers and embryos blood close together Permits food and water to reach developing organism and carry away waste I Umbilical Cord Connects developing organism to placenta o Blastocyst By the fourth day it forms a hollow uid filled ball called a blastocyst o Implantation Occurs at the end of the first week 0 Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes I Sperm can survive for 34 days eggs can only survive for 1224 hrs 0 Most conceptions result from intercourse on the day of ovulation or the 2 days before ovulation o Embryo implantation to week 8 arms legs face organs muscles develop heart begins beating I Embryonic disk forms 3 layers first 6 weeks 0 Ectoderm Nervous system skin 0 Mesoderm muscles skeleton circulatory system other internal organs 0 Endoderm digestive system lungs urinary tract o Fetus I O Nervous system develops 0 Heart starts pumping blood 2nd month 0 Rapid growth ears eyes nose jaws neck 0 Arms legs ngers toes 0 250000 neurons per second are form 0 By 8 weeks embryo responds to touch and can move week 9 to birth Growth and nishing Rapid increase in size from 9 to 20 weeks Month 3 Organs muscles and nervous system start to become organized and connected Lungs begin to eXpand and contract Movements occur as often as 25 per hour SeX is evident on ultrasound 2nd trimester Mother can feel the movement Vernix little hairs Lanugo protective covering on baby Most neurons in place but brain weight increases tenfold from 20th week until birth Brain growth means new behavioral capacities O Develops hearing can hear mother 0 Sight emerges A fetus born at this point would not survive 3rd trimester Age of viability 50 survival chance at 24 weeks Fetus gains more than Slbs and grows 7in Cerebral CorteX Fetus starts to spend time awake Learning begins k Prenatal Enviormental In uences o It was I once thought that the placenta screened out all harm Wrong diseases and eXposure can harm infants I 1940 s rubella caused blindness in a lot of babies I Thalidomide for morning sickness causes limb deformities in babies 0 Teratogens EnViormental agent causing damage during prenatal period I Includes Tobacco alcohol radiation pollution prescription non prescription and illegal drugs certain diseases I In uencing factors Dose Heredity other teratogens age at time of eXposure Labor 0 During pregnancy there is a mucus plug in the cerViX o Adaption to Labor Contractions in Stage 1 cause baby to intensify production of stress hormones resulting in I Rich blood supply sent to brain and heart I Lungs absorb remains uid and eXpand bronchial tubes I Arousal of infants so they are born awake 0 Stage one of labor is the contractions and the cerViX dilating I lst birth this takes l3hrs I 2nd takes 5hrs 0 Stage 2 is pushing I lst birth takes 1 hr I 2nd birth takes 20 minutes Apgar Scale Quick assessment of the newborn39s condition at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth 0 A appearance baby s color P Pulse heart rate G Grimace re exes irritability o o o A ActiVity muscle tone 0 R Respiration Respiratory effort 0 710 is a good condition 0 46 baby needs help establishing Vital 0 03 very dangerous and needs medical attention Birth Complications o Anoxia Oxygen Deprivation I Brain damage likely if lasts more than 10 minutes I Can results from 0 Failure to begin breathing O Squeezing of umbilical cord 0 Placenta abruption o rh factor incompatibility I Long term effects include poorer cognition and learning difficulties 0 Preterm Born weeks before due date may be appropriate weight 0 Small for date Either preterm or full term below eXpected weight for length of pregnancy risk for more serious problems Interventions O Cesarian section 0 Isolette for preterm babies 0 Kangaroo care 0 Parent training Approaches to Childbirth 0 Natural or prepared childbirth I Classes I Labor coaches I Relaxation and breathing techniques 0 Positions for delivery 0 Medications Analgesics and anesthetics 0 Home delivery only 1 in US but majority of world A Heredity Behavior and Environment 0 How much does heredity contribute to behavior I Behavioral genetics and kinship studies help answer these questions I Heredity Estimates 0 Measures portion of individual differences attributable to genetics Ol Gene 0 Con rm that heredity contributes to a broad array of complex traits 0 Number increases when genetics contribute more Limitations 0 Can be easily misapplied o Are speci c to particular populations in particular environment 0 Do not tell us about how environment affects heredity environment interaction not everyone responds to the same environment in the same ways Canalization The tendency for heredity to restrict developmental outcomes Epigenetics Gene enviormental correlations Our genes in uence the environments we are eXposed to Passive correlation children are eXposed to environments provided by parents This is in uenced by their heredity Evocative correlation Children evoke responses due to heredity that reinforce their original style Active correlation o Nichepicking The tendency to choose environments that complement our heredity o The in uence of heredity and environment change with age potentially becoming more important due to nichepicking How environment affects development
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