CFS 210 Notes
CFS 210 Notes CFS 210 005
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CFS 210 005
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Brittany McDonald on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CFS 210 005 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sally Beville Hunter (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child and Family Studies at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
August 24 2015 Chapter 1 class notes Development begins at conception continues until the end of life Lifespan approach people continue to grow and change throughout childhood and adulthood Biological physical cognitive intelligence and socioemotional personality processes influence overall development Periods of Development Prenatal conception to birth lnfancy birth until 1824 months Early childhood end of infancy until 5 or 6 years Middle and late childhood 6 to 11 years Adolescence 10 to 12 years until 18 to 20 years Early adulthood 205 to 305 Middle adulthood 40 to 60 years Late adulthood 605 and 705 until death 3 Types of Ages Chronological age years you have been aliveyears elapsed since birth Biological age relates to biological health 0 How your health is compared to others with the same chronological age ex 85 year old running a marathon vs 85 year old knitting Psychological age adaptive capacities compared to others with the same chronological age 0 Maturity vs immaturity Social age connectedness with others 0 How often you are interacting with others 0 Often feel less lonely and live longer August 26 2015 Theories of Development o Freud 5 psychosexual stages 0 Oral anal phallic latency genital o Erikson eight stages of development 0 Trust versus mistrust Autonomy versus shame Initiative versus guilt Industry versus inferiority Identity versus identity confusion Intimacy versus isolation Generativity versus stagnation o Integrity versus despair Piaget 5 stages 0 Sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational Vygotsky s sociocultural cognitive theory Robert Siegler information processing Skinner s operant conditioning Bandura s social cognitive theory Bronfenbrenner s ecological theory states that development reflects influence of severe environmental systems OOOOOO Methods of Data Collection 1 Observation 0 Laboratory artificial controlled setting 0 Naturalistic in people s natural environment 2 Surveys and Interviews 3 Standardized test uniform procedures for administration and scoring 4 Case study indepth look at a single individual 5 Physiological Measures such as blood levels MRls Research Designs Descriptive research observe and record behavior Correlational describe the strength of the relation between two or more characteristics Experimental research controlled carefully regulated procedure to manipulate one factor and hold all others stable Time Span of Research Crosssectional simultaneously compares individuals of different ages 0 Longitudinal studies the same peeple overtime August 31 2015 Chapter 2 Biological Beginnings Evolutionary Perspective 0 Natural selection the evolutionary process by which those that are best adapted are most likely to survive and reproduce o Evolutionary psychology Survival of the fittest o Evolutionary development psychology humans need an extended juvenile period to develop a large brain and learn the complexity of social communities Genetic Foundations of Development 0 Human cells gt Nucleus gt Chromosomes gt DNA gt Genes Chromosomes housed within the nucleus of each human cell 0 Genes units of hereditary information Genes and Chromosomes o Mitosis happens to all cells 0 Meiosis only happens to sex cells 0 XX is female XY is male 0 23 pairs 46 total Genotype all of a person s genetic material 0 Phenotype observable characteristics including physical and psychological Genetic Principles 0 Dominant genes always exert effect over recessive o Recessive gene exert influence only if the two genes of a pair are both recessive Sexlinked gene mutated gene shows up on X chromosome Chromosomelinked Abnormalities 0 Down Syndrome extra chromosome 21 o Phenylketonuria PKU genetic disorder in which an individual cannot properly metabolize a naturally occurring amino acid Sicklecell anemia genetic disorder that misshapes red blood cells and hinders the ability to properly carry oxygen NatureNurture 0 Behavior genetics uses town studies to try to determine influence of nature 0 Hereditaryenvironment correlations genes may influence the types of environments to which they re exposed o Epigenetic view development as ongoing bidirectional interchange between hereditary and environment 0 Parents may believe the reason their child turns out the way he or she does is strictly because of what they did but children influence their parents as well Prenatal Development Germinal period first two weeks after conception 0 Creation of fertilized egg cell division 0 Embryonic period 28 weeks after conception o Organogenesis 0 Fetal period 840 weeks after conception 0 Growth and development continue their dramatic course 0 Things that are already developed continue to grow September 2 Prenatal Tests 0 Ultrasound CVS amniocentesis o Infertility is experienced by 1015 of couples Hazards to Prenatal Development 0 Teratogen anything that can harm the developing child Caffeine alcohol nicotine drugs What else affects the baby 0 Incompatible blood types 0 Maternal diseases diet emotional state age Prenatal Care 0 Medical visits once a month for first 2 trimesters 0 Last trimester every 2 weeks 0 Last month every week Birth Process l Stages of Birth 0 Stage one cervix dilating to 10 cm lasts 1224 hours 0 Stage two begins when baby s head moves through birth canal and ends at birth 0 Stage three afterbirth placenta umbilical cord I Childbirth setting hospital birthing center home only if baby is perfectly healthy I Attendants midwives and doulas partners I Methods of childbirth 0 Medication 0 Natural childbirth 0 Water birth 0 Acupuncture o Csection Transition from fetus to newborn l Apgar scale assesses health of newborn at 1 and 5 minutes after birth 0 Usually a score of 7 or above I Low birth weight less than 5 pounds 0 Does not mean preterm could mean poverty hormone imbalance I Preterm before 36 weeks I Bonding parentinfant siblinginfant Postpartum Period l Lasts until 6 weeks postchildbirth l Women must adjust physically and psychologically I lnvolution uterus returns to prepregnant size l Baby blues and postpartum depression 0 Baby Blues is less serious typical feelings of being overwhelmed o Postpartum depression clinical diagnosis thoughts of harming the baby or themselves sometimes requires therapy or medication September 9 Chapter 3 Infancy Development Physical Growth 0 Patterns of growth 0 Cephalocaudal top to bottom 0 Proximodistal inside out 0 Height and weight 0 Average birth weight 75 pounds 0 Average length at birth 1822 inches Infant Brain Growth 0 Extensive growth in utero and infancy soft spot on infant s head 0 18 months until it hardens Shaken Baby Syndrome brain swelling and hemorrhaging 0 At birth brain is 25 of its adult weight 0 By age 2 brain is 75 of its adult weight Brain s development 0 Frontal involuntary movement 0 Parietal hot or cold 0 Temporal hearing 0 Occipital vision Changes in Neurons o 2 significant brain changes in first years 0 Myelination encasing axons of the neurons with fat cells to help signals travel faster 0 Connectivity creating new neural pathways 0 Important to interact with children to help them learn Sleep in Infancy 0 Typically newborns sleep 1617 hours per day 0 By 4 months many infants begin to appropriate adult sleep patterns o By 8 months some infants sleep 8 hours at night 0 Infants spend 12 sleep in REM sleep Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 0 Infants stop breathing usually during the night 0 More common secondhand smoke soft bedding 0 Less common pacifier September 14 0 US says to breastfeed for a year 0 Only breastmilk and formula for first 46 months 0 Infants need 50 caloriesday for each pound 0 Food given to infants should be healthy usually not fruit 0 At 15 months the 1 vegetable eaten by children is French fries Infant Motor Development 0 Dynamic Systems Theory motor skills developed as a result of perceiving and acting infant wants something 0 Early motor development rooting sucking moro startle Gross and fine motor skills 0 Gross motor large muscles 0 1st year rolling sitting crawling walking 0 2ncl year pull a toy climb stairs 0 Fine motor smaller muscles 0 Reaching and grasping o Indicator that they re ready for table foods SensoryPerceptual Development Sensation occurs when information contacts sensory receptors 0 Perception interpretation of sensation o Ecological view perception directly linked to action Studying lnfant Perception 0 Visual preference method 0 Length of time infant looks at a stimulus o Habituationdishabituation o Habituation decrease responsiveness after repeated presentation of stimulus o Dishabituation recover habituated response after change in stimulus 0 High amplitude sucking 0 Wires in pacifier to measure excitement lnfants Visual Perception At birth vision is 20600 At 6 months visions is 20100 Color vision 0 4 weeks start seeing color 0 4 months color preferences Depth Perception 0 Visual cliff video Other senses Hearing begins in womb o lnfancy changes volume pitch localization Touch and pain 0 Rooting reflex 0 Infant circumcision Smell present shortly after birth Taste may exist before birth lntermodal perception 2 senses at the same time Piaget o Adaptation adjust to new environment Schemes to organize knowledge 0 Assimilate existing schemes based with new information all animals are cats 0 Accommodate scheme to take new information into account correction Organization higherorder system 0 Equilibration using assimilation and accommodation at the same time Sensorimotor Stage 0 Birth 2 years Understand the world by coordinating sensory skills with motor skills Object permanence exists even when they can t see it 0 Look for objects they have object permanence AnotB error familiar hiding place for an object 0 Hide and seek always hide behind curtain By 3 months babies can anticipate a visual pattern 0 By 4 months understand gravity COVER REST OF SLIDES ON OUR OWN Chapter 4 Notes September 16 Socioemotional Development in Infancy Emotional Development 0 Emotionfeeling o Occurs when something is important to you c In uences 0 Brain development 0 Emotionlinked interchanges Early Emotions 0 Primary Emotions o Humans and animals 6 months for humans Communication Basic emotions Selfconscious Emotions o Require sense of self 0 18 months 2 years 0 Jealousy empathy embarrassment 0 Hide when going to the bathroom Emotional Expression Infant Crying 0 Basic cry 0 Anger cry 0 Pain cry obviously different Infant Smiling Reflexive smile 0 1st month not intentional 0 Social smile o 23 months occurs when happy or laughing Infant Fear Stranger anxiety 0 Around 6 months most intense at 914 months 0 Separation protest 0 When caregiver leaves 0 Peaks around 1315 months Emotional Regulation 0 Infant can minimize intensity of reactions 0 More aware of others not throwing tantrums o By 2 toddlers use words to describe feeling 0 Soothing vs Spoiling Temperament Chess and Thomas 3 classifications 0 Easy 0 Difficult o SIowtowarm up 0 Kagan s attention to Level of Inhibition o Inhibitedshytimid o Uninhibited socialextravert o Rothbart and Bates temperament o Effortful Control infants ability to selfsoothe Biological Influences on Temperament o Inhibited children higher heart rate high levels of cortisol high activity in right frontal lobe Other influences gender culture Goodness of Fit Match between child s temperament and environmental demands Affects how parents respond to infant 15 year old parents vs parents who planned child 2ncl child teachers parents about differences in temperament Personality Development 0 Emotions and temperament affect personality 0 Trust 0 Erikson trust vs mistrust o If infant is not well cared for sense of mistrust forms 0 The Developing Self 0 Sense of who you are 0 Tested by whipped cream or marker on nose Personality and Self 0 Independence o More central in toddler years 0 Mahler separation then individuation o Erikson autonomy versus shame and doubt Social OrientationUnderstanding o FacetoFace play with caregivers Locomotion o Crawling o Intentional and goaldirected behavior 0 Seen by1 Social referencing 0 Reading cues from others
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