HIST1020 Exam 1 Study Guide + Notes
HIST1020 Exam 1 Study Guide + Notes HIST 1020
Popular in World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800
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Popular in History
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Date Created: 09/17/15
9 9080quot 11 12 13 14 HIST 1020WORLD CIVILIZATIONS II WORLD HISTORY FROM c 1000 To c 1800 DRALTHOUSEF ALL 2015 EXAM REVIEW I Lecture notes textbook and primary sources Section 1 Textbook Key Terms Needle compass crucial instrument made available to navigators after 1000 CE that helped guide sailors on the high seas It was a Chinese invention Junks trusty seafaring vessels used in South China Seas after 1000 CE These helped make shipping by sea less dangerous Quanzhou capital in southern China during Song Dynasty considered a Holy City and big on trade Mande a people who lived in the area between the bend in the Senegal River and the bend in the Niger River east to west and from the Senegal River and Bandama River north to south Also known as Mandinka Their civilization emerged around 1000 Timbuktu center of learning during early 1300s Sufism emotional form of Islam that appealed to the common people Rumi religious writer in presentday Afghanistan Jizya special tax that nonMuslims were forced to pay to their Islamic rulers in return for which they were given security a property and were granted cultural autonomy Ibn Rushid Islamic philosopher and scholar Delhi Sultanates Turkish regime of Northern India 12061526 The regime strengthened the cultural diversity and tolerance that were a hallmark of the Indian social order which allowed it to bring about political integration without enforcing cultural homogeneity HeianKyoto period from 7941185 the pattern of regents ruling Japan in the name of the sacred emperor began during this time Angkor Wat magnificent Khmer Vaishnavite temple that crowned the royal palace in Angkor It had statues representing the Hindu pantheon of gods Feudalism system instituted in medieval Europe after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire 814 CE whereby each peasant was under the authority of a lord Francis of Assisi Italian Catholic friar and preacher in early 1200s 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Thomas Aquinas Italian Dominican friar and Catholic priest in early 1200s Chim1 1 Empire South America s first empire it developed during the first century of the second millennium in the Moche Valley on the Pacific Coast Tiahuanaco Inca civilization of South America Cahokia commercial center for regional and longdistance trade in North America Its hinterlands produced staples for urban consumers In return its craft were exported inland by porters and to North American markets in Canoes Ottoman Empire rulers of the Anatolia the Arab world and much of southern and eastern Europe in the early sixteenth century They transformed themselves from nomadic warrior bands who roamed the borderlands between Islamic and Christian worlds in Anatolia into sovereigns of a vast bureaucratic empire The Ottomans embraced a Sunni view of Islam They adapted traditional Byzantine governmental practices but tried new ways of integrating the diverse peoples of their empire Safavid Empire most significant ruling dynasty in Persiamodernday Iran 15021736 after Mongolians invaded 1200s Turks and Mongolian tribes accepted Islam Marco Polo Italian from Venice who worked in China and wrote Descriptions of the World which discussed China s great wealth his book spurred European ideas of business Constantinople capital city formerly known as Byzantium which was founded as the new Rome by Constantine the Great Topkapi Palace political headquarters of the Ottoman Empire located at Istanbul Flagellants European social group that came into existence during the Bubonic Plague in the fourteenth century they believed that the plague was the wrath of God Section 2 Lecture Notes ISLAM originates in the Arabian Peninsula in 600s Spreads to Africa and even Spain World religion spreading especially in subSaharan Africa rulers and elites adopt it quicker than poor folk and farmers Spain and Portugal Iberian Peninsula had much con ict over this spread of Islam 620s birth of Islam Muhammad Arabs were tribal groups Ghana gold and salt producers Spread of Islam mid 600s North Africa above the Sahara Egypt Cairo Trade Cities Byzantine Empire based in Turkey along the coasts of Africa Berbers many different types of them in North Africa Shepherds in Atlas Mountains in Sahara merchants etc Some accepted Islam quickly and others were very against it Berbers Those along the coast convert to Islam easily merchants saw it as a good business opportunity Soldiers helped Berbers spread into Europe Europe Spain and Portugal In 711 Islam conquered Europe They were improved economically After 1000 Christians in Spain and Portugal wanted to retake their territory and pushed Muslims to the southern region of Europe called the Reconquista SubSahara Desert Berbers along the fringes of the Sahara Desert Camel caravans carried gold and salt across the desert By the 11th century they still refuse to be conquered IBN Yasin was a wandering Berber quotHoly Manquot who carried Islam Built a more strict Islamic Almoravids those bound together in the cause of God Lack unity so they39re losing ground to Ghana dominant power between 5001200 Rulers in 1200 begin to adopt Islam for trade connections and power 1200s New power in subsaharan Africa Mali Empire shows the existence of great empires in Southern Africa Sundiata created a government structure Convinces village leaders to give him their allegiance Village leaders are called Mansa Mali rulers and court of cials became Muslims All others did not Abubakari II exploration in 1300s 1312 Mansa Musa takes over In 1324 he set out to Mecca with over 10 tons of gold Spent a lot of gold in Cairo value of gold dropped 25 Mansa Musa 13121337 pilgrimage to Mecca 13241325 Focus on Timbuktu as the center of learning Once he got back home he became a devout Muslim Mansa Suleyman 13411360 visitors want to come to Mali IBN Battuta came to Mali to observe the government and worship and he wrote all about it Mali goes into decline by the 1400s Swahili Coast east Africa Islam Gold ivory and slaves came from Africa during this time Indian Ocean is a huge trade zone East Africa becomes tied into the Indian Ocean trade system while Muslims dominate trade Arab Muslims arrived on the East African coast mid 700s Arab merchants married East African women to tap into trade goods from the interior Monsoon winds summer monsoon winds blow towards India and winter monsoon winds blow towards east Africa More coastal trade towns develop due to monsoon winds Swahili post 1000 Coastal trade towns mixed Arab Muslim religious in uence but majority of people are East Africans so they didn39t bother to learn Arabic language Mogadishu and Kilwa were most important Island Kilwa was in control of gold trade by 1200 Swahili Coast 40 towns along the coast These towns are independent of each other Muslim Sultans are their rulers Top levels of society are incredibly wealthy Islamic from Arabia Dressed in silk from East AsiaChina Jewelry made of gold and silver Pilgrimage to Mecca Collect trade goods Middle class East Africans who converted to Islam to gain better jobs Literacy in Islamic religion assists people to get these jobs slaves 1498 ships from Western Europe Portugal arrive on the east coast while trying to get pepper from India They are upset that Muslims control trade 1500s Holy War against the Muslims Ethiopia post 1000 4th century Ezana ruler of Axom was Christian Coptic Church founded in Egypt 600s Ethiopia is cut off from Christianity due to Islam surrounding them Ethiopians see themselves as an outpost for Christianity carrying the torch Think of themselves as God39s chosen people believed a more Jewish form of OT 1100 reconnecting with the Christian world Ruler claims he has descended from Moses and Aaron to justify his rule Establishes the Zagw dynasty 11501270 Expansion through Christianity skyrockets Christians gain local control capital city of Adefa Reopen routes from Ethiopia to the Holy Land in 1200 Lalibela 12001250 recreate a quotJerusalemquot in Ethiopia Use names of places from Jerusalem for their buildings in the capital of Adef Cut a river through the capital and named it the Jordan 1270 Solomids take over from the Zagw By the 1300s these Christian rulers had begun a long term con ict with Muslims to the east 1540s reach out to Portugal who sends about 400 men to help defeat Muslims in Ethiopia China had a centralized government system with an emperor up to 900s Confucius 500s900s Tang Dynasty stable 907960 5 Dynasty Period unstable five different ruling dynasties in north China Zhao Kuangyin Taizu founded the Song Dynasty 9601276 Emphasized civilians in charge Makes the military less dominant issues defending China 1004 and 1044 China bribed barbarian groups not to invade them Song Dynasty Successes more government power than ever Chinese have their own form of bureaucratic gridlock Wide population growth Year 750 about 50 million people Year 1000 100 million people Rice became important and takes over as the backbone of diet in the north Silkworms became popular as well so that civilians could gain wealth Growth of cities some had roughly 1 million people and some people couldn39t fit and had to live outside of the city walls C 1127 J urchen invade northern China and establish the Chin J in Dynasty Song Dynasty ees to the south and establish new capital Hangzhou Economy grows mainly to the sea trade through the canal and Indian Ocean Porcelain and silk were commonly traded items J unks fancy ships originally Arab became common as the Chinese supersized them Largest ship was 300 feet long and could carry over 1000 tons of cargo plus 5001000 people Magnetic compass is invented in China and lighthouses are set up along the coast Had books about foreigners 1220s Zhao Rugua author of Records of Foreign Peoples c 1225 Government Trade Policy send trade missions along the Indian Ocean Sponsors banquets merchants and ship captains came sometimes included sailors GuaranteeInsure to protect damaged goods 10 customs tax Rice and weapons could not be exported out of China Silk is in high demand as an export gold silver tea and porcelain are also important Major import sulfur from Japan for their gunpowder Spices fruits and rice imported from Southeast Asia Medicine ArabMuslim ideas from Middle East Smallpox vaccines Religion Islam and Jews Feudal Japan Lecture Terms Feudalism system in which a ruler needs the agreement of powerful land owners Ruler gt landowners gt followers 0 Mid 600s Japan wasn39t unified Divided into regionsvillages ruled by kin groups 0 Common descent ancestry with each having its own behavior 0 Each region has its own deity and code Feudal values was tied to government in 1100 0 Samurai warriors who answered to their region39s landowner Military emperor had to give landowners power in their regions Yamato Clan mid 600s go to battle with rival groups Trying to establish a centralized government similar to China 0 Established an emperor from the quotSunquot deity 0 Capital cities Fujiwarakyo 694 Nara 710 Heian late 700s Taira Clan one of two most powerful warlord families 0 1160s begin to fight the Minamoto Clan in capital Heian for power to become emperor 0 Won control Minamoto Clan one of two most powerful warlord families 0 1180s returned to chase Taira out of the capital Rewarded by the emperor by being named a Shogun Taira Kiyomori 0 Minamoto Kiyomori Shogun top military and political of cial Kamakura Shogunate 11851333 0 Time period in which there is an emperor and a Shogun from Minamoto Clan Economic progress iron work paper making pottery etc 0 Feudal Culture simplicity military disciplines martial arts codes of conduct to maintain honor ritualized forms of behavior value of words is importantkeep agreements and religion Zen Buddhism Mongol invasion attempts 1274 1281 0 Seppuku Zen Buddhism meditation and selfcontrol less strict version of Buddhism Europe high Middle Ages 10001300 4 general areas of development progress 1 Borders of Western Europe secured against invasion 2 Rome the center for Christianity Catholic ChurchRomePope strengthen position as unquestioned spiritual leader in region 3 Beginning stages of development of national monarchies NATIONS took shape 4 Revolution in agriculturecommercial and developmenturban recovery population growth and economic development Investiture Controversy 11th century began in 1070s Church reforms making Rome the center of the Christian world Focus on Saint Peter 1st bishop of Rome Henry IV King of Germany Holy Roman Empire took throne in 1056 1070s Henry is excommunicated from the church 1077 Pope Gregory and Henry agree to meet in the mountain Canossa and Henry apologized Pope Gregory VII Pope from 107 31085 The church is quotsickquot both inside and out Inner cleansing Wants to reform monasteries Outer cleansing laypeople rulers and various high level church officials Investiture laypeople cannot choose 1070s struggle between pope and king over who gets to choose church of cials Rules and new outcomes during this time Beginning of nationstate Government servants hired government officials Feudal system sworn vassals as military Tax Collection England and France become enemies Louis VI King of France 110837 quotLouis the Fatquot William of Normandy King of England 106687 October 1066 he conquers England through the Battle of Hastings Creates surveys of England census 1200 BaronsNobles revolt against the king Magna Carta 1215 Great Charter king guaranteed series of rights to English nobles 10001300 Population growth Markets open helps to revive Western European cities economically Universities emerge THE CRUSADES Borders of Western Europe are secured by Muslims 11th century Christians vs nonChristians 1095 first crusade to retake the Holy Land Jerusalem Called for by Pope Urban II Began a pattern of European conquest With the battle cry of religion 1000 changes among Muslims Turks convert and try to conquer Eastern Europe 0 Eastern Europe presentday Turkey Byzantine Empire 1090s Turks are still threatening the Byzantine Empire 0 Emperor asks for help from Pope Urban II 0 MarchNovember 1095 Pope Urban 11 travels around Europe and rallies support for Holy War first time he had left Italy 0 Council of Clermont November 1095 in France to rally forces Truce Peace of God is the final document Christians should all get along 0 Builds support among knights who felt guilty due to their job already in the habit of making a pilgrimage to cleanse their souls Warfare Pilgrimage cleansing of guilt for Knights 0 quotGod wishes itquot was their battle cry chant Main goals 0 The Pope wants the Holy Land under Christian control 0 The Peace of God must be successful 1st Crusade 0 60000 100000 people involved Traveled due to faith vows or land Thieves joined to rob and loot on the way 0 Some women and children traveled as well People39s Crusade 0 Peter the Hermit gathered 15000 followers As they cross Germany they encounter some Jews they didn39t recognize and slaughtered the Jews instead of Muslims 0 1099 the Holy City of Jerusalem is under Christian control took 3 years to travel and conquer 2nd Crusade 11471149 Very unsuccessful No territory regained 3rd Crusade 1187 Jerusalem falls to Saladin Saladin became a quotheroquot to the Islamic cause due to this crusade as he resisted the crusaders 11891192 AllStar Crusade Team 0 King of England King of France kings from smaller kingdoms and the Holy Roman Empire 0 King Richard of England was captured on the way back and England had to pay a high tax to have him returned 0 The Holy Roman Emperor drowned on the way to the Holy Land 0 This was a failure because the Kings did not get along Christians did not gain Jerusalem 4th Crusade 12021204 Pope Innocent III planned this crusade Less funding and enthusiasm for this They reached the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and have contact With Venice 12031204 Attacked the capital of the Byzantine Empire Constantinople 0 They occupied Constantinople until the 1260s LongTerm Consequences of the Crusades Christian and Muslim relations are thrown into a constant state of war Decline of Byzantine Empire Italian merchants charged for transportation during the crusades so they become wealthy and gain new trade routes this wealth will sprout the Renaissance Western European conquest increases CHINA MONGOLS Marco Polo lived in Venice and worked for the Mongols 0 Wrote a book about business opportunities in China 1200 northern China is ruled by the ChinJ in and southern China is ruled by Song Dynasty Mongols 0 Nomadic independent of each other and disagree amongst themselves 1200 0 Chinggis Khan rallied the Mongols between 11621227 0 There were 4 main sections of the Mongolian Empire in China Chinggis Khan Liked to massacre enemies and capture animals and women 0 Very good in battle Tried to gain loyal followers beginning when he was a youth 0 Gained the title quotOverlordquot or quotKahnquot in 1206 Tried to eliminate tribes to unite everyone as a whole Built his army with 1000 horsemen it was very structured and loyal to only him 0 Drew commoners into battle and then rewarded them 0 He killed tribal leaders who usurped his power Harsh laws commonly used the death penalty stealing usurping power adultery etc 0 Made alliances with other nomadic groups from Central Asia Always rewarded loyalty Hated people who lived in cities Focused on northern China since it was closer to Mongolia Early 1200s Mongols started to destroy cities in northern China about 90 cities Peking fell to the Mongols in 1215 it continued to burn for a week after it fell Ogodei conquered northern China Son of Chinggis Continuous brutal conquest of the north There were only 15 million Mongols and many more Chinese 1250 Mongols adopted a Chinesestyle government It suddenly changes from a brutal conquest to a takeover of power They wanted China for themselves so they stopped destroying the land Khubilai Khan 1260s1290s From the Song Dynasty in southern China 12791368 Mongols control all of China They chose the title for the Yuan Dynasty to make their reign sound official Trade keep it going so the Mongols can live in peace with the Chinese still gaining their luxury goods This was a selfish idea because it was for Mongol benefit Impose a 70 tax on imports this led trade to a recession Muslim tax collectors from the Middle East were hired to collect Chinese taxes 1320 they made a map that had many foreign countries included Germany France etc Discrimination order of power Mongols Other nomadic groups Northern Chinese residents Southern Chinese residents Laws on Murder If a Chinese person killed a Mongol he had to pay for the funeral and then was killed If a Mongol killed a Chinese person he had to pay a small fine Medical Exams Administered annually before the Mongols but were halted when Mongols took control They were reestablished in 1315 25 of doctors were Mongols 25 were other nomadic groups 25 were northern Chinese and 25 were southern Chinese Policies Massive in ation Mongols had connections with Christianity Saw Christians as potential allies against Muslims Exchanged correspondence Confucius Open to foreign religion and architecture Why didn39t the Mongols last longer Rivalries among quottribesquot that still faintly existed Chinese hatred of the Mongols rebellions and secret societies By the 1350s these groups began widescale rebellion Marco Polo revisited Italian from Venice Worked in China and witnessed these events While in jail in 1290s wrote a book titled quotDescription of the Worldquot which talked about the great wealth of China His cellmate actually wrote what Marco Polo dictated European idea of business in Asia was spurred by this book Crisis in 14th Century Europe Up to 1300 there39s a lot of improvement After 1300 problems arise Bubonic Plague 1340s Great Famine Flagellants groups of people who beat themselves to purify their esh Crisis in the church 100 Years War Less land to use 0 Peasants have less land to quotusequot Bad harvests in countryside Bubonic Plague Black Death 0 Hit Southern Europe first and moved north 1348 0 Spread through people rats and eas 0 Killed 2030 million Western Europeans 0 Killed Americans after 1500 0 Florence Italy drops from 90000 to 30000 23 people died 0 Paris 200000 to 150000 died 14 people died 0 Doctors and merchants raised the price of goods and services High social cost AntiJewish violence in Germany 1340s and 1350s Burned the Jews to purify the land and get rid of debts Postplague opportunity Peasants gained leverage over landowners Benefice church position funded by land or property Beer wine and cheese rose up into a more prominent role Babylonian Captivity of the Church 130968 Pope is moved from Rome to France Pope Innocent 111 11981216 Power of the pope continues to grow Pope Boniface VIII 12941303 Monarchs try to impose taxes on church property Told the Monarchs they can39t tax the church France soldiers arrested him and he died in a jail cell Pope Clement V 130514 French pope 13091368 forced to leave Rome for Avignon France Avignon France location of church administration during Babylonian Captivity Great Schism 13781417 period when church divided and had two popes Rome Avignon then three popes Rome Avignon Pisa at the same time Pope Gregory XI 13711378 Wants to return to Rome Died in 1378 Pope Urban VI 1378 Italian Pope Clement VII French 13781417 two separate popes Urban in Rome and Clement in Avignon Council of Pisa 1409 Decided neither pope was good and elected a third pope Council of Constance 141417 Helped to revert back to a single pope 100 Years War 13371453 England vs France for Aquitaine southwestern France Commoners slaughtered Raised taxes on citizens Early Stages of Islam in India northern India presentday Afghanistan and presentday Pakistan Muslims face difficulties bringing Islam into India and face Large cities Social rankings complex Higher religions Buddhism and Hinduism By 900s Islam has only reached Afghanistan poor military state under tribal leaders some of which are Turkish Delhi Sultanates 12061526 Islamic ruling dynasties based in Delhi northern India Afghanistan and Pakistan Under Turkish rule leader called a Sultan Not a large dynasty Hereditary leaders in India vs skilled Turkish Muslim soldiers Not conquered but the Mongols when practically everyone else was Development of Ottoman Empire based in presentday Turkey Europe and Asia Ottoman Empire 1200s1900s brought Islam into Turkey Mimic Roman Empire as they gain control of territory around Mediterranean Sea Osmanli Turks known as Ottomans move west in 1200s and settle in presentday Turkey Osman 1200s can be traced back to Old Testament ancestors founder of the dynasty Sea warriors and champions of the faith By the late 1200s 1300s and 1400s known for conquest and multicultural Byzantine Empire Sultan Turkish term for ruler Orkhan ruled from 13241360 First real sultan Created janissaries Janissaries special military forces men of slave background and Christians new force No more than 15000 at one time Report to sultans Devsirme tax in young boys used for military service Conquered 1290s1300s Serbia Bulgaria and Greece become part of the Ottoman Empire 1534 Baghdad 1453 Constantinople had 200000400000 warriors in their forces renamed Istanbul Section 3 Primary Source Information Splendors of Hangzhou 1 Be able to describe the marketplace in Hangzhou during the Song Dynasty a Exotic goods owers foods luxury items jewelry clothes etc b Very peaceful and imperial 2 What was the liveliest time of the year a During the Lantern Festival New Years 3 What is a guild Include a couple examples of the types of guilds present in Hangzhou a A group of common commercial establishments b Bone Broker s Guild antiques and Fragrant Waters Guild bathhouses 4 Teahouses were very popular and common They showcased art and calligraphy on the walls which only large restaurants did at the time They sold tea by the pint 5 What is a plainwater teahouse a A brothel that sells tea as a cover This is also nicknamed a dry teahouse 6 Annual festivals are held for the countless societies Two Views of the Fall of Jerusalem The First Crusade 9 The Saracens in the city had been strengthening their walls and Pope Urban II was worried about getting past their defenses This caused the Christians to move their tents and canons during the night so that they were close enough to fight What did the Christians fill their machines with to hurl toward their enemy a Stones arrows burning wood and burning straw For each one machine Pope Urban II had the Saracens had 10 What gave Pope Urban s men the courage and willpower to win this crusade a A Knight on the Mount of Olives began to wave his shield for them to advance Pope Urban II s army was ruthless when capturing Jerusalem the description of the war once inside the walls was bloody and unnecessarily violent Overall he counted this victory as a glorious day for the Lord s people Abu LMuzaffar AlAbiwardi wrote about tears and pity This is obviously a drastically different account of the same battle European and Muslim Depictions of the Mongol Khans l 2 What are yasas a Mongol law codes When a khan gains the throne a huge army is provided princes come to see him and a new set of Mongol laws are written These laws are collected in the Great Book of Yasas Chinggis Khan was open to all religions and allowed his people to be a part of any of their choice William Rubruck The Journey of Friar William of Rubruck p x William Rubruck was a Frnciscan Friar Flander He traveled around Asia and Europe to convert people to Christianity one of which being Sartaq the Mongol chief in southern Japan This conversion failed and he returned home Who was Mongke Khan s ugly daughter in this passage and what religion was she a Cirina Christian When did Mongke Khan summon the narrator a On the day of Pentecost Marco Polo narrated to fellow prisoners about Qubilai Khan speaking of him as a wealthy regal leader What was the capital city where the great Khan lived a Khanbaliq modernday Bejing The great palace of the great lord was described as a magnificent palace with a moat archers intricate carvings and lots of gold and silver decoration How many people could eat in the great hall a At least 6000 9 How many rooms are in the palace a 400 Mongol Rule in Russia 1 The Khans of the Golden Horde descended from Chinggis Khan s oldest son J ochi and ruled Russia between 1230s and 1500 2 What caused major destruction in Russia a Mongol conquests 3 Chinggis Khan ordered that no one was allowed to harass tax or harm clergymen so that they would continue to pray for good fortune in their land 4 Why was the prince of the Golden Horde angry when he sent his letter to the grand prince Dmitrievich a Dmitrievich had not visited the Golden Horde even as leaders rose and fell It had been too long so the prince of the Golden Horde wished ill will amongst the Christians Collapse and Revival in AfroEurasia p x The Black Death Bubonic Plague was sweeping across the globe like wildfire especially in Florence It lasted longer in the central Islamic lands Islam continuously spread however What empire was on the throne during this time a Ottoman Empire What Dynasty was Emperor Hongwu in control of and what did he wish to eradicate a Ming Dynasty Mongol in uence in China culture and society up 5 Plague in Florence and Its Economic Effects 1 Doctors did not understand how to stop the Black Plague from spreading or killing people They began assuming civilians had jinxed themselves 2 Unhealthy fruit was forbidden from entering certain towns 3 In the year 1348 between March and October 96000 people had died from this plague
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