Unit 1 Study Guide
Unit 1 Study Guide HESC1403 001
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 1 A Cultural Approach to Human Development Human Development Today and Its Origins Introduction to Human Development Human Development the way people grow and change across the life span Bioogical cognitive psychological and social functioning Culture the total pattern of a group s customs beliefs art and technology Population Growth and Change Totalfertility rate in a population the number of births per woman Developed countries most affluent countries in the world 18 of total world population Developing countries less wealth than the developed countries 82 of total world population Two reasons the United States follows a different demographic path Tota fertility rate is higher than most developed countries United States allows more LEGAL immigration than most developed countries and also has millions of undocumented immigrants Variations Across Countries 40 of world s population lives on less than 2 per day 80 of world s population lives on a family income of less than 6000 per year Developed countries 50 go on to tertiary education Developing countries about 20 of children don t complete primary school lndividualistic cultural values such as independence and selfexpression Collectivistic cultural values such as obedience and group harmony Traditional culture rural culture that adheres more closely to historical traditions than urban people Globalization increasing connections between different parts of the world Variations Within Countries Majority culture sets norms and standards Contexts settings and circumstances Socioeconomic status SES social class including educational level income level and occupational status Gender expectations of male and female roles Ethnicity cultural origin and traditions race religion and language Human Origins and the Birth of Culture Our Evolutionary Begins Ontogenetic characteristic pattern of individual development in a species Phylogenetic pertaining to the development of a species Darwin The Origin of Species Natural selection I Young are born with variations of characteristics I Species change little by little each generation Humans evolutionary beginning shares ancestry with chimpanzees and gorillas Human evolutionary line called hominid line Hominid line evolved into Homo sapiens The Origin of Cultures and Civilizations Upper Paleolithic Period Art appeared as did trade and cultural differences Neolithic Period 10000 to 5000 years ago animals and plants domesticated Development of Civilization ncluding Egyptian India China and Mediterranean Human Evolution and Human Development Theory Human development can be understood by understanding human evolution Evolutionary psychology Branch of psychology that examines how patterns of human functioning and behavior have resulted from adaptations to evolutionary conditions Development of larger brain contributes to culture and environmental expansion little biological change since Homo sapiens Theories of Human Development Ancient Conceptions of Development Hindu Oldest known conception of life course Dharmashtras is one of the scared law books of Hindu religion Apprentice 025 depends on parents and learns adult skills Householder 2650 marriage and own family responsibilities Forest Dweller 5175 grandchildren born and withdrawal from society Renunciant 76100 further withdrawal and preparing for the end of life Ancient Conceptions of Development Greek Ancient Greece proposed by Solon has 10 segments 07 years being quotunripequot 714 years approaching manhood 1421 years limbs are growing chin touched with beard 2128 years ripens to greatest completeness physically 2835 years marriage and parenthood 3542 years maturity of mind and morals 4256 years two 7year segments when tongue and mind are at their best 5663 years first sign of decline 6370 years end of life Ancient Conceptions of Development Jewish Talmud 10 years old learn religious laws ofJewish people 13 years old moral responsibility 15 years old discuss the Talmud 18 years old wedding canopy 20 years old occupation seeking 30 years old attaining full strength 40 years old understanding 50 years old giving counsel 60 years old becoming and elder 70 years old white hair 80 years old new special strength 90 years old bent under weight of the years 100 years old passed away from the world Ancient Conceptions of Development Similarities in all three Youth is for preparation Aduthood is for experience Old age is for wisdom and peace Difference is found in division of life span Life span not cleanly divided by biology but culturally and socially based Scientific Conceptions of Human Development Scientific theories have been around for a short time The major theories of conceptualizing development are Psychoanaytic theory I Psychosexual Freud I Psychosocial Erikson Ecoogica approach I Bronfenbrenner Freud s Psychosexual Theory Based on Freud s belief of sexual desire as the driving force behind human development Driven by three psychic structures d basis is pleasure principle Superego basis of conscience Ego basis of reality Psychosexual stages focused on areas of sensation and fixation Limits include complexity of human behavior and Freud s research methodology What are some weaknesses in Freud s theory andor research methodology Psychosexual Stages Age Period Psychosexual Stage Main Features Infancy Sexual sensations centered on the mouth pleasure derived from sucking chewing and biting Oral Toddler Sexual sensations centered on the anus high interest in feces pleasure derived from elimination Anal Early Childhood Sexual sensations move to genitals sexual desire for other sex parent and fear of samesex parent Phallic Middle Childhood Sexual desires repressed focus on developing social and cognitive skills Latency Adolescence Reemergence of sexual desire now directed outside the family Genhal Erickson s Psychosocial Theory 0 Focuses on social and cultural environment and not on sexuality 0 Continued throughout life span and not limited to first six years as with Freud 0 Eight stages of development characterized by crisis and resolution Brofenbrenner s Ecological Theory 0 Focuses on multiple influences that shape behavior and is not a stage theory Five levels Microsystem Immediate environment Mesosystem Interconnections Exosystem Societal institutions Macrosystem Cultural beliefs and values Chronosystem Time historical context A Cultural Development Model CulturalDevelopmental Approach Throughout life span people live within cultural communities where they continuously interact and negotiate with others who convey cultural beliefs skills and knowledge reciprocal socialization Stages can be ambiguous and variable Stage Theory Prenatal development conceptionbirth Infancy birth12mo Toddlerhood 2nd and 3rd years of life 1236 mo Early childhood 36 years Middle childhood 69 years Adolescence 1017 onset of puberty Emerging adulthood 1829 years Young adulthood 3039 years Middle adulthood 4060 years Late adulthood 65 How We Study Human Development Scientific Study of Human Development 0 The scientific method The scientific method is composed of 5 steps Identifying a question Forming a hypothesis Choosing a research method or design Collecting data Drawing conclusions Five Steps of the Scientific Method Identify a question of scientific interest Can come from previous research a theory or personal observation s she a witch 1 Form a hypothesis The researcher s idea about a possible answer to a research question Will dictate research methods design and analysis f Then Choose a research method and design The way hypotheses are investigated Does she weigh the same as a duck Collect data to test the hypothesis Researchers try to collect a sample that represents the population She DOES weigh the same as a duck Draw conclusions Data is inferred and peer reviewed Can lead to theory modification or changes Burn the witch Ethics in Human Development Research Institutional review boards IRBs work to prevent ethical violations Ethical guidelines include Protection from physical and psychological harm nformed consent prior to participation Confidentiaity Deception and debriefing Research Methods and Designs Researchers use various methods to investigate human development Questionnaires I Closed or openended nterviews qualitative Observations Ethnographic research Case studies Bioogical methods Experiments help to establish cause and effect Experimental group receives treatment Control group receives no treatment Independent variable different for the experimental group than control group Dependent variable outcome that is measured to calculate results of the experiment Experiments Advantage is degree of control Disadvantage is applicability to real life Natural Experiment Exists naturally and provides interesting scientific information Researchers use multiple methods but it is important that they have reliability and validity Reiability consistency of measurement Vaidity truthfulness of the measure I Does it measure what it claims to measure Research design allows researchers to examine changes over time Crosssectional I Gathers information from wide age range at a single time Correation I Positive I Negative Longitudinal design follows same persons over time Can focus on how people change over time Can deal with cohort effects to SOME degree Chapter 2 Genetics and Prenatal Development Genetic Basics Building Blocks of Life Chromosomes DNA Genes Genomes Genetic Basics Expression of Traits Genotype the totality of an individual s genes Phenotype actual characteristics what is seen or observed and can include a wide range of things Dominant Genes expressed characteristics Recessive Genes not expressed although it is a part of the genotype genetic background AIIeIe alternate form of a gene DominantRecessive lnheritance a pair of chromosomes contains one dominant and one recessive gene Incomplete Dominancephenotype influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene Polygenic lnheritance interaction of multiple genes Genetic Basics The Sex Chromosomes The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines male or female Males more vulnerable to xIinked recessive disorders XIinked inheritance Genetic Basics Genes and the Environment Behavior Genetics estimating influence of genes and environment on development utiize twins to understand importance of genetics and tease out environment effects I Monozygotic MZ Twins same genotype I Dizygotic DZ Twins two ova fertilized by sperm o Heritability An estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for differences among persons within a specific population 0 Concordance Rates Percentage that indicated degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members Epigenesis and Reaction Ranges 0 Epigenesis the continuous bidirectional interactions between genes and environment 0 Genetic activity responds constantly to environmental influences 0 Genes establish a reaction range of potential expression and environment determines where phenotype will fall Genotype and Environmental Effects 0 Genotype environment Passive genotype environmental effects I Results from the fact that in a biological family parents provide both genes and environment to their children Evocative Genotype environment effects I Results when a person s inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in the environment Active Genotype environment effects I Results when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics Sperm and Egg Formation o Gametes are reproductive cells sperm and ovum o Mitosis is normal cell duplication and division with 46 chromosomes 0 Meiosis is duplication and division with 46 chromosomes but in the process a division occurs to allow only 23 chromosomes ovum and sperm cells The Beginning of Life Conception o For conception to occur there must be a released ovum and a sperm 0 Ovulation releases the ovum and if sperm is available fertilization can occur The Germinal Period During the travel from the fallopian tube to the uterus cell division is taking place BIastocyst ball of about 100 cells formed by 1 week after conception Trophoblast outer layer of cell that will form structures that nourish and protect the embryo I Amnion fluid filled membrane in the womb Embryonic Disk inner layer of cells which will form embryo The Embryonic Period Key Developments Embryonic Layers I Ectoderm becomes skin hair nails sensory organs and the nervous system I Mesoderm becomes muscles bones reproductive system and circulatory system I Endoderm becomes digestive system and respiratory system Key organs and structures are forming including Neutra tube develops by week 3 Eyes nose mouth and heartbeat by week 4 Buds that will be arms and legs start to develop in week 5 Liver digestive system and heart s separate chambers by week 8 The Fetal Period Week 9Birth Longest period of prenatal development genitals develop by month 3 movement can be felt by month 4 breathes hiccups and responses to sound by the end of month 6 main impediment to viability is long development Prenatal Care Traditional Cultures and Beliefs Prenatal beliefs are impacted by generational wisdom of the time These beliefs can include Avoiding wine Beng Specific meat Beng Certain hot or cold food Bali Witches Bali Prenatal Care ScienceDriven Prenatal Care Some current sciencedriven prenatal methods are derived from traditional cultures which includes massages Current care can be varied by ethnicity and SES Developing world less likely to receive prenatal car Current focus on diet exercise and teratogens Prenatal Care Exercise Continued physical activity is encouraged during pregnancy Aerobic exercise encourages good cardiovascular health and positively benefits the fetus A nonaerobic exercise called Kegel exercises is also encouraged Prenatal Care Teratogens Teratogens are environmental and bodily conditions that could be harmful They can include tobacco alcohol prescription medications and other drugs The physical environment could also be a teratogen due to malnutrition or exposure to hazardous chemicals Malnutrition is the most common worldwide teratogen Eating healthy diets is recommended but not likely in developing countries Living in rural areas could also impact prenatal health Folic acid can reduce incidences of anencephaly and spina bifida Two key vitamins are iodine and iron Iodine deficiency tends to be a bigger issue in developing countries Iron is necessary for a healthy pregnancy Teratogens Infectious Diseases Rubella German Measles Exposure during embryonic stage can lead to heart abnormalities and mental retardation Exposure during the fetal stage can lead to hearing problems and lower birth weight Vaccination can help but rubella remains widespread in less developed countries AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Three strategies can help prevent transmission Effective medications Caesarian sections for AIDSinfected moms nfant formula in place of breastfeeding Teratogens Alcohol Widespread damage in developed countries Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder ncudes facial deformities heart problems misshapen limbs and a variety of cognitive problems ncreases effects as the child develops Teratogens Tobacco Maternal smoking increases risk of miscarriages premature birth and low birth weight Infant effects include difficulty breathing and impaired heart functioning Childhood effects include poorer language skills attention and memory problems and behavior problems Second hand smoke by fathers is also detrimental Other Teratogens Malnutrition and diseases are common in developing countries Alcohol and tobacco are common in developed countries Prescription drugs can be damaging Other teratogens include nonprescription drugs severe stress pollution and radiation Pregnancy Problems Chromosomal Disorders 0 Can occur because of an issue during meiosis This may cause too many or too few chromosomes in the cells of the zygote 0 Two types of chromosomal disorders are Sex chromosome disorders Disorder on the 21st chromosome down syndrome Sex Chromosome Disorders 0 Sex chromosomal disorder can result from an extra X extra Y or only an X and no second chromosome Common consequences of sex chromosome disorders include I Cognitive deficit I Abnormality in reproductive system at puberty Down Syndrome Trisomy21 o Identifiable by physical characteristics 0 Cognitive deficits speech problems inteectua disability 0 Social development varies 0 Lower life expectancy Parental Age and Chromosomal Disorder 0 Chromosomal disorders tend NOT to be passed from parent to child 0 Relationship between maternal age and chromosomal disorders 0 May be a relationship between a father s age and chromosomal disorders but isn t as clear Teratogens 0 Major teratogens exist in both developed and developing countries manutrition infectious disease acoho tobacco Timing of Teratogens Teratogens can impact the developing fetus and embryo at any time There does not appear to be a critical period of prenatal development centered in the embryonic period Prenatal Diagnosis Ultrasounds uses high frequency sound waves Amniocentesis utilizes amniotic fluid 15 to 20 weeks into pregnancy Chorionic ViIIus Sampling utilizes cells from forming umbilical cord 5 to 10 weeks into pregnancy Genetic Counseling Before having children some may seek out genetic counseling inherited genetic condition coupes with history of miscarriage or infertility older couples women 35 men 40 Infertility Treatments Historical treatments of infertility included Giving more attention to wife to achieve mutual orgasm Surgery on a women s anatomy Bloodletting Current treatments are more advanced Many treatments utilize assisted reproductive technologies ART Artificial Insemination I Injects sperm into woman s uterus Fertiity Drugs I Mimic hormones involved in ovulation nVitro Fertilization I Ova removed and fertilized outside the womb and then placed into the uterus Infertility Worldwide Cultural differences exist on how infertility is viewed In the west there may be a sense of sadness or loss as well as martial strain about half of all couples say it has made marriage stronger Outside of the west can be deeply stigmatizing especially for women Chapter 3 Birth and the Newborn Child The Neonate o Apgar Scale Total score 710 Good to excellent condition 46 requires assistance to breathe 3 or below Life threatening danger The Neonates Health Measuring o Braselton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale NBAS Rates neonates on 27 items Receives rating of worrisome normal or superior Most effective if given at one day and a week later Can help parents interact with infants useful in research on cultural differences in parenting practices 0 Causes for LBW Developing countries malnourished mothers and lack of prenatal care Developing countries cigarette smoking Overal multiple births maternal age drug use 0 Consequences of LBW High mortality rate LBW for small to date infants I Poor maternal malnutrition illness exposure LBW for preterm neonates I Inadequater developed physical systems I Immature lungs immune system and CNS The Neonate s Health Low Birth Weight 0 Treatment for LBW infants include Kangaroo care skin to skin contact for 23 hours a day nfant massage 0 Even with assistance LBW babies are at risk developmentally Reflexes 0 Basic Reflexes unlearned reactions to stimuli o Sensorimotor Stage Piaget nfants are active agents Primary circular reactions 14 months I Primary selffocused I Circular repeated I The body is doing this on their own not needing external stimuli 0 Secondary circular reactions 48 months Focused on the outside world and repeated I Example banging on the crib Behaviorist o Skinner Conditioning Stimulusresponsereinforcer 0 Watson Focus on behavior not the mind Emotions are responses I Fearragelove Emotions o What are emotions Biological roots but shaped by culture and relationships Facia expressions of basic emotions I Biological nature same across culture When where and how to express emotions are not culturally universal 0 Regulation of emotion Externa sources regulate during infancy and childhood Shift to internal selfinitiated regulation with increasing age I Learn to regulate I Better at managing situations I Selecting more effective ways of coping Wide variations in children s abilities I Temperament o Infancy Primary emotions I Present in humans and animals I Humans appears in first 6 months of life surprise joy anger sadness fear disgust Selfconscious emotions I Selfawareness emerges at 18 months or earlier I Empathy jealousy and embarrassment Emotional expression and social relationships Crying most important communication I Basic cry rhythmic pattern I Anger cry variation of basic cry I Pain cry long sudden initial loud cry Smiling has powerful impact on caregivers I Reflexive smile innate origins I Social smile response to external stimuli Emotion regulation comes later HOWEVER Babies can quotshut down turn away or sleep when they are stressed This is a positive feature It is the beginning of selfcontrol Language Infancy Babbing gestures and other vocalizations I Crying present at birth I Cooing occurs at 24 months of age I Babbling begins at about 6 months I Gestures begins at 812 months I Babbling creates a map of the mouth Primary intersubjectivity imitationtongue reflex I Verbalizing vocalizing cooing Infants recognize language sounds Citizens of the world Newborns recognize sound changes Recognize M language sounds at 6 months Patricia Kuhl Caring for the Neonate In their first months of life infants often cry for no apparent reason Most crying occurs peaks at about 2 months Imprinting and Bonding Konrad Lorenz mprinting instant and enduring bond to the first moving object seen after birth Bonding the concept that in humans the first few minutes and hours after birth are critical to motherinfant relationships Social and Emotional Aspects of Neonatal Care No support that the first hour is critical for bonding in mother and infant Hospitals still encourage close contact immediately after birth Attachment Bowlby and Ainsworth Mother and Child Theory of Love An infant s sight is best at 1foot This is approximately the distance from the mothers face during breast feeding Babies show a preference for faces This is a visual argument for the quotsocialbrain Mom s Voice Fetus heart rate and brain activity responds to mother s voice Prefer speech to nonspeech nfants prefer infantdirected speech as opposed to adultdirected speech Chapter 4 Infancy Growth and Change in Infancy Growth Patterns Infants grow at a faster rate during their first year than at any other time Weight doubles in first 5 months and triples by end of first year Babies appear plump Wil lose baby fat in first year Height is more uneven in growth than weight Two key growth patterns Cephalocaudal principle Proximodistal principle Teeth and Teething First tooth appears between 5 to 9 months Teething first teeth break through the skin Symptoms include Saliva production Coughing Rash Grabbing things to put in mouth Relief can be found in teething ring or cold wet washcloth Brain Development At birth brain is onequarter the size of adult s brain By age 2 it will reach 70 percent Growth in brain due to Exuberance dendritic connections multiply Myelination axons become encased in a myelin sheath Efficiency increases due to synaptic pruning Brain Specialization Brain divided into three major regions Hindbrain Midbrain Both structures mature early and perform basic biological functions Forebrain I Limbic system hypothalamus thalamus hippocampus I Cerebral cortex lobes Lobes of the Brain Frontal Lobe highest processes including planning for the future making decisions Parietal Lobe processes bodily sensations Occipital Lobe processes visual information Temporal Lobe processes auditory information including language The Plasticity of the Infant Brain Plasticity is important for the infant s brain development Adaptable to overcome damage Environmental deprivation can have permanent effects Example seen in Romanian adoptions the later the age of adoption the lower their cognitive abilities Physical Development Infant Health Nutritional Needs Infants need a highfat diet which breast milk provides About 6 months may introduce solid foods Cultura visions in types of food introduced West rice cereal Traditiona cultures mashed prechewed pureed Sensory Development Gross motor development includes whole body movements like crawling Children tend to develop gross motor skills in sequence Sequence has genetic beginnings with environmental influences Cultural practices emphasize the role of environment on gross motor skills Swaddling is a common practice that can be restrictive to infants Other cultures encourage gross motor skills Longterm effects tend to minimally impact gross motor development Fine motor skills are the more precise motor abilities Major accomplishments of fine motor skills include reaching and grasping Will also exhibit pincer grasp that allows feeding of themselves Depth perception is influenced by development of binocular vision at 2 to 3 months of age mportant when children become mobile Intermodal perception Onemonthods match things in mouth to things they touch By eight months can match unfamiliar faces with correct voice and gender Cognitive Development Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development Piagetian key terms Maturation a biologically based program is the driving force behind development Schemes cognitive structure for processing organizing and interpreting information Assimiation new information is altered to fit an existing scheme Accommodation changing a scheme to adapt to the new information Stages of Cognitive Development Ages 02 Sensorimotor Capable of coordinating the activities of the senses with motor activities Ages 27 Preoperational Capable of symbolic representation such as in language but with limited ability to use mental operations 711 Concrete operations Capable of using mental operations but only in concrete immediate experience difficulty thinking hypothetically 1115 and up Formal Operations Capable of thinking logically and abstractly capable of formulating hypotheses and testing them systematically thinking is more complex and can think about thinking metacognition The Sensorimotor Stage Object Permanence Object permanence objects continue to exist even when not aware of them Under 4 months no understanding 4 to 8 months some uncertain about existence 8 to 12 months developing awareness I Will still make A not B error Evaluating Piaget s Sensorimotor Theory 0 Criticisms include Underestimating infants ability especially regarding object permanence Renee Baillargeon and researchers tested infant abilities using the violation of expectations method Object permanence may reflect memory development Cultura limitations as well AttentionHabituation 0 Attention studied using habituation and dishabituation o Habituation gradual decrease in attention 0 Dishabituation revival of attention with a new stimulus o Neonates several minutes before dishabituation o 4 to 5 months only several seconds 0 Infants become better at perceiving and processing stimuli 0 End of first yearjoint attention highlights social attention Memory 0 Shortterm memory improves during first year of life Object permanence tasks show infants can remember more locations of hidden objects 0 Longterm memory increases as well 0 Difference between recognition memory and recall memory Assessing Infant Development 0 Information processing model uses habituation to assess intelligence 0 Infants with short habituation time process information more quickly 0 Longitudinal studies have shown a connection between habituation time and IQ and higher achievement Media 0 quotMozartquot effect led to creation of educational videos and DVDs 0 Most studies have not supported the effectiveness of education CDs and videos 0 Effective ways to encourage cognitive interaction include talking reading responding and patience Language Development 0 Cooing and gurgling sounds at 2 months Babbling develops at 4 to 6 months Seems universal Gestures about 8 to 10 months First words about 10 to 12 months Many cultures use infantdirected speech to speak to infants Higher pitch with simplified grammar Exaggerated intonation and phrases repeated Infants seem to prefer this speech and it is common in many cultures Some cultures do not speak to infants in any special way No consistent negative effects in cultures with no infantdirected speech Information Processing Infancy Information processing model views cognitive changes as continuous Historically computer was analogy but new awareness that brain is more complex Human thinking divided into capacities for attention processing and memory Components of the model operate simultaneously Longterm memory Stimulus Attention Information 7 r r Al 7 SGHSOW III Irv Sllgll W bReSr30nse memory working memory Emotional and Social Development Temperament Temperament innate tendencies that would be shaped to become adult personality Composed of activity level adaptability intensity of reactions and quality of mood I Easy I Difficult I Slow to warm up Current research adds selfregulation or sociability Good nessof Fit Goodnessoffit a good fit between temperament of child and environmental demands Babies with negative temperamental qualities did better with parents who were tolerant Cultures value different traits leading to cultural goodnessoffit Asian babies less active as this is culturally important Infant s Emotional Perceptions Crying in response to hearing another cry is emotional contagion Infants perceive emotions by hearing before seeing The stillface paradigm shows infants quickly learn to expect certain emotional reactions By 7 months infants can match auditory to visual emotions By 9 to 10 months infants show social referencing Cultural Themes of Infant Social Life 1 weww Infants are with their mothers for the early months of life After 6 months most daily care done by older girls rather than the mother Infants are among many other people in the course of the day Infants are held or carried almost constantly Fathers are usually remote or absent during first year Features still dominate worldview in developing countries The Foundation of Social Development Erikson s first stage focuses on trust versus mistrust Centers around the emotional and social bond and not the biological bond Developing trust in infancy provides foundation for future social development Bowlby s attachment theory focused on early quality relationships as well Focused on primary caregiver being sensitive and responsive Attachment theory has evolutionary basis and in research on mother offspring relationships in animal species Attachment Theory Intimate attachments to other human beings are the hub around which a person s life revolves From these intimate attachments people draw strength and enjoyment of life John Bowlby John Bowlby As children form attachments to parents they develop working models of how relationships function lnternal Working Models Strange Situation Mary Ainsworth Styles of parenting congruent to types of attachment Secure attachment style An attachment style characterized by feelings of security in relationships Individuals with this style are comfortable with intimacy amp want to be close to others during times of threat amp uncertainty Avoidant attachment style An attachment style characterized by feelings of insecurity in relationships Individuals with this style exhibit compulsive selfreliance prefer distance from others and are dismissive amp detached during times of threat amp uncertainty AnxiousAmbivalent attachment An attachment style characterized by feelings of insecurity in relationships Individuals with this style compulsively seek closeness express continual worries about relationships and excessively try to get closer to others during times of threat amp uncertainty
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