Unit 2, Weeks 1-3 Notes
Unit 2, Weeks 1-3 Notes Psychology 1101
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Danielle Nwefo on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psychology 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Tim Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Memory active dynamic process; recall ● Recall vs. Recognition a. Recall is trying to remember; self generating of information ■ “Free response” ■ Much more difficult b. Recognition is familiarity judgement; retrieval ■ “Multiple choice” ■ Easy ● Processes 1. Encoding learning; making associations 2. Storage retaining/keeping the info 3. Retrieval getting info out 3 Stage/Modal Model 1. Sensory Machine: ○ A “buffer” ○ Capacity: unlimited ○ Duration: 50 milliseconds 1 sec 2. Short Term Memory ○ Capacity: 722 items ○ What is an item?...chunking groups and meaning i. Increases capacity of short term memory ● Proactive Intervention when old information interferes with new information ● Recency Effect what happened recently affecting recall ● Retroactive Interference new memory interferes with remembering old 3. Long Term Memory ● Capacity: unlimited ● Duration: unlimited ● Processing: Automatic/Shallowrepetition ● Effortful conscious/lots of repetition ● Deep making connections with long term memory Transfer to Long Term Memory ● Spaced vs Massed Practice Attention: less is even transferred to long term memory ○ Memory Consolidation reorganization ● Testing Effect retrieval practice February 25, 2016 Memory of Neural Level ● Synaptic Changes Wiring Together ● Long Term Potentiation with repeated stimulation Retrieval: getting info out ● Context depends; Memory encoding specifically ● Environment State Dependence if you are in a certain mood while encoding info you should stay in that mood while taking the exams, per say. ○ Implicit/Retrieval Cues ■ Automatic Forgetting: knows as either: ● Encoding Failure intentioned “remembering” ● Retrieval Failure ○ Storage decay = forgetting ○ Interference/Construction Errors ■ Misinformation Effect ● Misleading Post Event Info (MPI) ○ Retrieval is constructive; rebuilds the pathways that were originally encoded ○ Source Amnesia March 1, 2016 Cognitive ● Thinking vs Learning ○ Learning making association ○ Memory recalling association ○ Cognitive processing/interpreting association ■ “Doing something” with associations ● Integrate/transform ● Concepts a general idea/ collection of facts about an idea ● Visual Imagery internal pictures ○ Prototype averaged form of internal imagery that include necessary features of the concepts Problem Solving 1. Trail and Error: randomly trying different combinations in no particular order ○ Use when you have no info, or a completely novel situation ○ Inneficient 2. Algorithms rule based step by step procedure 3. Heuristics Rule based on experience ○ Use information stored to figure it out ○ Likelihood of occurring Obstacles of Problem Solving 1. Mental Set set “way of thinking” (default mode of thinking) a. Functional Fixedness default function for a familiar item 2. Confirmation Bias looking for info that confirms our beliefs or a rule 3. Availability Heuristic likelihood of something that is very obvious to you a. Strongest novel pathway 4. Overconfidence tend to be very confident in our abilities 5. Belief Perseverance holding onto previously held beliefs March 3, 2016 Reasoning: transformation of important to reach conclusion ● Inductive specific to general info ● Deductive general to specific info ○ More common ○ More susceptible to making false info with general realizations Thinking Creatively producing ideas ● Convergent Thinking taking facts and arriving at a solution/ problem solving ● Divergent Thinking generating ideas based on a particular fact/ avoiding what you know and generating new ideas based on instances of situations Language and Thinking ● Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Language & the Brain 1. Wernicke’s Area language comprehension 2. Broca's Area language production (speaking words) Universal Grammar ● Syntactic Processing ○ Rapid arrangement and processing word order ○ Ability to generate novel sequences Communication vs Language ● Communication conveys meaning ● Language is infinite “productivity” generativity Language Development ● Receptive understanding ● Productive producing/ speaking ○ Example: babbling ■ Phonemes: sound in language ■ Babies can produce one word at 9 months ■ Babies can produce two words in 1824 months ■ 28 months words and sentences ■ Semantic Burst Broca’s area undergoing rapid development (generativity) Critical Sensitive Periods ● Nervous system needs input in a variety of modalities in order to grow or develop March 8, 2016 When does development begin? ● First trimester Qualitative vs Quantitative ● Qualitative different type of ability ○ New abilities develop over time or in development ○ “Thinking differently” ● Quantitative more or less of an ability ○ “Knowing more” Piaget (founder) ● Assimilationapplying new knowledge to an old experience ○ Interpreting according to new experience ● Accommodation adapting your old way of thinking ○ Adjusting old info to fit new experience Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor: (02 years old) knowledge is based on sensory experience a. No interpretation/ “perception” b. Out of sight, out of mind c. Recognition, but recall 2. Preoperational Stage: (27 years old) lacking logic abstract thinking a. Conservation b. Egocentrism only their point of view/ perspective c. Theory of Mind mental perspectives; attribute a different state of knowledge to other individuals 3. Concrete Operational: (712 years old) a. Prototypes transform info b. Abstract of physical world 4. Formal Operational: (12+ years) a. Abstract Reasoning (Deductive) b. Mental operations on Abstract Rules c. Deductive Reasoning March 10, 2016 Social Development ● Imprint bond based on needs being met ● Attachment emotional bond to another person ● Shifts of attachment: a. Secure crying in absence; ceasing only upon return b. Insecure/Anxious crying in absence, continuing to cry ■ leads to Inconsistency/Abandonment c. Avoidant no crying ever! ■ leads to abuse; needs not being met; being avoided ● Development of trust: intimacy, friendships ● Critical Periods a. 2 years and older Development of Self Concept ● Mirror Self Recognition 18 months infants pass ● Self in Relation to others changing relation to others ○ Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development ■ Trust > Initiative > Competence > Intimacy > Integrity ● Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development ○ Preconventional reward (good) and punishment (bad) ○ Conventional maintaining social fairness/ justice; obeying laws ○ Post Conventional putting aside the rules ■ Justifying own behavior ● Development & Aging (60+ years) ○ Memory ■ Recall tends to decline overtime, not so much recognition ○ Neurocognitive Disorders ■ Myelin Sheath production reduces; signaling is interrupted because of the decline ■ Acetylcholine (NT) (excitatory) is down ○ Amygdalar Responses ■ Responsiveness only to cognitive events ■ Old people are happier!
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