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Unit 2, Weeks 1-3 Notes

by: Danielle Nwefo

Unit 2, Weeks 1-3 Notes Psychology 1101

Danielle Nwefo

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About this Document

These notes cover the past 6 lectures of the course!
General Psychology
Dr. Tim Flemming
Psychology, Human Behavior, General Psychology
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Danielle Nwefo on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psychology 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Tim Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 03/10/16
Memory­ active dynamic process; recall ● Recall vs. Recognition a. Recall is trying to remember; self generating of information ■ “Free response” ■ Much more difficult  b. Recognition is familiarity judgement; retrieval ■ “Multiple choice” ■ Easy ● Processes 1. Encoding­ learning; making associations 2. Storage­ retaining/keeping the info 3. Retrieval­ getting info out  3 Stage/Modal Model 1. Sensory Machine: ○ A “buffer” ○ Capacity: unlimited ○ Duration: 50 milliseconds­ 1 sec 2. Short Term Memory ○ Capacity: 722 items ○ What is an item?...chunking groups and meaning i. Increases capacity of short term memory ● Proactive Intervention­ when old information interferes with  new information ● Recency Effect­ what happened recently affecting recall ● Retroactive Interference­ new memory interferes with  remembering old        3. Long Term Memory ● Capacity: unlimited ● Duration: unlimited ● Processing: Automatic/Shallow­repetition  ● Effortful­ conscious/lots of repetition ● Deep­ making connections with long term memory Transfer to Long Term Memory ● Spaced vs Massed Practice­ Attention: less is even transferred to long  term memory ○ Memory Consolidation­ reorganization ● Testing Effect­ retrieval practice February 25, 2016 Memory of Neural Level ● Synaptic Changes­ Wiring Together ● Long Term Potentiation­ with repeated stimulation Retrieval: getting info out ● Context­ depends; Memory­ encoding specifically  ● Environment­ State Dependence­ if you are in a certain mood while  encoding info you should stay in that mood while taking the exams, per say. ○ Implicit/Retrieval Cues ■ Automatic Forgetting: knows as either: ● Encoding Failure­ intentioned “remembering” ● Retrieval Failure ○ Storage decay = forgetting  ○ Interference/Construction Errors ■ Misinformation Effect ● Misleading Post Event Info (MPI) ○ Retrieval is constructive; rebuilds the pathways that were  originally encoded ○ Source Amnesia March 1, 2016 Cognitive ● Thinking vs Learning ○ Learning­ making association ○ Memory­ recalling association ○ Cognitive­ processing/interpreting association ■ “Doing something” with associations ● Integrate/transform ● Concepts­ a general idea/ collection of facts about an idea ● Visual Imagery­ internal pictures  ○ Prototype­ averaged form of internal imagery that include  necessary features of the concepts Problem Solving 1. Trail and Error: randomly trying different combinations in no particular  order  ○ Use when you have no info, or a completely novel situation ○ Inneficient 2. Algorithms­ rule based step by step procedure 3. Heuristics Rule­ based on experience ○ Use information stored to figure it out  ○ Likelihood of occurring  Obstacles of Problem Solving 1. Mental Set­ set “way of thinking” (default mode of thinking) a. Functional Fixedness­ default function for a familiar item 2. Confirmation Bias­ looking for info that confirms our beliefs or a rule 3. Availability Heuristic­ likelihood of something that is very obvious to you a. Strongest novel pathway 4. Overconfidence­ tend to be very confident in our abilities 5. Belief Perseverance­ holding onto previously held beliefs March 3, 2016 Reasoning: transformation of important to reach conclusion ● Inductive­ specific to general info ● Deductive­ general to specific info ○ More common ○ More susceptible to making false info with general  realizations Thinking Creatively­ producing ideas ● Convergent Thinking­ taking facts and arriving at a solution/ problem  solving  ● Divergent Thinking­ generating ideas based on a particular fact/ avoiding  what you know and generating new ideas based on instances of situations Language and Thinking ● Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Language & the Brain 1. Wernicke’s Area­ language comprehension  2. Broca's Area­ language production (speaking words) Universal Grammar ● Syntactic Processing ○ Rapid arrangement and processing word order ○ Ability to generate novel sequences Communication vs Language ● Communication conveys meaning ● Language is infinite “productivity” generativity Language Development ● Receptive­ understanding ● Productive­ producing/ speaking ○ Example: babbling  ■ Phonemes: sound in language ■ Babies can produce one word at 9 months ■ Babies can produce two words in 18­24  months  ■ 28 months­ words and sentences ■ Semantic Burst­ Broca’s area undergoing rapid development (generativity) Critical Sensitive Periods ● Nervous system needs input in a variety of modalities in order to grow or  develop March 8, 2016 When does development begin? ● First trimester Qualitative vs Quantitative ● Qualitative­ different type of ability  ○ New abilities develop over time or in development ○ “Thinking differently” ● Quantitative­ more or less of an ability ○ “Knowing more” Piaget (founder) ● Assimilation­applying new knowledge to an old experience ○ Interpreting according to new experience ● Accommodation­ adapting your old way of thinking ○ Adjusting old info to fit new experience  Stages of Cognitive Development  1. Sensorimotor: (0­2 years old)­ knowledge is based on sensory experience a. No interpretation/ “perception” b. Out of sight, out of mind c. Recognition, but recall 2. Preoperational Stage: (2­7 years old)­ lacking logic abstract thinking  a. Conservation b. Egocentrism­ only their point of view/ perspective  c. Theory of Mind­ mental perspectives; attribute a different  state of knowledge to other individuals 3. Concrete Operational: (7­12 years old) a. Prototypes­ transform info b. Abstract of physical world 4. Formal Operational: (12+ years) a. Abstract Reasoning (Deductive) b. Mental operations on Abstract Rules c. Deductive Reasoning March 10, 2016 Social Development ● Imprint­ bond based on needs being met ● Attachment­ emotional bond to another person  ● Shifts of attachment: a. Secure­ crying in absence; ceasing only upon return b. Insecure/Anxious­ crying in absence, continuing to cry ■ leads to Inconsistency/Abandonment c. Avoidant­ no crying ever! ■ leads to abuse; needs not being met; being  avoided  ● Development of trust: intimacy, friendships  ● Critical Periods a. 2 years and older  Development of Self Concept ● Mirror Self Recognition­ 18 months infants pass ● Self in Relation to others­ changing relation to others ○ Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development ■ Trust ­­­> Initiative ­­­> Competence ­­­>  Intimacy ­­­> Integrity ● Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development ○ Preconventional­ reward (good) and punishment (bad) ○ Conventional­ maintaining social fairness/ justice; obeying  laws ○ Post Conventional­ putting aside the rules ■ Justifying own behavior  ● Development & Aging (60+ years) ○ Memory ■ Recall tends to decline overtime, not so much  recognition ○ Neurocognitive Disorders ■ Myelin Sheath production reduces; signaling is  interrupted because of the decline ■ Acetylcholine (NT) (excitatory) is down ○ Amygdalar Responses ■ Responsiveness only to cognitive events ■ Old people are happier!


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