Government: All the lecture notes needed for the first test.
Government: All the lecture notes needed for the first test. P SC 1113 030
Collin County Community College District
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P SC 1113 030
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by elzbietaag on Friday September 18, 2015. The Bundle belongs to P SC 1113 030 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Tyler Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
American Federal Government Chapter one 82615 oz How do we feel about where we re at gt Opening question Is this country headed in the right direction Or are we on the wrong path Survey ndings NBC Wall Street journal 1000 people 28 right 65 wrong What is happening right now s pessimism explained by recent bad news 0 Police brutality Gay marriage Spontaneous violence 0 Foreign policies Iran Isis etc 0 Russia North Korea etc Maybe not now but recent past Malaysia One year ago July 2014 2271 What good news might balance out the bad Last breakeven April 2009 Last Positive January 2004 Most positive in 20 years September 2001 Is this structural GOVT lays out several forms of government No call to make extreme changes Political science research 2 different types of support for government 0 Diffuse support how we feel about the system we ve chosen 0 Speci c support how we feel about those running the system what they re doing 0 Diffuse support high speci c support mixed to negative Harold Lasswell politics is quotWho gets what when and howquot GOVT discusses services for all services for some Maybe we re sensing all isn t all Maybe we re frustrated with who s in the some GOVT discusses the importance of managing the economy What if we took it off the table Is it con ict resolution American Federal Government Governments decide how con icts will be resolved Resolutions not quick enough Most pressing problems list Federal government setting a bad example as to how Thomas Patterson governing vs game Governing issue talk processed followed Game chasing power over helping people gt Failure across Monroe amp Kersh s 41 depiction Ideas Institutions Interests Individuals Chapter 2 83115 Who represents me essay gt The purpose Citizenship skills is one of the main goals Research skills is another goal gt Representation at 3 levels Federal level your US House member State level your state house member Local level your city council member If I registered to vote what address would I use Base your research off this address gt The rubric 05 local representative 05 state representative 05 federal representative 15 representative positions 1 student position match with representatives 05 writing and grammar 05 the WOW factor gt The specs 2 to 3 pages double spaced Due at the start of class on Monday September 14 Midnight 1 copy in person 1 in D2L Remember penalties for lateness eventual penalties for not D2L or no in person copy gt Put the zip code of the city you choose 75065 Name date zip code in header gt Cite your sources MLA American Federal Government Amending the Constitution 393 The Bill of Rights gt The rati cation battle Known con ict federalists vs antifederalists Lesser known does the document need a bill of rights Bill of rights traditional to many The failure of Federalists 84 Hamilton argues a Bill of Rights is unnecessary Why Governments small Why Many rights already included Why Redundant Why If you care about federal power making a list is dangerous The price of rati cation A rare failure for federalists Bill of Rights promised under the new government Building the Bill of Rights James Madison quotFather of the constitution and quotfather of the Bill of Rightsquot The concept still divisive The congressional process whittles down the list 20 to 17 to 11 to 12 10 eventually rati ed Gregory Watson quotstepfather of the 27th amendment salvages 1 from the scrap head UT student Came up with the idea when he was writing a college essay that he got a C on The 17 that followed Extending rights eg prohibiting slavery extending voting Adjusting election rules eg direct election of senators presidential term limits Modifying government operations eg presidential succession inauguration Expand or adjust government power eg income tax prohibition 0 Beyond the Bill of right gt gt 4 ways constitutions can change Revolution Amendments Interpretation Construction Amendability Too rigid Legitimacy might drop Times change people change but imagine if constitution couldn t American Federal Government Too easily revised Constitution becomes a weapon Strong run roughshod over weak gt Amendments are longshots 10000 amendments introduced 27 success stories and 10 of those at once gt What s been proposed recently New rights to housing to quality education to a quotclean safe sustainable environmentquot New electoral rules eliminate Electoral College limit campaign contributions establish term limits New values de ne marriage prohibit ag desecration make English the of cial language permit prayer in school gt Rising to the constitutional level Consider the 18th amendment prohibition Important enough for an amendment Or could it have been handled by congress or the states Also a good example of times changing changing again Why go constitutional Frustration with government decision making as is gt How we amend proposing an amendment First path 23 vote in both houses of congress Second path national convention called by congress at request of 23 of state legislature unused so far Too dangerous or unpredictable to call a convention gt How we amend rati cation First path used 26 times 34 of state legislature approve Second path used once for the 18th amendment ratifying conventions in 34 of states Time limits on rati cation in modern times usually 10 gt How some states do it differently Make it harder amendment must pass in consecutive sessions Make it easier simple majorities of legislators rather than 23 to propose Open up to the process let citizens vote on amendments through initiatives EX California s constitution has 500 amendments Interpreting the constitution gt Stealth amending Supreme court interpretation of what amendments mean is key EX 14th amendment citizenship rights and equal protection Proposed to deal with issues regarding former slaves Interpretation over time far reaching gt Famous Cases Related to 14th amendment interpretation American Federal Government Arguments regarding substantive due process Lochner Griswold Roe Obergfell Arguments regarding equal protection Plessy Korematsu Brown Loving Bakke Arguments regarding incorporation Gitlow Mapp Gideon gt Judicial interpretation Article 3 is silent allowing courts to evolve How they evolve depends on how judges approach their jobs Do they defer to legislators and executives Do they have ideologies gt Common approaches Strict construction what judges can and cant do Textualism cant look at the philosophies look at the end product Original intent go back and read the words of the founding fathers Modernism realize that the constitution is old and times have change gt Question Which approach seems the most legitimate in my opinion Modernism because the problems we had when they wrote it aren t exactly the problems we re dealing with now For example technology wasn t a problem way back when Which seems the least legitimate o In my opinion original intent There s no way to know what the founding fathers were thinking while they were creating the constitution so we can t judge anything now and know 100 that that s what the founding fathers meant oz The pros and cons of federalism gt Federalism According to GOVT quotGovernment powers are shared by the national government and the statesquot Reality power shared by many many entities gt The 89000 or so governments 1 federal governments 50 states and DC 3000 counties 19500 municipalities 16000 townships 37000 special districts Nearly 13000 school districts gt According to the Oklahoma Policy Institute don t need to know the numbers so don t worry About 1900 of these 89000 are in Oklahoma 77 counties 594 municipalities American Federal Government 567 school districts 642 special districts airports water and sewer emergency medical services and some utilities gt Advantages and disadvantages Pro 0 Deal with size of the nation 0 Experimentation Respect subcultures Not mentioned in GOVT opportunities for citizens to get involved to have access Cons Small units potentially dominated by factions 0 Laws not uniform from one place to the next 0 Legal red tape 0 Not mentioned in GOVT confusion for citizens over where to turn to solve problems Federalism creates an incredibly broad answer to the question quotwho represents mequot o Is that answer strictly electoral in nature Graphical in nature 0 How should I want these individuals to view their jobs 393 Rethinking representation gt How does representation work Classic model Warren Miller and Donald Strokes Representation is congruence how well what an elected official does matches district opinion 0 Listens to what everyone under him wants and votes that way 0 Its united Public seeks to control members through elections o If the elected official doesn t listen to the people he is less likely to get reelected Problem do citizens have opinions Do they express them Do they use elections gt Heinz Eulau and Paul Karps Other Forms Service respond to speci c needs wants problems in your area Allocation bring home the cash Symbolic getting things on the agenda listening to all voices building relationships gt Representational Woes What if you re a Democrat living in a part of Oklahoma in which every elected official is a Republican What if you care about an issue and your elected officials feel the opposite Or don t care American Federal Government What if my elected officials are completely different people than I am demographically Women being represented by all men 0 Mexican represented by all whites In essence is representation solely about geography gt Alternate conceptions of representation collective Your location may differ from state dynamics or national dynamics Some elected officials look outward as well Result collective representation Collective representation some elected officials stand for groups broader more dispersed than an geographical location gt Alternate conceptions of representation Descriptive Women 51 of the population about 20 of congress Latinos 17 of the population about 7 of congress African American 13 of the population 9 of congress Scholars call this underrepresentation Result descriptive representation Descriptive representation linkages between underrepresented groups and elected officials who share demographics gt In closing Federalism creates countless possibilities when it comes to representation If I don t like my elected officials and what they re doing I can look elsewhere 9915 oz The Challenges of Liberties gt The question Lets say the Oklahoma Nazi party if there was such a thing wanted to hold a demonstration in Norman What arguments could be made for or against such a request 0 For 9 Freedom of speech 0 Against o Effects of what they had to say on the community 9 What repercussions would come from this gt Counter rally gt Riots gt Bigger problems gt The Skokie Case 1977 National Socialist Party of America Nazis wants to hold a demonstration carry signs wear uniforms American Federal Government Rejected by Chicago who required insurance settle on suburban Skokie home of thousands ofjewish residents City passes new requirements insurance required no demonstration by hostile groups Freedom of expression lawsuits lead courts to side with Nazis 91415 Liberties and rights 393 The challenges of liberty gt gt gt The rst amendment Freedom of speech religion press and peaceful assembly Interpreting the rst amendment Seems straightforward Might think of a pendulum swinging between freedom and protection Pendulum shifts based on state of affairs Today focus on historical and modern challenges to some of these liberties Original philosophies Founders didn t always live up to those ideals ex alien and sedition acts Earliest major speech case 1919 s Schenck cases quotclear in present dangerquot as test of 1917 Espionage Act Near vs Minnesota 1931 key case in favor of free expression by newspapers 0 Media can report on the lives of elected officials Over time shift from quotbalancing doctrinequot to what some call quotfundamental freedomsquot doctrine where government has to meet heavy burden New York Times vs United States 1971 leaked classi ed documents on state of Vietnam War an example of government failing to meet this burden Who s swinging the pendulum Three cases above government versus individualsmedia At times government action built on foundation of public opinion A Gallup question quotIn order to curb terrorism in this country do you think it will be necessary for the average person to give up some civil libertiesquot Trends 9 1997 30 percent agree 9 post 911 just under 60 percent agree 9 by 2009 back down to 30 percent American Federal Government o similar downward trends for national ID cards gov t ability to monitor credit cardsphoneemail Q key to moving that pendulum perception of threat gt Testing tolerance Vague questions like quotdo you believe in freedom of speechquot lead to a strong support Start naming groups KKK Nazis etc support drops Sullivan Pierson and Marcus the quotleast liked groupquot changes over time very different in 19505 19705 20005 Why Threats change new issues pop onto the agenda gt Norms and Power Conditioning Marcus Sullivan TheissMorse and Wood tolerance is shaped by multiple assessments of the situation Do we think demonstrators will follow norms cooperate with police follow routes or be violent and cause trouble Do we think demonstrators have any chance of gaining power The Skokie example no to the rst a mixed history on the second Rights and the path to leadership gt Electoral prejudice 3 examples just given known as quotThe Bradley Effect Possibly a result of quotsocial desirability biasquot amongst whites surveyed 2008 presidential election a true sign we ve advanced gt Todays goal Consider how attitudes toward groups play out electorally Consider the quotunderrepresentationquot issue from last week and whether or not bias drives it Al consider how types of prejudice affect extension of rights described in GOVT gt The date on race and ethnicity 1958 35 willing to support a wellquali ed African American presidential candidate 1997 and beyond 90 plus Recent surveys similar willingness to support Latino candidates 2011 Pew Survey 85 said candidates race wouldn t matter others say it helps or hurts gt 2016 How might Hillary Clinton s gender help or hurt her if at all in a run for the White House in 2016 0 Positive 9 She s well known so she wont be drilled as much as other women running 9 People might vote for her because they want to make history by electing our rst woman president American Federal Government o She can swing the people that are pretty independent to vote for her just because she is a woman 0 Negative 9 Guys wont go for feminism o More emotional then men o quotHow do you plan on running the country and taking care of your familyquot 9 quotWhat are you wearing todayquot The data on gender 1937 13 of Americans willing to support a wellquali ed women presidential candidate 19505 and 19605 climbs to 50 Women s movement drives sharp upward movement By 1999 up to 92 Explaining uctuation A 2002 survey showed that 65 of respondents would vote for a quali ed woman candidate nominated by their party for the presidency 7 said no 28 were unsure What explains the differences between 1999 and 2002 0 People just say things to look positive 0 People need more convincing that women would be as tough as men especially when it came to war 0 People think that women focus on domestic issues education etc Gender stereotyping Same poll 35 said men would be more competent punishing those responsible for 911 Same poll 40 say men would do a betterjob protecting the homeland By 2011 back up to 93 willingness The data on religion Increasing acceptance of voting for well quali ed Jewish candidate from 45 in 1937 to 80 now Catholic from 60 in 1937 to 85 now candidate over time Same cant be said for wellquali ed Mormon candidates about 34 of Americans in 1967 similar numbers today Struggling for acceptance Muslin candidates and atheists 49 say the fact a candidate is Muslim wouldn t affect their vote 46 say it would make them less likely to support past 2 years 33 say the fact a candidate is atheist wouldn t affect their vote 61 say it would make them less likely to support The data on sexual orientation Increasing openness on candidates mirrors increasing openness in general American Federal Government 1978 a quarter of Americans would be willing to vote for a well quali ed gay or lesbian candidate 2007 45 2011 67 gt Encouraged Discouraged Positive trends Negative meaningful minority especially given closeness f elections still hesitant Another negative levels of implicit prejudice gt Hypotheticals and realities Numbers can be overcome right times right issues right candidates Successful examples can further overcome the hesitant End result underrepresentation dissipates a bit Civil rights and opinion change gt Principles versus practice In general concept of equal rights receives strong support Related policy solutions don t poll as well Similar to Mondays ndings on liberties gt Race principles and practice 1942 only 13 of whites wanted integrated schools 1995 95 of whites support integrated schools quotbusingquot policy solution of busing students widely unpopular af rmative action another issue where support exists in principle less so in practice preferences quotas gt Sexual orientation principles and practice 1977 56 say gays and lesbians should have equal rights to job opportunities by 2008 90 agree policy solution of banning employment discrimination not universal support for protecting samesex relationships always and still lags behind samesex marriage an instance of courts outpacing public
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