Linguistic 20 Notes
Linguistic 20 Notes Ling 20
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Lecture 1 3/11/16 12:21 AM • Approximately how many languages are there in the world? 7,000 • Constitute one language or two language? Mutual intelligibility – they understand each other • Dialect continuum – when you have one language closer to another although they speak supposedly the “same” language A – B – C – D (a is closer to B, rather than closer to C or D; might not understand each other) • Noam Chomsky • Theory: at an underlying level, deep down all languages are the same • Just a few rules that make languages different • Most influential linguists in 20 century • Proposed that all languages have nouns and verbs (?) • Dialect: might have some different words and grammar, but minimal • Dialect refers to the word • Vernacular: prefers to a local way of speaking • Less specific; indigenous language • Can also mean dialect • Accent: sounds (everyone has an accent) • Idiolect: individual’s dialect • Linguistics: scientific study of language • What do we study in linguistics: • Phonology: sounds that we make and understand o In a given language; specific to a language • Phonetics: studying speech sounds o Skipped (t), snowed (d), waited (ed) – makes it easier to say o Lecture 2 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to explain what is unique about human language • Be able to explain language endangerment • Be able to explain descriptive vs. prescriptive approaches to language • CLICKER QUESTION: 50% of languages are endangered What Makes a Language Endangered? • Number of speakers are dwindling • Raw number of speakers can be indicative, but the number of speakers going down is important • Population size alone cannot tell you if language is endangered • Linguists document indigenous languages to help with future references What is Unique about Human Language • Can create an infinite number of sentences • Things that happen in the past and the things that are fictional, aren’t physical • Animals can do what a lot of human languages can do, but to a smaller extent o No evidence that any animal communication levels compare to the extent of human communication What is the difference between a descriptive and prescriptive approach in studying a language? • Descriptive: objectively describing the speech patterns and sounds • Prescriptive: most of the rules in languages today were invented in the 18 century by people who thought that the middle and lower class people were on too much of a rise • English should be logical (Latin) • Felt like language was “going to hell” because lower/middle class was using their way of talking and getting richer Lecture 3 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning objectives • Be able to describe English words by their sounds and not their spelling • Be able to describe consonants by their voicing • Be able to describe consonants by their place of articulation • Be able to describe the anatomy of the human vocal tract • Linguistics pretty much never talks about spelling (only pronunciation) Anatomy • Voicing is made in the larynx and vocal folds • Larynx: whole space in the throat • Vocal folds: two flaps of fleshy skin between the larynx • Glottis: space between the vocal folds • Which of the following sounds use the alveolar ridge? /t/ • Alveolar: Behind the top teeth • What is the place of articulation of a /b/ sound? • Labial – lips • What is the place of articulation of a /k/ sound? • Velar – velum (the soft palette of the top of your mouth in the back) • K, g, ng • What is the place of articulation of [sh] as in sheep • Halfway between alveolar and palatte • Post-alveolar (alveolo palatal): between alveolar and palatte • Opposite of [sh] is [ge] genre, garage, rouge Lecture 4 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to describe consonants by their manner of articulation • Be familiar with IPA symbols for English consonants Example Questions: • What is the difference between [s] in hiss and [t] in hit? Manner of articulation Consonants are described in terms of: • Voicing • Place of articulation • Manner of articulation • Usually aren’t syllabic – a line under the consonant that is doing vowel work o Ex: ‘reader’ the ‘er’, ‘little’ the ‘le’, ‘fly’ the ‘y’ Today’s Objectives Vowels are described in terms of: • Height (high/mid/low) • Frontness (front/central/back) • Tenseness (tense/lax) • [Roudning (rounded/unrounded)] MISSED THIS DAY 3/11/16 12:21 AM 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to describe IPA symbols • Practice transcribing in IPA • Identify natural classes Natural Class • Share one or more phonetic features • Only sound in that language that have these features o Ex: English has the ‘r’ that Spanish doesn’t have • English: voiceless stops 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Identify natural classes • Be able to show how natural classes can explain alternations Natural Class • A set of sounds that share one or more phonetic feature AND • The complete set of sounds sharing those features in that language • Ex: Are the vowels in rat and ran pronounced the same or different? Different • Ex: Are the vowels in write and ride pronounced the same or different? Different • Fight [faɪt] • Side [saɪd] • Ripe [ɹaɪp] • Tribe [tɹaɪb] • Rice [ɹaɪs] • Rise [ɹaɪz] • Allophones – variances, language specific o Complementary distribution – predict where they occur • H becomes palatal before [i] • H becomes rounded before [u] • Cute à # _ j Lecture 8 3/11/16 12:21 AM • Possible syllabic consonants: r, m, n, l Which of the following is a minimal pair? • Bear vs hear • Moat vs gloat • Poor vs boar • Plate vs rate • Rat vs tar • Minimal pair: two words different by only one phoneme • Incontrastive pairs • If two sounds are in contrastive distribution, they are separate phonemes • If two sounds are in complementary distribution, they are allophones of a single phoneme • Free variation: stops – release them or not; possible vaiation in English that doesn’t create a difference in meaning • Allophones: something we always do; it would sound weird, funny accent (nasal) Steps to Write a Rule: • Check for minimal pairs and near minimal pairs • List environments for the target sounds (figure out where they occur) • Check preceding and following sounds • Write a rule Lecture 9 3/11/16 12:21 AM • In English, nasal vowels occur before nasal consonants, and oral vowels occur before oral consonants (complementary distribution) Learning Objectives • Be able to determine whether two soudsin a language are separate phonemes, allophones, etc. To Determine the Phonemic Status of Two Sounds: Are the sounds in complementary distribution? • Yes: are the sounds phonetically similar? Yes: they are allophones of the same phoneme No: They belong to two separate phonemes • No: Does substituting one sound for the other change meaning? Yes: They belong to two separate phonemes No: They are in free variation Korean Language Example: No minimal pairs, so… S Sh #_i #_a I_i A_u Ng_i A_a / u_e O_i I_o / p_a A_i #_u / #_o Rule: /s/ à [sh]/_i The phoneme /s/ has two allophones [s] and [sh], but [sh] only occurs when coming before a vowel [i] Mokilese Language Example: [i] [i̥] [u] [u̥] T_# P_s D_p S_p K_# K_s #_d P_k P_l K_t D_k P_d L_d3 Rule: V (voiced) à V (voiceless) / C (voiceless) _ C (voiceless) Voiceless ones occur between voiceless consonants 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to determine whether two sounds in a language are separate phonemes, allophones or in free variations • If there are allophones, where • If we have minimal pairs for two sounds, what can we conclude about those two sounds? They are separate phonemes • If two sounds are in complementary distribution, what can we conclude about those two sounds? They are allophones of the same phoneme Russian Example: /a/ à [a] / _[t] /a/ becomes [alpha] before [t] German Example A_t U_# C_# O_# U_t A_e schwa All come after back vowels I_# E_t E_e schwa E_e schwa I_e schwa E_t schwa All come after back vowels Rule: /x/ à [ç] / V (front) _ Tojolabal Example: #_i #_o o_t a_# a_a s_u i_a overlapping: a_a, #_a, a_# à contrastive distribution, separate phonemes a_a #_a #_i #_u Japanese Example: T, ts, tʃ t #_a #_e i_a a_s a_a #_o #_s a_o #_s u_s a_e o_o elsewhere ts #_u u_u e_u a_u always followed by u tʃ #_i i_i a_i u_i always followed by i Rule: (Complementary) /t/ à [ts]/_[u]/t/ à [tʃ]_[i] /t/ becomes [ts] before [u] /t/ becomes [tʃ] before [i] Italian Example: N I_t E_d A_t #_e e_t o_e elsewhere ŋ i_g e_g u_g a_k a_k a_g come before velar stops Rule: /n/ à [ŋ]/_c (velar) Spanish Example: [d] [ð] [d] #_ɾ #_o #_i n_a l_o #_u l_o l_a elsewhere [ð] a_a a_o o_i i_a between vowels Rule: /d/ à [ð]/v_v Spanish Example 2: [b] [β] b _i #_r m_j β i_i a_o u_t u_a e_l a_r comes after vowels Rule: /b/ à [β]/v_ Lecture 11 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to define “word” • Identify free vs. bound morphemes • Identify different kinds of affixes How Many Morphemes? Baker’s – bak er ‘s Clocks – clock s Disappearance – dis appear ance Dysfunctional – dys function al Friendly – friend ly Girlfriend – girl friend Imbalance – im balance Impersonal – im personal Messy – mess y Mismanagement – miss manage ment Restructure – re structure Sillier – silli er Stapler – stapl er Thickeners – thick en er s Unmistakable – un mistak able Unspeakably – un speak ab ly Unsure – un sure Waited – wait ed Lecture 12 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives: • Identify different kinds of affixes • Identify other word-formation processes • Identify and explain allomorphs • Complete a simple morphology problem • Derivational – can change part of speech; can change the meaning in an unpredictable way; not highly productive o Example: mismanagement, friendly, stapler • Inflectional – never changes part of speech; always highly productive (you can apply it to lots of different morphemes); meaning is always predictable • Compound – when you have two roots together o Example: ice cream, blackboard • Reduplication – taking either two morphemes or a part of a morpheme and repeat it • Example: job, jobjob/ like, likelike Lecture 13 – Midterm Review 3/11/16 12:21 AM Difference between human and animal communication: • Animals cannot communicate past/future concepts (abstract) • Infinite number of sentences (human); limited number of communicative topics (animals) • Animals do not use language as parts of speech; nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc. • Nominative: subject • Accusative: object • Example: John hugged Mary. (John: subj, Mary: obj) Mary hugged John. (Mary: subj, John: obj) • Example: He hugged her. (He: subj = nom) She hugged him. (Him: obj = acc) • WON’T BE ON THE TEST Inflectional vs. Derivational • Inflectional: doesn’t change the core meaning of a word; highly productive (if it applies to nouns, it can apply to virtually every noun in English); never changes part of speech; meaning is predictable o Example: • Derivational morpheme: could change the part of speech; not always productive; meaning can be unpredictable o Example: friendly vs. friend (changes part of speech) Reduplication • Repeat either a whole morpheme or part of a word or morpheme o Example: jobyjob, like like vs like Complementary Distribution • We can state the distribution in terms of a rule • We can predict • Example: _at; is it [p] or aspirated [p]? (with h as a superscript) • They are allophones of a single phoneme • Speakers of a language often don’t think of them as distinct sounds Contrastive Distribution • The two sounds contrast different words • There are minimal pairs or overlapping environments • We cannot predict • Example: _at; is it a [p] or [b]? Steps to write a rule: 1. Find minimal pairs 2. List environments • If minimal pairs, contrastive distribution: separate phonemes • If not minimal pairs, complementary distribution: allophones of same phoneme 3. Look for pattern in environment 4. State whether allophone or separate phoneme 5. If allophones, write a rule Lecture 14 3/11/16 12:21 AM English noun phrases · Noun is head · Move around as a unit · A pronoun replaces an entire NP · Order of elements within a NP is fixed · (Article, dem, poss) (numeral)(adj)(noun)(pp)(relative clause) relative clause: a secntence that modifies a noun · man who ate my cake · relative clause contains who and everything that comes after · ex: boy that sat on the corner. “that sat on the corner is relative clause · put comma before wh words but not before the th words. Wh is a non restrictive and th is restrictive · recursion: when a noun phrase can have another noun phrase inside or preposition has noun phrase inside of it or a preoposition with a preposition inside of it English prepositional phrases · PP=prep NP · Both preposition and NP are obligatory · Order of preposition and NP is fixed · Preposition and NP must be contiguous · What are you talking about? Preposition cant be last so why is it last in here? o However, talking about turns into a particle verb o Ex: take out, turn in o Particle verbs can also be separated from each other such as what did you get me into? Get and into are separated o I threw up o Bring it around. Bring and around are particle verbs o The game is over “the game” subj NP and over is VP o I picked up the trash. The trash can be put in between picked and up, this would be a particle verb English verb phrases · Verb is head · The entire VP can be replaced with do · Optional depends include adverbs, PPs, object NPs Several students left early · Noun phrase is several students Quantifiers · Several · Some · Few · Many · All · None All of the students liked phonetics. what is prepositional phrase? · Of the students o Structure of PP = prep Np o PP= of in to by from for over under on by on out at around into onto above below The children are playing in the park · Pp= in the park The children are playing in the park · Are playing in the park is the verb phrase · “Are” is an auxillary verb or helping verb Tree Diagram the chair in the corner of the room with the blue walls has three legs Lecture 15 3/11/16 12:21 AM ]Learning Objectives • Practice making tree diagrams • Be able to identify subjects, (direct) objects, and indirect objects • Be able to identify whether a sentence is transitive, intransitive, ditransitive • Be able to identify whether a sentence is active or passive Example: The dog completely destroyed the house. S VP NP NP Art, N, Adv, V, art, N Example: Maybe the dog has fleas. S VP NP NP Adv, art, n, v, n Example: That cat is cute. S NP VP Dem, N, V, adj Example: The magician touched the child with the wand. AMBIGUOUS (because it can go either way) 1. Magician holding the wand S VP PP NP NP NP Art, n, v, art, n, prep, art, n Example: The puppy found the child. Example: Angry men in dark glasses roam the streets. Example: All the ice melted. Example: The old tree swayed in the wind. Example: I ate and she watched TV. • Core noun phrase: subject, object, indirect object, required by the verb • Subject/object never occur with the preposition • The only object that can have a prepositional phrase before it is an indirect object o Only to recipients, for recipients • Oblique noun phrase: optional (able to be omitted), can be moved around, place/location/instrument Example: Lecture 16 3/11/16 12:21 AM Testing For Oblique NPs • Can the NP be moved? • Can it be omitted? • Does it express adverbial information (place, location, instrument? • If yes, then it is an oblique • Example: Mark wrote a letter to his friend in prison. o “in prison” is expressing a location, but a part of “to his friend in prison” • Example: I rote my bike to campus. o Identify the parts of speech o “to campus” is oblique, “I” and “my bike” are core noun phrases All your Core Arguments are going to be one of these three things: Subject NPs • Are obligatory in English • Precede the verb • Are never part of a prepositional phrase (Direct) Object NPs • Follow the verb • Are never part of a prepositional phrase Indirect Object NPs • Only occur if there is also a subject and a direct object • Are core arguments • Can occur directly after the verb or in a prepositional phrase with to or for o Example: In prison, Mark wrote a letter to his friend. o “Mark” subject o “a letter” object o “his friend” indirect object • Example: I gave Scott a snickers bar. / I gave a snickers bar to Scott. o “Scott” indirect object o “a snickers bar” direct object o “I” subject Intransitive: has one core argument (core noun phrase) • NP = subject Transitive: has two core arguments (core noun phrases) • NPs = subject and direct object Ditransitive: has three core arguments (core noun phrases) • NPs = subject, direct object, and indirect object • Applies more to the clause than sentences Determine the grammatical relation of the underlined noun phrase. Example: Pierre walked to the bakery. Oblique Determine transitivity of the sentence. Example: Pierre walked to the bakery. Intransitive Example; Pierre gave the cupcake to his mother. Ditransitive Passive Voice • Decreasing transitivity • Taking an object and making it a subject • Example: Pierre forgot his homework. (transitive – active) o His homework was forgotten by Pierre. (intransitive – passive) o Switch subject and object (Pierre and homework) Lecture 17 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Review prescriptive vs. descriptive • Be able to distinguish dialect, accent, and slang • Be able to explain what standard language is • Accent is about phonetics and phonology; consonants and vowels; pronunciation; the way you pronounce things • Dialect is about phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, norms of interaction, etc.; whole system of grammar/pronunciation • Slang refers to informal vocabulary that is constantly changing; typically associated with the younger generations • Vernacular: the speech variety (dialect, language) that people are using in everyday speech • Standard language: language that is academically accepted as the norm; what is taught to children in school • Comes from all of us or media Lecture 18 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Review prescriptive vs. descriptive • Review the notion of standard language • Be able to explain what African American English is, where it comes from, and how it is used • Be able to explain how socially-conditioned language variation gives rise to language change Lecture 19 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to explain code-switching and style-shifting • Be able to explain how a linguistic repertoire is used to show identity Lecture 20 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to explain how language change over time • Be able to explain why English spelling is difficult • Be familiar with a language family tree Why would language change? • Ease of pronunciation Reasons why languages might be similar: • Onomatopoeia – splash (represents water splashing) • Chance • Contact (borrowing) – at one point, there was only one language; becoming mutually unintelligible; share a common language, but may not be mutually intelligible • Common inheritance (relatedness) Lecture 21 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to apply the steps of the comparative method to solve a reconstruction problem • English is most closely related to Dutch and German • Step: find out what languages you want to compare • Step 2: make a table (similar to that of contrastive); list the sound correspondences (go through the whole set) • Step 3: Decide what the sound ancestor had; decide the phoneme • *star: making an educated guess what the earlier language had (reconstructed); making a guess what the earlier language sounded like • Sets that are not identical, we need to apply a principle 1. Sounds get lost 2. Stops become fricatives 3. Stops become glottal stops 4. Fricatives become glottal h 5. Assimilation (sounds becomes more like other sounds that are near them) becomes more like surrounding sounds Reconstruction example: *d > t in NP, *h > θ in Ute. - Identify potential cognates - List sound correspondences - Reconstruct proto sounds - State sound changes that occurred in each language - Reconstruct words Example: Middle Chinese Mandarin/Hakka L l * A a * Θ t *t M m * C c * Θ k *k tç g *g I i Θ p *p N n * P p * Stops > θ/_# in Mandarin *g > [tç] in Mandarin Example: Dumut Languages (Papua New Guinea) Mandobo/Yonggom/Digul R r l à A a a *a N n n *n K k k *k E e e *e o o o *o p p p *p - r l à w w w *w g g x à I I I *I T t s à Lecture 22 3/11/16 12:21 AM Learning Objectives • Be able to explain stages of child language development Stages in Child Language Acquisition • Preverbal • One word stage • Two word stage • Telegraphic stage Phonological Error Patterns • Make CV syllables o Reduce consonant clusters o Delete final consonants • Sound substitution patterns o Stops are easiest o Voiced stops at beginning of syllable o Voiceless stops at end of syllable • Assimilation patterns o E.g., consonant harmony – if there’s two consonants in the word, they try to make the consonants similar either in manner or place of articulation • Example: [dak] for ‘dog’ – voiceless stops at end of syllable • Example: [dak] for ‘tock’ – voiced stops at beginning of syllable • Example: [dak] for ‘sock’ – use stops instead of other consonants • Example: [dak] for ‘block’ – make CV syllables Lexical overextension: child word covers a larger range of meanings than adult word • Example: Using “doggie” to refer to any furry animal Lexical underextension: child word is used for a smaller range of meaning than adult word • Example: Using “doggie” for ONLY the child’s dog, not any other dog Common order of acquisition of 14 English function morphemes English Child Directed Speech Prosody: high pitch, slower rate Lexicon: special vocabulary, often with reduplication Grammar: use of names for pronouns Discourse: vocatives, imperatives, repetition Lecture 23 3/11/16 12:21 AM English Child Directed Speech • Prosody: high pitch, slower rate • Lexicon: special vocabulary, often with reduplication • Grammar: use of names for pronouns • Discourse: vocatives, imperatives, repetition Nativist approach: language is innate, something you’re born with; you just need exposure to a particular language to fine tune Lecture 24 3/11/16 12:21 AM What is the transitivity of find? Example: You can find that word in the dictionary. • Transitive • Subject: You • Direct object: that word • Indirect object: the dictionary Chapter 1: Introduction 3/11/16 12:22 AM List of Aims • Articulate the importance of language to human lives and society • Discuss the ways in which language is a functional system of human communication • Take an objective, descriptive approach to discussion of language-related issues • Begin to identify fine details of linguistic structure • State basic demographic facts about the world’s languages, including issues of language vitality and endangerment • State in what ways linguistics is scientific and objective • Provide a brief overview of the major subfields of linguistics Language Language and You; Language and Us • Language is an essential and ubiquitous component of our lives • Language: primary medium which you use to interact with people and institutions in our society • Means to build and portray our identities in the world around us • Shape and interpret great and small experiences of our lives • As language passes from generation to generation, it shifts and adapts to the ever-changing world in which it is embedded • Language is a pervasive and essential part both of your own life and of who we are as humankind • “How do individual languages work?” Language is Human and All That That Implies • Language is one of the defining traits of humankind • no system of animal communication appears to be able to communicate events that occurred in the past or events that are imaginary • Language is embedded into our physiology, our cognition, and our thought processes • Anatomical facts are also responsible for a number of features of sound systems • Language processes are largely resident in the brain and so language shares characteristics with other cognitive functions (both learnable and adaptable) • Language use for wide variety of purposes; language is functional; it is a tool of human communication • Linguistic structures are flexible and adaptable, able to convey all that humans convey to each other in the course of a conversation, a day, a lifetime, a civilization • Language is a form of human social behavior • Using language is an inherently interactional task • Addressee: the person to whom we are speaking • Interactional component of language is both deep and subtle; structures of human language reflect our interactional needs • Language is structured to take advantage of human creativity • All languages are constructed in a way that allows for creation of novel utterances; any language can produce an infinite number of sentences • Task is to describe the design principles underlying language that make that infinite number of sentences possible • Speech community: group of people who share a common language or dialect and cultural practices • Language change: if an innovation continues to spread, it could become a regular feature of the language and constitute a language change Language is Dynamic and Adaptable • Language is in a constant process of change • Over a longer time span, the cumulative effect of those generations becomes more noticeable • It is easy to identify the linguistic features that mark this as archaic: the use of the old second-person familiar pronouns, thee and thou; the inflected verb forms lovest and dost; and the use of now antiquated words and expressions, such as fie upon and visage • All aspects of language can undergo change • Sounds can enter a language or fall out of use; words can develop into prefixes, suffixes, or other small linguistic units (meanings can be broadened, narrowed, or otherwise shifted) • Social implications of using particular words and phrases can change over time, as can larger patterns, such as how we structure and present information • Language adapts to the world around it • Ex: e-mail, nanotechnology, cell phone, and Internet vs. hogshead, demijohn • Changes in vocabulary can reflect social changes as well • Ex: spinster – unmarried woman past the age of marrying; this word has vanished from everyday vocabulary • Languages also undergo adaptations under the influence of language contact; when speakers of two distinct languages interact with each other in large numbers over a period of time, one or both languages generally undergo change • Sounds, word structures, and sentence structures can also take on qualities of adjacent language o Ex: In the Tibeto-Burman language family, the majority of languages place the verb at the end of the sentence (John apple ate); there is one group of Tibeto-Burman languages, the Karenic group, which places the verb in the middle of the sentence (John ate apple) § Significant change to Karenic grammar resulted from language contact through the medium of bilingualism • Languages adapt not only to the changing technological world, but also to their broader social environment Language is Structured and Systematic • Regular and recurring patterns form the basis of linguistic structure • In English most verbs have a predictable past-tense form (-ed), but has different pronunciations • List A: baked, blessed, heaped, puffed, crashed • List B: rubbed, waved, lagged, billed, hummed • List C: waited, faded, booted, coded, righted • Notice List A end in <t> T-List, List B end in <d> D-List, List C end in <ed> ED-List • Word 1: smipped • Word 2: croomed • Word 3: pluted • “Pre-suffixal” consonants: consonants that directly precede the suffix • You don’t find any of T-List pre-suffixal consonants in D-List words, etc. • The pronunciation of the past-tense suffix depends upon the pre-suffixal consonant • Even though Words 1-3 are nonsense words, they still follow the systematic patterns of pronunciation that form a significant part of the English language • In English, the past tense –ed will be pronounced as: <t> following the consonants <k, s, p, f, sh>, as <d> following <b, v, d, l, m>, and as <ed> following <t> or <d> • Statement of a pattern or systematic fact of English (rule) • Once we have observed a regular pattern in language, we are led to the question of why this pattern should occur • Takes us from recognition and description of a pattern to a search for an explanation of the observed facts • Explanation is physiological, based on how we produce sounds in our vocal tracts • Patterns in language can be explained by the role of language as a functional system of human communication • Explanation comes from embedding of language in our human physiologies; in other cases, other aspects of the functional nature of language explain linguistic patterns • Some patterns are concerned exclusively with sounds, other patterns are found at other levels, such as word structure or sentence structure • Phonology: all the patterns in a language that explicitly involve sounds make up the “sound system” • Morphology: the patterns which involve word structure • Syntax: the patterns which involve sentence structure • Each of these sub-systems of language is independent, but each is also interwoven with others • Ex: both phonology and morphology are involved • Grammar: morphology and syntax of a language • No language is perfectly systematic • Idiosyncratic, or irregular, behavior due to language change • Irregularities are leftovers from older patterns that have been obliterated, as new structures emerge and spread through the language • Ex: “shine” – two forms of past tense, shined and shone o Shined – constructed by adding regular past-tense suffix to verb stem and following the rule of past-tense formation we just discovered o Shone – reflection of an old pattern where past tense was indicated by changing vowel in verb’s root (developed from earlier stage in language) • Irregularities in language usually result from language change Linguistic Analysis • Linguistic analysis: how to recognize and analyze systematic patterns in a wide variety of language • Requires learning common – sometimes rare – linguistic categories that are found in the languages of the world, the terminology that accompanies those categories, and the theories underlying them • The critical question is: what motivates the linguistic structures to be formed in precisely that way? • Answer depends crucially upon particular structure being explained • Number of distinct domains that may contribute to it: o Semantics: meaning o Function: how the structure is used in context o Language change: factors related to history o Phonetics: physical properties of sound o Neurology, cognition: structure of human brain and how we learn and process knowledge Languages of the World Today • We don’t have an exact count, although we are able to make an educated guess about how many languages are spoken in the world • Two primary reasons why counting up languages is tricky • Linguists haven’t identified all languages of the world yet o Speech (and sign-language) communities that follow their traditional ways of life and who have had little interaction with larger population groups or researchers o Languages of these groups are still undescribed • It is difficult to decide which speech varieties should be counted as languages and which should be counted as dialects of a single language • Mutual intelligibility: can speakers of the two language varieties under each other? • Criterion suggests that if they can understand each other, two varieties are to be considered dialects of a single language • If they cannot understand each other, varieties are to be considered distinct languages • Problem: • Often multiple varieties of a language o While speakers of adjacent varieties can understand each other, speakers of geographically separated varieties have a much harder time o Figure 1.1 Schematization of Language Varieties o ß A B C D E à o Each letter represents speakers of different varities and arrow represents geographic distance; while speakers of A might easily understand speaker of D, it might be quite difficult to converse with speakers of E o Situation is known as dialect continuum and represents a common situation throughout the world o Communities aren’t usually ranged along a straight road with distinct boundaries, and often is movement and intermarriage between various communities o Problem remains of whether mutually unintelligible A and E should be counted as one or two languages • The word “mutual” o Implies that speakers of both speech communities are equally at ease or equally perplexed when hearing the speech of the other o Many cases of unidirectional intelligibility (speaker of A can understand speech of B, but not other way around) o This situation especially occurs when A variety is spoken by a minority group and B variety is standard language: taught in schools and used in print and broadcast media • Complex relationship between language and ethnic identity o Ex: Newars (ethnic group which traditionally ruled Kathmandu Valley in Nepal) largest concentration is in Kathmandu Valley, but there are other Newar communities scattered throughout country; one variety of Newar is spoken in a village called Dolakha (quite distance to east) o Dolakha and Kathmandu speech varieties are truly mutually unintelligible o People from these two Newar communities cannot speak to each other in Newar, but must use national language Nepali to converse o If question of language versus dialect were to be based solely on mutual intelligibility, then two varieties would count as separate language, however, the Dolakha Newars are ethnically Newars in every sense of the word (same customs, social structures, festivals, and traditions, and they intermarry with Newars from other parts of Nepal) o Function of language as a marker of ethnic identity would suggest that Dolakha variety is a Newar dialect, not independent language • Sociopolitical and ethnic considerations clearly have significant weight in the language/dialect debate • Total number of known languages: 6,909 • Most Known number of languages: Africa à Americas à Europe à Pacific à Asia o Languages of Europe account for less than 4% of total number of languages of the world, while Asia and Africa have more than 30% each • Roughly 94% of world’s population speaks only 6% of its languages • Remaining 94% of languages are spread over only 6% of population Languages of the World Tomorrow • Only have the languages spoken today will still be spoken in a hundred years’ time • Imminent extinction of thousands of languages • Language death: the loss of a language that occurs when the last speaker of language dies • Language death necessarily involves a cessation in language transmission: passing on of a language from one generation to the next • Why languages become extinct: • Brought about by explicit government policies designed to keep children from learning their native language • Primarily fueled by broader process of globalization including a shift from agrarian to urban lifestyles, and increasing dominance of a small number of languages for purposes of commerce, education, and media o Often necessary for anyone wanting to pursue an advanced education or career in modern society • Loss of coherence and vitality of speech community o If members of a small speech community become absorbed into a larger group through intermarriage, the community can become dispersed o When there is no viable speech community, there is little reason to pass language on to the children Does Language Death Matter? • YES; each language is a testament to the ways in which a unique group of people has understood and interacted with their environment and has come to terms with human condition • Each language reflects and instantiates culture of the speakers • Each is unique inheritance from countless generations of forebears, encapsulation of their wisdom and knowledge • Each represents what a language can be, and so enriches our understanding of this central aspect of our humanity • Recognition of scope of the problem of language endangerment has led to significant work by members of endangered-language speech communities and linguists to record, preserve, and revitalize languages • Language documentation: creation of an extensive record of a language and its community • Language conversation: developing materials to be used in education of children and to promote language use in speech community • Language revitalization: undertaken by speech communities whose language has been entirely lost or significantly reduced • Can play significant roles in strengthening communities and in promoting preservation of traditional knowledge, practices, cultural values, and institutions Linguistics The Scientific Study of Language • Linguistics is the scientific study of language • “Scientific”: study is both empirical (based on observable data) and objective • Empirical data is critical for any scientific discipline; ensures that others can verify or replicate findings • Linguist: person who examines structures and principles underlying languages • Polyglot: person who speaks many languages Linguist Versus Polyglot • Linguist: person who examines structures and principles underlying languages • Polyglot: person who speaks many languages • Linguists can be polyglot, but you don’t have to be a polyglot to study linguistics • Ex: pilot versus airplane mechanic – pilot knows how to fly an airplane, based both on training and on an instinctive sense of flight and how a plane responds to a particular manipulation of controls; airplane mechanic looks inside a plane and knows how each part contributes to workings of the whole • One doesn’t need to be an airplane mechanic to be a pilot; neither does one need to be able to fly a plane in order to be a mechanic • Linguist is like a mechanic, looking inside to see how parts of the language fit together so that language can function in human communication • Speaker is the pilot, able to use language efficiently and effectively, but without necessarily knowing how it works o Airplane mechanics are also pilots à most insightful analysis of language will come from someone who speaks it, but a linguist can make a tremendous amount of headway on analysis of language without speaking it • Empirical data are recording of spoken or written language, collected into a corpus • Nature of recordings and how they are collected will depend on goals of study • In any case, recorded data, preferably of speech or writing produced in a natural setting, and not constructured by or for a linguist, are the most highly empirical and can be verified by subsequent researchers • “Science is objective”: our analysis is not biased by any preconceived notions, or judgments of “good” and “bad” • African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is “corrupt”/”illogical” o Ex: “She sick”, “She be sick” • Standard American English (SAE) is “perfect”/”logical” o Ex: “She is sick” • Every language or dialect is unique in the types of distinction it makes; every language is equally able to convey all of the complex meanings that humans communicate to each other in the course of a lifetime • Languages differ in which distinctions they grammatically require their speakers to make, and in which meanings can be expressed by other, non-grammatical, means • Prescriptive approach: one that teaches people the “proper way” to speak or write • What children are taught in schools • Slightly older stage of language when rules were regular, so establishment of prescriptive rules reflect a resistance to natural forces of change • In actuality, the set of forms chosen for prescription are ultimately arbitrary: there is no logical reason why one should not split an infinitive or end a sentence with a preposition • Still have social ramifications; there are environments (such as academic writing) when ignoring these conventions can have negative social consequences (lower grades) Fields of Linguistics • Primary subfields of discipline • Phonetics: physical properties of sounds – how they are articulated and perceived, and the acoustic signatures of the sounds themselves • Lack/lag, pick/pig, lock/log; vowel before /k/ is shorter, vowel before /g/ is longer • Same for /p/ and /b/ (lap/lab) and /t/ and /d/ (fat/fad) • Sounds pattern in a systematic way; such systems of sound form phonology • Morphology: the ways in which words are structured and created (study of words) • Morphologists look at all the pieces of words (roots, prefixes, suffixes, etc.), their sounds and meanings, and the principles of their combination • Syntax: study of how words combine into phrases, clauses, and sentences • Morphosyntax, grammar: morphology and syntax are tightly integrated • Languages differ in how they mark negation • Some languages, markers of negation are independent words (English non, Italian non), while in others they are prefixes (Dolakha Newar ma-na ‘didn’t eat’), suffixes (English didn’t), or circumfixes (French n’est pas) • Languages also differ in number of negation markers they have • Wayampi, language of northern Brazil, has four markers of negation • Study of forms, meanings, and uses of markers fall under field of morphology • Semantics: meaning in language; study of words (lexical semantics) and the study of how meanings combine in clauses and sentences (propositional semantics) • Discourse: Look at how speakers use linguistic structures in larger stretches of speech • Field takes into account the interactional nature of language • Ex: how speakers need to present ideas in a way that allows hearers to understand them • Corpora: statistically significant patterns over very large sets of discourse data • Corpus linguistics: methodology with the help of computers, linguists can now look at statistically significant patterns over very large sets (corpora) of discourse data • Pragmatics: field that examines the role of broader context in interpreting linguistic form and meaning • Sociocultural linguistics: field of study that large part of the context of speech comes from its embedding in the society and culture of its speakers • Historical linguistics: examines how languages change over time • Can be applied to all levels of language: sounds, words, structures, and meanings • Historical linguists are also interested in determining which languages are related and how they have descended from a mother language, which was spoken in the distant past • Can tell us much about human pre-history • Linguists were able to use principles of historical linguists to discover that Apachean languages are members of Athabascan family, and therefore deduce that speakers migrated from Pacific Northwest to American Southwest in prehistoric time period • Languages don’t evolve in isolation; often influence each other as their speakers interact over time • Language contact: sub-field of historical linguistics; influence each other as their speakers interact over time • Field of language and the brain: examines physical and neurological basis of language • Cognitive linguistics: looks at how language is instantiated by our broader cognitive processes • Language acquisition: related field which studies how language is learned by children (first language acquisition) and by adults (second language acquisition) • Computational linguistics: field at the intersection of linguistics and computer science that deals with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language • Concerned with applying methods from artificial intelligence and machine learning to problems involving language • Typology and universals: field that looks at how the world’s languages are similar and different • Typologists are interested in developing a classification of languages based on how they are structured, and in looking for relationships between certain structural languages types • When we look at sentence structures across languages, we notice that languages differ in the relative ordering of the subject (Chris in Chris at the apple), the object (the apple), and the verb (ate); there are six logically possible orderings of these three categories: • Subject-Object-Verb • Object-Subject-Verb • Verb-Subject-Object • Subject-Verb-Object • Object-Verb-Subject • Verb-Object-Subject • All six orderings are not equally instantiated in the world’s languages • Subject first are very common, verb first are much less common, object first are very few indeed • Linguistic typologists: those who study why this should be, and the theoretical implications of this fact • Applied linguistics • Language teaching • Forensic linguistics • Language documentation: creation of a record of a language that can be used by speech communities and others in the face of possible endangerment or language death • Linguistics is also a key part of the field of speech pathology and speech and hearing sciences Chapter 2: Phonetics Physical Dimensions of Speech Sounds 3/11/16 12:22 AM List of Aims • Identify the parts of the vocal tract responsible for producing different sounds • Describe the manner and places of articulation of consonants and vowels • Produce the phonetic symbols for English sounds • Transcribe English words using the IPA • Read English words and passages written in the IPA • Use the IPA chart as a reference for sounds in languages other than English Chapter Preview • Phonetics is the branch of linguistics that is concerned with the scientific study of speech sounds • Articulatory phonetics: concerned with how the vocal organs produce speech • Acoustic phonetics: deals with physical characteristics of speech (duration, frequency, and intensity of sounds) • Auditory phonetics: examines perception of speech by auditory system The Speech Organs • The physical production of speech requires intricate coordination between several parts of the upper body, from the stomach all the way up to the nose. • Divide speech organs into three subsystems: • Subglottal system • Larynx • Supralaryngeal (supraglottal) system The Subglottal System • Subglottal system: lungs and the trachea (or windpipe), which provide the air that the upstream articulators manipulate to produce sound • Lungs function like balloons, recoiling after inspiration and setting air molecules in vocal tract in motion The Larynx • Larynx: source for many of sounds produced in speech; located behind thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple) • Thyroid cartilage: bump you can feel on the front of the neck if you learn your head back • Larynx contains two vocal folds that vibrate during voiced sounds such as z or v • Voicing: vocal fold vibration • Does not require any active motion beyond positioning the vocal folds close enough together that the passage of air between them causes them to vibrate • Voiced consonant: when you produce the sound [zzzzz] • As long as air pressure below the larynx is less than pressure above larynx, you can sustain a voiced sound • Voiceless consonant: when you produce the sound [sssss] • Possible to make same sounds without vocal fold vibration • Physically, devoicing of these sounds is achieved by opening larynx wider than for their voiced counterparts • In phonetics (and other linguistic fields) it is important to distinguish between how a sound is spelled, the orthography, and how it is phonetically transcribed • Phonetic transcription: written between square brackets to represent words and sounds orthographically • In English there are two sounds that only involve the larynx and not any articulators above the larynx (glottal) • /h/ hat or ahead, ‘glottal stop found in the middle of expression ‘uh-oh’ • ‘uh-oh’ closing your larynx completely • Glottal stop: abrupt stoppage of voicing during glottal stop between two vowels as vocal folds come together to block off all airflow through the larynx; stop airflow by closing the glottis (space between vocal folds) • By adjusting the tension of the vocal folds during voicing, you can change the fundamental frequency, and hence the pitch, of a sound • Pitch: perception of the sound on a scale of low to high • Fundamental frequency: physical property of rate of vocal-fold vibration • Increasing fundamental frequency also typically increases pitch • Ex: [ahhhhh] raise pitch, larynx tenses up and rises; lower pitch, larynx relaxes and lowers The Supralaryngeal Vocal Tract and Place of Articulation • Supralaryngeal vocal tract: contains most of the structures that are manipulated in speech • Place of articulation: when you use different articulators to produce speech sounds, you are changing this • Lips: play an important role in producing many sounds, including p, b, m, w, f, and v • Bilabials: sounds that involve a narrowing or a complete closure of the upper and lower lip o p, b, m, and w • Labiodentals: sounds involving the upper teeth and the lower lip, including f and v • Active articulator: the lower lip, since it moves to meet the upper teeth • Passive articulator: the upper teeth, since they are stationary • Most consonant articulations involve both an active and a passive articulator • For most consonants, the tongue is the active articulator, while the upper surface of the mouth is the passive articulator • The teeth: involved in the production of the English th sounds in the words ‘think’ and ‘this’ • Produced by: o Interdental: sticking the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower teeth o Dental: placing the tip of the tongue against the back of the upper teeth • ‘think’ and ‘this’ first sounds are different even though they are both spelled as th o two versions of th differ in voicing; the th in ‘think’ is voiceless, whereas the th in ‘this’ is voiced • Alveolar ridge: the hard ridge just behind the teeth before the upper surface of the mouth becomes more domed in shape • T (a voiceless sound), d (voiced), n (voiced), and l (voiced) • Another sound r (voiced) is also typically assigned to this same group, since r is produced with a narrowing in the vocal tract below the alveolar ridge, even though the tongue may only be raised slightly toward the roof of the mouth without touching it • Not all alveolar sounds have the exact same point of contact for your tongue o L involves quite a bit of contact with the back of the upper teeth compared to n – ex: [lllllll] and [nnnnnn] • Post-aveolar (palate-alveolar): sounds that are produced with the tongue contacting the area just behind the alveolar ridge • Sh sound in ‘ship’ (which is a voiceless post-alveolar) • Last sound in ‘rouge’ (which is a voiced post-alveolar) • First sound in ‘jug’ (voiced) • First sound in ‘chug’ (voiceless) • Understand the relationship between alveolars and post-alveolars, make an ‘sss’ sound and then switch to a ‘shhh’ sound. You will feel the tongue sliding backwards along upper surface of the mouth as it moves from an alveolar to a post-alveolar place of articulation • hard palate (the domed part of the roof of the mouth) • Palatals: sounds involving contact with the roof of the mouth in the center of the hard palate • Y sound in words like ‘yellow’ and ‘young’ • Soft palate (velum): upper surface of the mouth towards the back of the hard palate • Important for distinguishing sounds involving air flow through the nose and those lacking nasal air flow • Ex: [ahhh] – velum rise because ensures that no air escapes through the nose while you are producing the vowel • Velars: sounds produced by contacting the tongue and the soft palate • K (a voiceless velar sound) in words like ‘cat’, ‘bucket’, and ‘crib’ • G ( a voiced velar) in words like ‘gas’, ‘go’, and ‘bag’ • Ng (voiced) in words like ‘sing’ and ‘lung’ • W also involves some raising of the back of the tongue toward the soft palate in addition to rounding of the lips; for this reason w is often labeled a labial-velar • English also has nasal sounds, but they are consonants rather than vowels • M, n, ng • Nasality is a separate dimension from place of articulation, since sounds can have the same place of articulation but differ in whether they are nasal or non-nasal (oral) • The sounds m and b differ in nasality; both are voiced and both are bilabial, but only m is nasal (m has air coming out of nose, while b does not) • The sounds n and d differ only in nasality; n is nasal and d is oral • Ng and g differ in nasality; ng is the nasal member of the pair • It is common to omit the term oral when describing oral sounds, since oral is assumed to be the default case • In most languages, all nasals are voiced, since it is difficult to produce a voiceless nasal that is clearly audible Manner of Articulation • Voicing dimension (voiced vs. voiceless) • Place of articulation dimension • Nasality dimension (nasal vs. oral) • The narrowness of the constriction in the vocal tract • Manner of articulation: differences in constriction narrowness • Stops: sounds involve a complete closure of the vocal tract • P, b, m, t, d, n, k, g, and ng • P, b, t, d, k, and g are oral stops since there is no nasal airflow • M, n, and ng are nasal stops because there is nasal airflow • All stops involve two phases: • Closure phase: airflow through the mouth is completely blocked • Release phase: constriction is released • Ex: try saying the t sound without letting the tongue go à complete silence à voiceless stops are only identifiable through their release, which provides crucial information about place of a
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