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Lecture Notes

by: wscarpetta

Lecture Notes PSYCH 100


GPA 3.0
Introductory Psychology

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Lecture notes for the Introduction to Psychology courses. This goes over the birth of modern psychology, the different theories, and perspectives. The biology of psychology including how the brain ...
Introductory Psychology
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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by wscarpetta on Friday September 18, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 100 at Rock Valley College taught by in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Rock Valley College.


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Date Created: 09/18/15
Psychology 9214 092 32014 Chapter 1 Birth of modern psychology Plato amp Socrates 0 Brain is the hub of mental processes 0 Mind and body are separate 0 Aristotle 0 Making guesses Started psychological thinking 0 Knowledge grows from experience 0 Wilhelm Wundt o Added two key elements to help make psychology a science Carefully measured observations Experiments Structuralism 0 Edward Titchener 0 using introspective reports to build a view of the minds structure 0 introspection 0 looking inward and reporting on sensations of an experience Functionalism William James Psychological processes have a function What is structuralism Uncovering of consciousness introspection What is Functionalism Mental processes can best understood in adaptive purposesfunctions Modern day psychology 0 Science of behavior and mental processes Trends in Psychology Behaviorism 0 John B Watson amp BF Skinner Focus of study should be on directly observable behavior Behavior is shaped by learning stimulus cues and history of rewards and punishments Freudian Psychology 0 Sigmund Freud founder of psychoanalysis o Emphasized the effect of the unconscious and our emotional responses to childhood experience or behavior 0 Big on repressed memories Humanism 0 Abraham Maslow amp Carl Rogers 0 Focused on selfconcept perceptions amp interpersonal relationships 0 Developed theories and treatments to help people feel accepted and to reach their full potential Nature vs Nurture 0 To what extent are our traits already set in place t birth nature 0 And to what extent do our traits develop in response to the environment nurture Biopsychosocial levels of analysis of Biology 0 Genes neurotransmitters re exes sensation Psychology 0 Thoughts emotions mood choices behavior motivation 0 Environment 0 Culture education relationships Psychology sub elds Professionals using psychology 0 Psychologist divided into 2 main categories Applied psychologists n Therapyclinical Research a Academiaresearch o Psychologists and psychiatrists Is there a difference Psychologist PhD within a discipline in the eld of psychology Psychiatrist MDDO Avoiding three quotcommon sensequot thinking errors 0 1 Hindsight Bias o knew it all along effect 0 tendency to believe that you would have guessed an outcome after you learn it o 2 Coincidence Error 0 perceiving order in random events 0 3 Overcon dence Error 0 quotI am sure I am correctquot 0 Humans are terrible at predicting performance The Scienti c Attitude Curiosity Skepticism amp Humility 0 Critical thinking decide for yourself if the information arguments arguments and conclusions you are viewing actually make sense 0 Biases Alternate explanations data collection The Scienti c Method 0 Theory set of principles that explains some phenomenon and predicts future behavior Hypothesis testable prediction consistent with our theory 0 Operational De nition de nition of a variable which allows it to be measured 0 Replicatio trying the methods of the study again but with different participants or situations to see if the same results happen Theory gt Prediction gt OD gt Observation gt RepeatReplicate Chapter 2 Lecture Notes The Biology of Behavior Neurons amp How they Communicate Neural Communication Cell bodylife support where nucleus is located Axon Dendrites Terminal branches Form junctions w other cells Action potential 0 Brief electrical charge that travels down axon like a wave 0 All or none 0 Moves faster in larger axons Nerve cell communication 0 Each neuron receives both excitatory amp inhibitory signals 0 When the threshold is reached the neuron res an action potential allor nothing o The action potential travels down the axon from the cell body to the terminal branches 0 Signal is transmitted to another cell when it crosses the gap to the next neuron The synapse o Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron o quotsynaptic gapquot or quotsynaptic junctionquot Neurotransmitters chemicals used to send a signal across the synaptic gap 0 Once neurotransmitters are released type of signal changes chemical signal Reuptake 0 Recycling neurotransmitters NT 0000 After the NT stimulate the receptors on the receiving neuron the chemicals are taken back up into the sending neuron to be used again Neurotransmitters and how they in uence us 0 Neurotransmitters o Serotonin Mood regulation a Too little depressed Involved in sleep and appetite o Dopamine Regulates movement pleasure and reward motivation Related to drug addiction a Drug addiction I Too much Schizophrenia n Too little Parkinson s disease 0 Acetylcholine Skeletal muscle contraction n Spider venom Involved in attention amp memory a Low levels associated in Alzheimer s disease 0 Glutamate Primary excitatory NT a Related to strokes and seizures Involved in learning and memory 0 GABA Primary inhibitory NT Reduces anxiety and general brain activity Alcohol makes it more effective 0 Lock amp key mechanism 0 Bind to the receptors of the receiving neuron Antagonist blocksreduces NT effects Agonist mimicsenhances NT effects The Nervous system 0 Central nervous system CNS 0 Brain amp spinal cord 0 quotdecision makerquot 0 Peripheral Nervous system PNS O O Gathering information from the body amp sends CNS decisions out to the body quotmessengerquot Types of Neurons O O O Sensory neurons carry messages IN to the CNS for processing lnterneuron s in brainspinal cord process information between the sensory input and motor output Motor Neuron s carry instructions OUT from the CNS to the body s muscles SN sensory neurons sends in IN lnterneuron s inside MN Moves out The pain response lnterneuron s The Peripheral Nervous System 0 Somatic controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles 0 Autonomic controls self regulated action of internal organsglands Sympatheticarousing quot ght or ightquot Parasympatheticcalming quotrest and digestquot The Endocrine System quotslow but surequot sends molecules as messages through the bloodstream molecules called hormones chemical messengers 0 produced in various glands around the body the messages go to the brain amp other tissues hypothalamus 0 controls pituitary gland pituitary gland 0 quotmaster glandquot o anterior pituitary lobe releases hormones that regulate other glands o Posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance o Thyroid amp parathyroid gland o Regulate metabolic and calcium rate 0 Parathyroid helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood Pancreas 0 Controls level of sugar in blood Adrenal Glands 0 Control stress reactions Medulla Adrenal cortex 0 Cortisol hormone Brain 0 Monitoring activity in the brain 0 Tools to read electrical metabolic and magnetic activity in the brain EEGElectroencephalogram 0 Recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brains surface 0 Useful in studying seizures and sleep 0 PET positron emission tomography o Allows us to see what part of brain is active by tracing where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task 0 MRI magnetic resonance imagine 0 Static imaging of the brain using magnetic elds 0 Shows only structure no function o fMRI 0 reveals brain activity and function rather than structures 0 compares successive MRI images taken a split second apart and shows changes in the level of oxygen in blood ow in the brain 0 Less complex brain structures 0 Brainstem Medulla bottom part a Controls most basic functions heartbeat amp breathing Pons top a Sis above medulla and helps coordinate movements 0 Thalamus quotsensory switchboardquot or quotrelay centerquot a senses except for sme travel to thalamus 1st 0 Reticular quotnetlike formation Nerve network in brainstem Enables alertness Helps lter the incoming sensory information and relays it to other brain area helps thalamus o Cerebellum quotlittle brainquot Helps coordinate voluntary movement 0 Hippocampus seahorse Processes conscious episodic memories Works with the amygdala to form emotionally charged memories o Amygdala almond Consists of two lima bean size neural clusters Helps process emotions especially fear and aggression Plays a role in ght or ight o Hypothalamus Lies below the thalamus Regulates body temperature and ensures adequate foodwater intake homeostasis and is involved in sex drive 4 F s ght ight food fuck Cerebral Cortex Neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres Ultimate controlinformation processing center 0 Structure of the cortex 0 Frontal lobe forehead Speaking and muscle movements Making plans and judgments o Parietal lobe top to rear head lnclude sensory cortex 0 Occipital lobe back head Visual areas 0 Temporal lobe side of head Auditory processing areas Functions of the Brain 0 Motor amp sensory strips 0 Output motor cortex 0 Input sensory cortex Left hemisphere receives input from the body s right side Language Aphasia impairment of language caused by damage to left hemisphere o Broca s area impaired speaking o Wernicke s area impaired understanding Specialization amp Integration 0 Activity when hearing seeing and speaking words Plasticity Brain is adaptable Brain is damaged especially in general association areas of cortex 0 Does not repair damaged neurons but it can restore some functions o It can form new connections reorganize reassign brain areas to new functions 0 Some neurogenesis production of new brain cells helps rebuild Split brain studies 0 To end severe whole brain seizures some people have had surgery to cut the corpus callosum a band of axons connecting the hemispheres wo corpus callosum halves of body amp halves of visual eld do not work together 0 only left half of brain has enough verbal ability to express thoughts out loud Split Brain patients Objects in right visual eld can be named Object in left visual eld cannot Chapter 6 Sensation amp Perception Sensation and processing 0 Sensation Bring receiving input from sensory organs Conversion of that input into chemical and electrical energy inside of us quotwhat is thisquot Perception Organizing interpreting and ascribing meaning to the chemical electrical changes in our bodies Allows us to recognize meaningful objects quotWhat does this meanquot quotWhat am I seeingquot Bottom up processing a Taking sensory information and then assemble and integrate it quotIs that something I ve seen beforequot Top down processing a Using models ideas expectations to interpret sensory information From sensory organs to the brain Process of sensation n Reception Stimulation of sensory receptor cells by energy sound light heat etc a Transduction 0 Transforming this cell stimulation into neural impulses n Transmission 0 Delivering neural information to the brain to be processed n Example of bottom up processing 0 Threshold Absolute Threshold 0 Minimum level of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus half the time 0 Anything below this threshold is considered subliminal The quotjust noticeable difference 0 The minimum difference for a person to be able to detect the difference half the time o Weber s Law refers to the principle that for two stimuli to be perceived different as different they must differ by minimum percentage 2 of weight 8 of light intensity 03 of sound wave frequency to notice a difference in pitch Sensory Adaptation O 0 When sensory receptors change their sensitivity to the stimulus Constant exposure to a stimulus will reduceeliminate our awareness Ex Acclimating to cold water getting used to bad smell Receptors in the eye change activity threshold ThresholdsDetection o Thresholds are helpful because they are adaptive They prevent information overload They enhance our focus on important changes in the environment Perception amp important in uences Perceptual set 0 Persons set of mental tendencies that in uences topdown how the person makes sense of the environment 0 quotwhat we expect to see which in uences what we do seequot 0 Effect of emotion physical state amp motivation on perception Destinations seem farther away when tired 0 Vision Light waves of electromagnetic radiation Our eyes respond to some of these waves Our brain turns these energy waves into colors Light energy Wavelength determines huecolors a Short high frequency blue a Long low frequency reddish Wave amplitude determines intensitybrightness a Great amplitude bright colors a Small amplitude dull colors 0 O O O 0 Structure of the eye Light enters through the cornea to protects the eye bends the light Light passes through the pupil which is surrounded by the E Behind the pupil is the lense which focuses light rays on the retina The lense changes shape to focus on near vs far objects ReUna a Light lands on the retina amp is changed into neural impulses n lmpulses are sent out through the optic nerve n Photoreceptors Rods amp Cones Receptor cells in retina Rods black and white actions in our peripheral view and in the dark Cones help us see sharp colorful details in bright light The blind spot a Occurs because the eye has no receptor cells at the place where the optic nerve leaves the e Fovea a Point of central focus in the retina Cones cluster around this Color vision a YoungHelmholtz Trichromatic 3 color theory 0 3 types of colors 0 red green blue 0 all the colors we perceive are created by light waves stimulating combinations of these colors Color Blindness n Happens because people are missing cones n More common in males Opponent Process Theory n Opposing retinal processes enable color vision a Activation of one color inhibits another 0 Example 0 Some cells stimulated by red amp inhibited by green 0 Visual information processing 0 Rods amp cones ganglion amp Bipolar cells optic nerve information split at the optic chiasm Thalamus Visual Cortex 0 Turning neural signals into images Feature detectors visual cortex Respond to certain visual aspects of the environment Send information to neural networks that can perform tasks Damage to these areas of the brain appears to make it difficult to see certain kinds of objects Grouping how we make gestalts o Gestalt an organized whole of integrated information A quotwholequot is more that the sum of its parts 0 Grouping visual information into quotwholesquot Figure Ground perception 0 Pick out objects and gures from a background 0 Figure object of interest 0 Ground surroundings 0 Depth Perception o Allows us to estimate an objects distance from us 0 Ability to see things in 3d even though they strike the retina as 2d 0 Visual cliff experiments Perceptualconsistency 0 Ability to see objects as appearing the same Different lighting conditions Different distances and angles 0 Perceptual constancy is a topdown process Sound Perception Frequency corresponds to our perception of pitch 0 of waves perceived as high and low sounds 0 low frequency low pitched 0 high frequency high pitched amplitude corresponds to our perception of loudness 0 height or intensity of sound wave perceived as loud and soft volume 0 high amplitude loud 0 low amplitude soft o complexity perception of timbre 0 sound quality of resonance 0 simple pure tone 0 complex mix of frequencies 0 sound perception 0 Theory 1 place theory Signals are generated at different locations in to cochlea depending on pitch The brain reads pitch by reading the location where the signals are coming from Ch 1 Behaviorism Humanism Structuralism o Functionalism Sub elds amp differences 0 Nature vs nurture 0 Experiments What it is Correlation Case study Independent amp dependent variable Informed consent Placebo effect Confound variable OOOOO Random sampling Double blind study Operational de nition Scienti c method 0 3 problems w thinking 0 hindsight bias 0 order in random events 0 over con dence Ch 2 neuron amp different parts 0 action potential 0 function of neurons neurotransmitters all 0 function amp malfunction nervous system 0 CNS 0 PNS o lnternerourns Motor neurons Sensory neurons 0 Brain 0 Regions Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebellum Limbic system Hemispheres 4 lobes 0 language located plasticity 0 split brain 0 Ch 6 o vision 0 parts of eye 0 visual organization 0 facial blindness brain area what it is 0 visual clip experiment 0 sound 0 waves 0 place theory 0 o taste receptors 5 how information moves from sensory to brain bottom up vs top down Weber s law amp numbers associated Pain Gate control theory Natural selection


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