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Date Created: 09/03/14
Monday 11182013 03092014 1100 AM Probability and Predicting Genetic Outcomes If an event is certain P1 Cannot happen P0 Otherwise probability is between 01 Sum of all alternate outcomes must 1 Product rule To determine the probability that two independent events will both happen the general rule is to multiply the probabilities of the individual events AND F1 Rr x Rr 2 r probability of there being an r for both sperm and egg 0 To get rr multiply prob 2 2 4 Sum Rule The probability of an event that can occur in two or more different ways is the SUM of the individual probabilities of those ways OR F1 Rr x Rr Make a punnett square Probability of F2 is dominant 4 14 14 34 R Clicker Q Homozygous round dominant peas are crossed with wrinkled Recessive peas to make an F1 generation of round peas and the F1 are allowed to sef poinate to produce an F2 generation 0 What fraction of the F2 round peas are heterozygous o ROUND peas 0 Answer 23 Mende s Dihybrid Crosses and Independent Assortment Two different traits in the same cross Example seed color and seed shape Question is the segregation pattern of one gene influenced by the segregation of another gene DIHYBRID two genes RRYY x rryy RrYy 0 Possible gametes RYRyrYry o In F2 generation 9 round yellow 3 round green 3 wrinkled yellow 1 wrinkled green 9331 ratio each genotype RYRyrYry each have 14 probability of happening in sperm and egg Mendel formed the law of independent assortment 0 One gene segregates independently of other gene both are segregating 11 dominant didn39t always stick together neither did recesessive o The law of independent assortment statesthat alleles of different genes eg Ss and Yy assort into gametes independently of each other Figure 128 slide 30 0 There are two alignments for metaphase 1 dominants on same side dominant on opp sides 0 These alignments are equally probable 0 When they undergo segregation the out come will be gametes of the LEFT side will be RY ry o Gametes of RIGHT side will be Ry or rY 0 Behavior of meiosis makes this true 0 Understand how chromosomes and their behavior are the underlying thing for how the laws are true 1 law of segregation o Aa 2 A 12 a parent genotypes gametes genotype 2quotd law of independent assortment o AaBb parent 14 AB 4 Ab 14 aB 4 ab gamete genotype F1 RrYy x RrYy 34 R 4 rr 34 R 34 Y 4 yy 4 rr 34 Y 4 yy 34 34 916 34 114 316 4 14 116 DON39T MEMORIZE 9331 it can be DIFFERENT iCicker question Among the dihybrid crosses below which will give a 1111 phenotypic ratio AaBb x aabb AaBb AB Ab aB ab Aabb abababab GIVES YOU 4 AB 4 Ab 4 aB 4 ab everything phenotype expressed Tryhibrid cross Parents are heterozygous for all traits GgRrPp x GgRrPp Figure out fraction of offspring that is GRP Make a tree diagram thing 34 G9 34 R9 34 P 2764 Human Genetic Analysis Pedigree Analysis 0 Deduce inheritance pattern by observing traits in already existing families 0 Mendelian rules of inheritance are followed 0 Genetic diseases are of particular interests 0 Pedigree analysis is useful for genetic counseling Females circles Males squares Affected are FILLED IN first born towards LEI I Generations in ROMAN numerals numbers for individuals Chance of having a child affected 0 Aa and aa 50 o chance Huntington Disease Autosomal dominant Progressive beginning at 40 can be in 20s of 50s Spastic body movements Detectable by genetic screening Gene located on chromosome 4 Mutation due to triplet repeat Tuesday 1 1192013 03092014 1100 AM Huntington Disease mistake mutation due to TRIPLET repeat Autosomal Dominant Hdisease allele hnorma Easier to see heterozygous Recessive Inheritance Sometimes have half colored in this is weird because you can39t actually see that by looking at someone When you see that 2 people have dominant kid but don39t show they are both heterozygous Harder to tell heterozygous Recessive people have 2 recessive so parents must be heterozygous Try to figure out genotype of II 4 A either homo or hetero 0 23 chance they are heterozygous or 13 chance homozygous double line between III 3 and III 4 o assume 1100 have this disease 0 13 probability that III 4 is Aa 0 23 probability that III 3 is Aa 0 23 13 12 118 Exceptions to Mendelian Inheritance Incomplete dominance Codominance Epistasis Linkage Incomplete dominance follows Mende s laws The phenotype of heterozygous is between dominant and recessive does not follow dominant completely Dominance is determined by phenotype of heterozygote F2 generation for phenotype and genotype is 121 Codominance Both alleles of a gene can express phenotype simultaneously Alleles follow normal Mendelian inheritance patterns so genotypic patterns are identical with simple dominantrecessive alleles Phenotype of heterozygote is critical difference ABO blood groups are an example 0 Genotype IaIb both A and B present Bombay phenotype o O X 0 A IaIa hh can happen hh blocking expression Multiple Allelic Series Alleles occupy same genetic locus on homologous chromosomes Segregate with mendelian monohybrid ratios 31 121 11 depending on cross A gene can have many hundreds of different alleles but each diploid individual carriers only two alleles for each gene The reason mendel didn39t see this was because he chose peas with the same alleles dominant and recessive he chose true breeding stuff he didn39t use wile types or anything Depending on alleles you can get very different color intensities from black to albino An allele can be dominant or recessive depending on other allele Wednesday 11202013 03092014 1100 AM Epistasis Two or more genes interact to influence a single phenotype Modified 9331 ratio in dihybrid cross 934 phenotypic ratio is one example of epistatic gene interaction Epistasis and coat color in Labradors Back B will give you black only if E is present Brown bb brown E needs to be there Yellow ee you don39t know what B genotype is it is hidden because they are all yellow they just need ee ee is blocking the effect of B RECESSIVE BBee Bbee bbee all yellowww 0 Ex BBee yellow x bbEE chocolate 0 F1 BbEe black x BbEe black o F2 BE black bbEchocoate Beeyeow bbeeyeow o RATIO 934 If stuff has same phenotype it gets lumped together Iclicker question in a certain dog breeds o 1216 Linkage and Fruit Flies TH Morgan and colleagues studied Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly Large of progeny in small space 12 day life cycle Two genes on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together linked genes do not assort independently dihybrid cross of two linked genes will not give a 9331 in F2 progeny dihybrid test cross of two linked genes will not give 1111 ratio of phenotypes 0 ex figure 1217 0 B normal gray bback Vgnorma wing vgvestigia wing o P BBVgVg wild type x bbvgvg black body vestigial wing 0 F1 BVgbvg dihybrid x bvgbvg tester o F2 Bvgbvgwid type bvgbvgbackvestigia Bvgbvgvestigia bVgbvg black Bvgbvgbvgbvg PARENTALS same genotypes that parentals made Homologous chromosomes can exchange corresponding segments during prophase I of meiosis crossing over Genes that are close together tend to stay together The farter apart on the same chromosome genes are the more likely they are to separate during recombination Linkage is tighter when the genes are closer Recombinant Frequency The progeny resulting from crossing over appear in repeatable proportions called the recombinant frequency Genetic loci that are farther apart on the same chromosome are more likely to have crossing over between them Friday 11222013 03092014 1100 AM Genetic Maps Recombinant frequencices for many pairs of linked genes can be used to create genetic maps showing the arrangement of genes along the chromosome Scientists now measure distances between genes in map units One map unit corresponds to recombination frequency of 001 IT also is referred to as a centimorgan Stu rteva nt s Genetic Map Group of genes linked together is a linkage group Genes with less than 50 recombinant DNA are LINKED Iclicker Aa and Bb genes are linked and 20 map units apart In cross between aBAb x abab what fraction of progeny will have Ab phenotype o aBAb x abab 80 percent P 20 oR9Ab 40 aBabaB940 AbabAb940 Ababab910 o ABabAB910 o OOOOO Sex inked Traits Genes carried on sex chromosome have a special inheritance pattenr Examples 0 White locus in Drosophilia X o Redgreen color blindness in humans X o TDF gene in humans Y Homozygous 1 allele Y chromosome Fly example with redwhite eyes X chromosome inked dad can only pass to females since he gives his Y to males 0 Cross offspring XRXr x XRY 0 Half will get XR half will get Y 0 Therefore half will be red female 0 Y912 XR 2 Xr 4 red male 4 white male females can show recessive sex linked trait but they have to be homozygous o if a XrXr female crosses with XRY all males will be white eyes 0 XRXr x XrY 2 Xr 2 XR 2 Xr 4 red female 4 white female 2 Y9 2 XR 2 Xr 9 4 red male 4 white female pedigree of color blindness o if female is carrier you need affected male to produce affected female 0 for recessive traits if there is a girl that is effected and her father is not you can assume it is NOT X inked 0 NO DOTS IN DIAGRAM ON FINAL 12121218 probability that the child wont show it 0 Take the probability that it does show it and subtract that from one 11878 Monday 11252013 03092014 1105 AM CHAPTER 15 Gene Mutations and Molecular Medicine Detecting Human Genetic Variation 0 Restriction enzymes 0 O 0 DNA gel blotting PCR amplification DNA fingerprints Mutations and Human Diseases 0 O O O O O 0 Single nucleotide polymorphisms PKU Sickle Cell Trinucleotide Repeats Huntington Disease Fragile X RFLP resetriction Fragment Length Polymorphism SNP mapping of genes Treating Genetic Diseases Genetic screening Ex vivo genetic therapy direct Chronic mylogenous leukemia CML and Imatinib Gleevac Seemed like a deadly disease you would die within 5 years Translocation occurred where a piece of a chromosome from two different homologous chromosomes exchange fragments This is an ERRORmistake These happen fairly frequently in somatic cells Cancer is due to somatic mutations usually This specific one cancer happens in bone marrow that is to make white blood cells Tyrosine kinase that is no longer acting correcty this particular hybrid protein regulates whether a cell divides or not by making this the cells start dividing uncontroaby pretty much what cancer is They eventually made Gleevac Imatinib they new exactly what the target was knew what protein to inhibit went into lab and knew what to make This drug stopped cells from dividing stopped cancer Patients could now live a normal life span Bacteria fight invading virus by making restriction enzymes Restriction enzymes defend bacteria from foreign dna El Ex if viral dna comes along it can be cut by restriction enzymes The host protects itself from enzyme by putting methylation wherever it needs to but viral dna doesn39t have those so it gets caught up avery experiment 0 you can use electrophoresis to see if something cuts or not if it seperates into two bands it does if it doesn39t then it doesnT o if no cut arge frag if cut smaller spread out cuts we can use these techniques to determine genotypes for sure 0 This eliminates uncertainty 0 There are a lot of tools for dna anaylysis but we are just gonna go over the basics DNA fingerprinting 0 Two types of DNA polymorphisms are used for DNA fingerprinting Single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs inherited variations involving a single base point mutations El biayic not that many diff snips at each base Reference genome just the most common of each base nobody actually has this genome exac y We are made of about a million snips some of them affect phenotype a lot do not Short tandem repeats STRs short repetitive sequences occurring side by side on chromosomes usually in noncoding regions El El Vary in length Highly poymorphic repeats at each site is very variable 0 1514 mom homo for 6 dad homo for2 kid has to be heterozygous in forensics we know where the repeats are and we can use that infohow 2 Anastasia example 2 you know parent inherits childs repeats 2 Anastasia was actually shot and killed as wel she was just buried somewhere else 2 They knew this because of testing the parents and children and you can use this technology to figure this stuff out see how inheritance happens Icicker father B If you look at 10 or more fragments you can pretty much prove that that person did the crime because not many people would have similar DNA probability But if 110 doesn39t match that could prove your innocence Inborn errors of metabolism Garrod Genetic mutations may make proteins dysfunctional Defects in proteins that are enzymes of metabolism can cause an inherited metabolic disease Phenylketonuria PKU results from an abronmal enzyme phnylalanine hydroxylase PAH normay catalyzes conversion of dietary phnylalanine to tyrosine You don39t need excess phenyaanine it goes to tyrosine the extra if you cannot process that it makes phenylpyruvic acid which in excess can cause mental retardation Genetic screening if we can identify these babies with these en vivo Sickle Cell Disease Hemogobin protein with quaternary structure two alpha and two beta chains In sickle cell disease one in every 146 is messed up blah blah Restriction Fragment Polymorphism RFLP One way to look for these diseases is by interrogating that snip Sickle cell is caused by a snip and the single thing that changes the amino acid is changed you can interrogate that snip with an enzyme called MST2 2 One way to do this is to make primers that flank target site flank target and add enzyme to see if it cuts in half if it does you have the restriction site if not you have the polymorphism 2 Another way aee specific oligonucleotides Short nuceotides have specific things they will align to If it is mutated anywhere along the things it will not bind You probe for each individual s DNA for normal and sickle cell 0 You can see if they are heterozygoius or homozygous 0 You don39t need restriction enzyme 0 Tuesday 11262013 03092014 1105 AM Probe will only stick if complementary sequence is matched perfectly Red signal indicates that there is dna that is perfect match Probes that have 1 pair mismatch will not stick We get signal in both spots with heterozygotes but in homozygote there is only one signal for the normal allele none for sickle allele so we know it is a homozygote for normal Polymorphisms are very common but often do not effect function they are neutral Only 3 are actually bad 0 Causing anemia other 2 not as bad as sickle cell How do we identify a disease gene in genome Complicated Locating disease genes by GENETIC LINKAGE Genetic Linkage Genetic markers such as SNPs STRs and RFLPs are used as landmarks to find genes of interest genes must be polymorphic 0 You want a marker that is inherited with disease gene To narrow the gene location a marker and gene must always be inherited together 0 If you don39t know what is wrong you just have to use linkage to find the gene When linked dna region is identified a variety of methods can identify the gene responsible for a disease Gene isolation can lead to tests for mutations protein identification and possible treatments I let39s say we have a disease gene but we don39t know what it is We do have the markers and stuff We are trying to find markers that are near by There are always markers if you look hard enough Unique locus is marked Are the markers linked How to find disease gene Do an assay of all 500 markers and see You find a few 0 You find a couple that flag your disease gene OOOOOO 0 Now that I find these I go to sequence map and see where they are and then we find candidate genes One candidate must be disease gene DNA linkage analysis 0 SNP doesn39t cause the disease we just use it to monitor because it is closely linked to the disease mutation but it does not CAUSE the disease 0 SNP that are tightly linked are very useful 0 If it wasn39t tightly linked it wouldn39t show linkage because there would be crossing over Constructing a genetic linkage map 0 Score how often certain things happen to see if marker is close to the disease gene CHcker 0 We know B and C are linked because ofA Trinucleotide Repeat Diseases 0 Expanding triplet repeats have been found in other diseases Mytonic dystrophy huntington s disease 0 How the repeats expaind is unknown possibly DNA polymerase slips after copying the triplet it copies it again Fragile X chromosome 0 Individual with this disease showed unusual X chromosomes 0 Tip would break off while making karyotype 0 Causes mental retardation in some people 0 The gene for fragie X FMR1 contains a repeated triplet CGG in the promoter region Males with a moderate number of repeats have no symptoms 0 The repeats become more numerous in successive generations In mentally retarded people with fragie X it is repeated 2002000 times 0 Genetic Screening DNA testing is direct analysis of DNA for mutation the most accurate way of detecting an abnormal allele Preimplantation screening of a zygote can be used for parents of a child with a disease like cystic fibrosis Fetal cells and newborns can be tested for sicke ce disease and others You can do abortions before once you know it has fragile X You can also make 10 embryos and see which one does not have cystic fibrosis and use that one avoids doing abortion but it39s super expensive Bioethics Should we be able to prescreen Wednesday 11272013 03092014 1105 AM Treating Genetic Diseases Two main approaches to treating genetic diseases 0 Modifying disease phenotype Living with genotype Trying to figure out how to change environment to make that less severe o Replacing the defective gene You would no longer have disease if you could replace defective copy with good copy gene therapy 0 Modifying the disease phenotype can be done in 3 ways Restricting the substrate In As in PKU reducing phenylalanine in the diet Metabolic inhibitors 2 Such as drugs that can target specific proteins U Ex drugs to inhibit stuff Supplying the missing protein Blood factor VIII in hemophilia 2 Induce missing protein with drug then you can provide functioning protein by injection 0 Gene therapy Supply the missing aees by inserting a new gene that will be expressed in the patient The challenges Must find appropriate vector ensure precise insertion into host DNA ensure appropriate expression and select cells to target 2 vector agent that carries good gene into human cell integrate into human genome viruses do this naturally but our cells reject viruses 2 stuff needs to be expressed at the appropriate place 2 if you need the gene in a certain place how do you get it there Ex vivo gene therapy In In cell culture 2 Take cells that are effected add the gene that you want back to them then you are growing cells that HAVE the good gene you can check those cells and see if any become cancerous like you don39t want to inject the ones that are gonna be cancerous 2 Then you can put the cells back into the main thing Gene therapy problems 2 Viral infection can be dangerous in sick patients Jess Gelsinger died due to a gene therapy trial using adenovirus 2 SCID Severe Combined Immunodeficiency 10 SCID patients successful treated using viral vector 4 patients developed leukemia due to the particular gene that was used additional successful trials have avoided oncogenic genes CHAPTER 16 Regulation of Gene Expression Virus life Bacteriaphages and HIV retrovirus Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes Lac operon Catabolite repression Trp operon Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Promoters enhancers Regulator and activator proteins Chromosome inactivation Epigenetic gene regulation Small regulatory RNA molecules Viruses and Human Health Spanish flu 1918 1919 deady plague killing 50 mil 0 Effected young people too HIV virus 0 New HIV infections have been dropping 0 Global death from AIDS are also dropping 0 People living with HIV is increasing because they are not dying Virus 0 Mostly consist of nucleic acid DNA or RNA and capsid coat protein Viruses always need a living host to reproduce Often they kill host cell after viral replication Viruses have no metabolism Some animal viruses have membrane coat Because they use host cellular machinery it is difficult to block replication with drugs like antibiotics 0 Best defense is vaccine The lytic cycle a strategy for viral reproduction o Infect one cell go in make a bunch of copies like 500 then all of those copies can go pop out and infect more stuff 0 Lysogenic cycle Can also immigrate into genome then they hideout allowing themselves to be replicated Then they can switch back and forth between lytic and ysogenic making tons of copies and stuff of itself 0 Retrovirus o GenomeRNA o It attaches to certain cells 0 HIV virus attaches to T ces part of immune system Attacks immune system 0 It does this by interacting with specific things on T cells specific interaction 0 Reverse transcriptaseenzyme RNA9DNA o Vira DNA then VIRAL DNA can integrate into HOST DNA infects T helper ces uses its receptors CD4 causing another receptor to grab hold of the envelope OOOOO Monday 1222013 03092014 1108 AM Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes Necessary to avoid transcripton and translation of genes that are not needed all the time more efficient use of metabolic resources Regulation of transcription is primary control point Operonpromotor operator and several structural genes Repressor protein that can bind to operator and prevent transcription of structural genes DNA sequences Operons inducible lac operon or repressible trp operon systems An Inducer Stimulates the synthesis of an Enzyme Cells have metabolic regulation Adding and removing inducer seeing induced level and basal level of Beta Gata and mRNA Positive and Negative Regulation Negative reguation protein is binding to DNA sequence blocking transcription repressor protein 0 Repressor in lac operon imposes NEGATIVE regulation in absence of this transcription can proceed Positive Reguation in absence of protein very little transcription Need activator protein 0 Activator is POSITIVE regulation in creases transcription The lac Operon of E coli and Its Regulator Diagram in sides figure 164 Two states of lac Operon Lactose absent If lactose is absent you get bound to something else transcription shuts down Lactose present Cannot bind to operator the transcription can happen 0 Enzymes are made to stob inducer when inducers are done transcription stops ANIMATION Inducer molecule results in expression of structural genes of the lac operon can go from RNA to protein Lac repressor is always present Lactose absent result lac binds to operator RNA can not get through Lactose present allolactose binds to repressor causing it to change its shape it can no longer bind to operate 0 Now RNA polymerase can transcribe 0 Proteins made participate in metabolism of lactose Catabolite Repression When glucose is abundant cAMP levels drop 0 Glucose HIGH cAMP LOW The CRP cAMP complex does not form Without the CRP cAMP complex RNA polymerase cannot bind to the promoter efficiently The lac structural genes are transcribed at a very low level almost off This is called CATABOLITE REPRESSION When preferred carbon source is available glucose other operons related to carbon utilization do not transcribe at high rate The lac operon is highly expressed only when 0 Gucose actose POSITIVE REGULATION High glucose lactose presentoff Low glucose lactose presenton Everything in bio has a gas pedal and brakes TABLE 161 Positive and Negative Regulation in the lac Operon The trp Operon A repressible System Some metabolites are required all the time Example amino acids are needed to charge tRNAs are needed at all times IF any amino acid tRNA is missing protein synthesis stops when ribosome is unable to insert correct amino acid Cell expresses genes needed to synthesize amino acid if it is not available forom the environment If amino acid level is adequate then it is more efficient to not express genes Repressible operon solves this problem Co repressor binds to operator in the presence of metabolite to prevent operon expression when amino acid level is inadequate You only need the enzymes if you haven39t gotten the stuff tryptophan from the environment It is one of those ones that you have to keep at a certain level always No tryptophan repressor cannot bind transcription can begin 0 Makes mRNA script translation enzymes of the tryptophan are produced Tryptophan present trp operon repressed The Eukaryote Genome Expression Eukaryotic genomes are larger than those of prokaryotes Much of eukaryotic DNA is noncoding Eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes In eukaryotes transcription and translation are physically separated Eukaryotes have more complex regulation than prokaryotes Eukaryotic genomes have more regulatory sequences and more regulatory proteins that bnid them Eukaryotic mRNA is transcribed in the nucleus exported to the cytoplasm where translation occurs Tuesday 1232013 03092014 1108 AM Transcription Repressors and Activators 3 RNA polymerases the one that does structural stuff is RNA polymerase two transcribes proteins promoterstart site label with 1 each mRNA makes ONE polypeptide binding site and rna polymerase brings the thing to where it needs to be to be translated enhancer short DNA sequence Motif o wo enhancer 1enhancer 100 0 can alter transcription up to 100 fold Very important in determining level of expression of gene 0 there are many enhancers Coordinating Gene Expression Heterochromatin prevents gene expression Heterochromatin is found in the inactive X chromosome of mammals One of the X chromosomes in each cell of a female is inactivated early in development The chromosome remains condensed and appears as a Barr body under the microscope Condensation physically prevents DNA fromm being transcribed Methylation of cytosine on DNA may be involved with the inac va on Euchromatin generay active Initially in zygote two X chromosomes are not condensed inito heterochromatin Early on there is a switch that selects one X chromosome to be hetereo Barr body highly condensed X chromosome Chemicals that change Euchromo heterochromosome BARR BODY Xist gene controls whether or not X chromosome becomes a Barr body 0 Produces RNA that is non coding o Chromosome expressing Xist decide which chromosome is gonna be Barr body 0 Xist turns off all the other genes X from mom and X from dad in girls it39s not always the same one that is the Barr body 0 Each cell decides individually to use maternal or paternal o The cells stemming from that cell daughter cells will have same decision Female Carriers for X inked traits Female carriers are heterozygous for X inked traits Inactivation in each cell due to Barr body formation of one allele or the other occurs in early development Selection of X chromosome for inactivation is random 0 Imprinting on X chromosomes by methylation of DNA which persist throughout mitosis Mosaic expression patter in adult shows clonal propagation of Barr body Imprint is removed during meiosis PERSISTS THROUGH MITOSIS REMOVED THROUGH MEIOSIS Red green color blindness example 0 Woman that has 1 X chromo for this half of her cones can see color other half can not half is enough to see color though CALICO CAT what makes the orange and black patches 0 Different X chromosomes expressing pigment genes at certain places 0 Some cells will make orange hair close to each other 0 Other cells will make black hair Barr body is suppressed In black hair orange is suppressed in Barr body 0 Male calico can occur because of disjunction XXY ICLICKER In inducible operon systems 0 The inducer allows transcription DNA Methylation An epigenetic change Methylation typically occurs in promoters Methylation suppresses expression We can regulate expression of genes by regulating CH3 in promoter Epigenetics You can change your methylation pattern by doing stuff in your youth and this pattern can be passed down to your children Genomic imprinting In mammals eggs and sperm develop different methylation patterns For abou 200 genes offspring inherit an inactive methylated copy and an active demethylated one You need sex specific methylation patterns maternal and paternal pattern is needed to have a normal zygote Wednesday 1242013 Small regulatory RNAs MicroRNAs 1st miRNA described in Ceegans in 1993 2006 Nobel Prize to Andrew Fire and Craig Mello later found to be widely distributed in all plants and animals short noncoding RNAs involved in post transcriptiona regulation of gene expression 30 o of all protein coding genes in mammals are regulated by miRNAs short 2022 nucloetides RNA molecules play a role in many human diseases including cancer cardiovascular dsease diabetes mental disorders and viral infection mRNA Inhibition by RNAs miRNA dicer processes them and forms a RISC complex single strand RNA 2022 NT 0 base pairing with target mRNA 9 inhibition of translation 0 getting rid of RNA siRNAs9degradation miRNA biogenesis primary mRNA gets spliced gets exported dicer starts chewing away then you add up with something that can split up into Biological rationales of mRNA mediated regulation CHAPTER 18 Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology What is recombinant DNA How are new genes inserted into cells What sources of DNA are used in cloning What other tools are used to study DNA function What is biotechnology How is biotechnology changing medicine agriculture and the environment Cloning DNA Source of insert DNA genomic DNA cDNA PCR product DNA Vector plasmid circular self replicating DNA virus artificial chromosome Host E coli yeast cultured eukaryotic cells Ligate insert and vector to make recombinant DNA molecule in test tube Transform recombinant DNA molecule into host signals replication which will replicate and make many copies of each clone
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