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Heart and cardiac cycle

by: Janice Prieto

Heart and cardiac cycle BIO 220-01

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > BIO 220-01 > Heart and cardiac cycle
Janice Prieto
La Salle
GPA 2.65

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About this Document

These notes include 2-4 chambered hearts and the cardiac cycle. It uses both pictures and descriptions to help you understand the heart better.
Structure and Function of Organisms
Geri Seitchik
biology 220
75 ?




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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Janice Prieto on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 220-01 at La Salle University taught by Geri Seitchik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Structure and Function of Organisms in Biology at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Basic Facts • The Atria is thin walled because blood comes in under low pressure so it doesn’t need great force to move the blood into the ventricle • The ventricles are thicker because they need to build up pressure and use a lot more force to move the blood out of the heart • Veins take blood to the heart • Arteries take blood away from the heart • The Dorsal Aorta is the largest artery Semilunar valves Valve Valve OPen clOseD Valves • Atrioventricular valves are located between the Atria and Ventricles • Semilunar valves are located between the ventricles and the entrance to arteries that leave the ventricles • Valves are shaped as cups to prevent backflow • The atrioventricular valves are attached to the walls of the ventricles by tendons The Pericardium • The Serous fluid provides lubrication for the heart wall to prevent friction as it beats • The pericardium anchors the heart to prevent it from moving around The Heart Wall • The Myocardium is mostly composed of cardiac muscle tissue that does most of the contracting • The Endocardium is a thin layer of squamous epithelium tissue • The Epicardium is connective tissue that anchors and protects • The cardiac muscle is not dependent of nervous stimulus, meaning the heart can beat by itself • The conduction specialized cardiac muscle cells can act as a neuron and activate/propagate a nerve impulse or action potential 2 cHAmbeR HeARt Atrium Ventricle A.V. Pulmonary Atrium Valve Ventricle valveunar (CO ) (CO2) Artery (CO ) 2 Chamber Heart O 2 • Only deoxygenated blood goes through Respiratory the heart capillaries CO 2 • Present in most fish except lung fish Veins (CO ) • Least efficient of closed system Systematic Systemic Arteries* capillaries (O 2 • The Single type Circulation      O 2 CO 2 * Gills for fish 3 cHAmbeR HeARt left AtRiA Pulmonary blood, to systemic RigHt AtRiA Deoxygenated blood, to pulmonary PARtiAl sePtum There’s also an interatrial septum VentRicles Contain trabecular carneae Right atrium Right A.V. Ventricle Valve Vena Cava Pulmonary Artery 3 Chamber Heart CO2 (CO2) • Little to no mixing of blood t A.V. • The ventricles have small grooves Veins LefVal (trabecular carneae) to help keep the CO 2 Respiratory blood separated O 2 Capillaries • Semilunar valves also prevent mixing of Systemic blood Left Atrium capillaries CO 2 (O2) • Found in dipnoan fish, amphibians, most O 2 CO 2 reptiles except crocs and alligators Aorta ( )2 Pulmonary • Double Type Circulation       Arteries (O2) Vein Goes twice though the body 4 cHAmbeR HeARt Pulmonary Artery Vine Cava Opening This side pumps so it’s bigger Right side Left side Ventricular wall on right is thinner than left Right Atrium AV Valve Right CO2 Ventricle Vena Cava 4 Chamber Heart CO2 Pulmonary Artery CO2 • No mixing of blood • Interatrial septum separates the Atria Veins CO2 • Interventricular septum separates the CO2 Ventricles O 2 Respiratory • The coronary artery brings back Systemic Capillaries deoxygenated blood into the right atria O 2 capillaries CO 2 • Found in birds, crocs, alligators, all mammals Artery O2 Pulmonary • Double type Circulation       Goes twice through the body Aorta Vein O2 O2 (2 circuits) Left Left Left Atrium AV Valve O2 Ventricle O2 SA Node Bundle of his AV Node Purkinje Fibers Purkinje Fibers Cardiac Cycle • AV Node is slower than the SA Node but could take over for the SA Node if needed • SA Node is the pacemaker establisher • The cardiac cycle is the contraction and relaxation of the heart chambers • Relaxation is to be filled • Contraction is to squeeze blood out • The chambers can be filled at the same time but can’t contract at the same time, The blood wouldn’t go anywhere if they did Cardiac Cycle cycle Atria Diastole Systole Diastole Ventricle Diastole Systole Diastole Diastole = filling Systole = emptying 70% of Ventricular filling occurs when both chambers are at Diastole Cardiac Cycle • The signal starts in the AV Node and spreads to the right and left Atria • The signal goes from the AV Node to the SA Node (there’s a small time gap in between to allow the atria to finish contracting) • The signal travels down the bundle of his to the bottom of the heart • From the bundle of his the signal reaches the Purkinje Fibers which cause the ventricles to contract


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