Psychology 120 Full Lecture Notes
Psychology 120 Full Lecture Notes
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Health Sport And Exercise Science
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 52 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah on Friday September 5, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 231 views.
Reviews for Psychology 120 Full Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/05/14
Psych 120 Exam 1 Notes 9814 622 PM Personality an individual s characteristic patter of behavior thoughts and feelings stable over time and across situations We are looking for patternsits not necessarily stable Major Theoretical Models of Personality Biological o Physiology The mind is what the brain does Everything that you think feel and do are programed in brain tissue Viewing the body as a machinevessel and the personality is like a ghost in the machine that doesn39t fit and shouldn39t be a part of the machine The brain is a super computer and gives rise to who you are and looking at the biological model we are technically robots Our operating system comes from genes so it39s the recipes for growing the body They are like a little computer directing every one of your cells in your body We are all genetic mutants 2 We all have 200250 novel mutations that parents never had 2 Junk DNA are the breeding ground for new mutations Children born from older dads are twice as likely to have schizophrenia and autism as well as many other disorders Epigeneticsstudy of what happens to us that influences what genes are turned on or off Psychoanalytic o Sigmund Freud o Influenced by early environment o The child is the father of the man O Condrad Lorenz won a noble prize for work on the way in which various non human animals acquire personality hypothesized that goslings were programmed to distinguished mama by the first large being they see between 1218 hours after hatching imprinting Freud believed that we are the goose we have an early attachment to the mother figure Freud believed that our personality was shaped from the early environment that you were essentially raised in Behavioral learning 0 0 We are born a blank slate and there are little print from genes but they are very minimal We are blank slates that the environment starts writing on in the present environment but we don39t forget the past environments that we have encountered These theories are deterministic Fate has been determined already If we have perfect knowledge from all relative inputs then we would have a perfect sense of who we are and what our personality is but only if we have perfect data Science is about trying to predict what is going to happen therefore learning is trying to predict who you are going to be Science is inherently deterministic From the inside it doesn39t feel like we are determined we feel like we have free will or existential theory Only model that tells us that there are limits to our freedom HumanisticExistential Trait O O 0 Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior If you want to know what your personality is going to be down the road you have to look at yourself right now They are agnostic about what makes you the way you are and all they care about is how to measure your personality and find the patterns and traits and they are going to tell you what you are going to do the next day or next week Cognitive 0 Newest model and not fully coherent 0 Much of what drives our personality is our thoughts 0 So what is going on in the software that is in the hardware of your brain and how that influences personality Primary Sources of Personality Data A Sef Report Most widely used form of personality data 0 Pros Only direct access to thoughts and feelings Best expertgreatest interest Even when distorted sef image is important facet of personality Easy data to obtain 0 Cons Bias self serving bias fundamental attribution error El Most of us are positively bias we have blind spots Only 1 and 10 are negatively bias Most are suffering from clinical depression but most of the time we are bias in the other direction Blind spots DunninqKruqer effect which is incompetence lead to overconfidence The better we get the more we see how far we have to go Usually people who don39t have a self serving bias or confidence are more clinically depressed or anxious something to think about People who are really physically attractive are very self centered and rude Most important psychological studies is that we are not as accurate as we think we are All of us have lots of bias Only psychologist that has won a noble prize was Daniel Kahneman He won it in economics he discovered dozens of different of ways how people are biased Extensively processed Fundamental attribution error Attribution is how we explain how something happen so therefore we have a strong explanation of how we see something happen When we see someone act like a jerk they are a jerk But if we are a jerk we just see it as a bad day Therefore overall the FAE is how YOU explain it with your self serving bias Self serving bias s can rub off on friends 0 Unwillingness to disclose some data People don39t like to share their flaws cheating drug use sexual activity 0 Vastly over used method Most of what we know is from this sef report data 0 Brain waves There is a negative wave at N400 when you hear something that is pleasantly surprising 0 Don39t use this entirely for project B Informant Pros 0 Can often see subject39s blind spots 0 Can often infer subject39s thoughts and feelings 0 Even when distorted others perceptions important eg reputation This matters to who we are Cons 0 Limited information People only see you in a specific environment and only for a limited time so they only see you from that experience and not the whole you 0 Bias C Behavior Observation 3 types naturalistic experiment personality test Naturalistic o Observing subject in environment that the subject doesn39t know you are observing Hidden camera Experiment 0 Walt Mische s Marshmallow Test he has this great idea that we have a delay of gratification and some people live in the moment and they go and get it and some don39t He came up with the idea that you can predict how a 4 year old will be years down the road based on the outcomes of the experiments Kids that could delay of gratification could be more successful and go to college higher SAT scores more likely to stay married lower BMI less likely to become addictive over all better health Compared to those who couldn39t delay gratification 0 Let the data speak its not subjective o Migram s obedience study have two volunteers randomly picked one being the student and one being the teacher Where the student is the actor and the teacher is not When ever the wrong answer is given they have to shock the student They don39t get to see the learner Throughout the experiment the learner isn39t so bright Learner has heart condition They have this voice screaming every time they need to be shocked Before he started the experiment he sent out a survey asking who would get the XXX voltage He got about 65 or 2 out of 3 people These people were usually really stressed 1 out of 3 really spoke up in the experiment 0 Personality Test Rorschach Draw A Person These are all self report but there is a small group of test that they don39t know what information they are giving way Pros 0 Can target specific often rare situations for study 0 Usually regarded as most objective form of data Cons 0 Difficulty of interpretation Can you interpret their behavior without error 0 Ethical problems D Life Outcomes Pro 0 Often intrinsically important info that psychologist what to know Have you been arrested or not Did you get married or not Did you hospitalized Employer college 0 They can give us probabilistic information about personality 0 Indirect source of data can be misleading via stereotyping Drawing probabilistic about and individual about actions that could be put into categories We use stereotypes because they are more accurate Critical thinking ability to challenge your own thoughts ability to testevaluate each one of our beliefconclusions as tentative not as certainties and to look for evidence that supports and those that 0 Confirmation bias only paying attention to evidence that supports what you already thinkbelieve Cherry pick the evidence to support what they believe or choose to not listen to other evidence ignore because it doesn39t support what they believe Ex Politicians Motivated reasoning we are highly motivated to tear down the opposing opinion We will look for things that don39t support others beliefs In the scientific community you can only use evidence and logic Science has an asymptotic approach getting closer to the knowable truth about the universe Science is a humble exercise and it uses a word theory that is usually misunderstood Theory in science is an explanation to account for a well established body of fact but in society everyday we use it as a guess Correation Coefficient r measures strength of association between two variables 10 lt or equal to r lt or equal to 10 Interpreting r rules of thumb 00 lt or equal to r lt 02 weakly correlated 02 lt or equal to r lt 05 moderately correlated 05 lt or equal to r Note there is no direct numerical interpretation of r only r squared r squared percentage of variability in one variable x accounted for by the other y Correlation doesn39t imply causation Trait Approach Trait a stable attribute of personality o Ex Impulsivity warmth agreeableness hostility dominance etc Trait are dimensional with each person somewhere on a continuum Our brain wants to think in categories and when we talk about other people we describe them categorically But people vary in their level of category Trait approach ignores underlying causes just focuses on traits as predictors of future behavior Meeh s Maxim Wants to focus on traits not why they do what they do Situationist critique Mischel are traits really that stable across situations He said if you look at the correlation on a situation and someone s personality you get a really low correlation Ex Group project always one person who steps up and takes charge But this behavior is only driven by the situation ultimately making the correlation low 0 Looking at one trait at one time in a situation doesn39t account for someone s personality you have to look at it multiple times in differently situations 0 But if you pick a small but strong trait you can predict what the persons personality will be like 7 correlation Assessment of Traits o Reliable if it gives you the same outcome most to always the time 0 Valid it is measuring what it39s suppose to be measuring 0 If test isn39t reliable then it39s not valid 0 A Projective tests unconscious mind is going to project your personality that you don39t know that you are giving away Rorschach drawaperson TAT handwriting analysis Rorschach is the most widely used has been around for a 100 years Used a lot with kids and adolescents Rorschach is not reliable or valid though 5 in color and 5 are black and white If the person uses the color to describe they have a healthy emotional life hypothesis Draw a person is used mostly with children because many can39t really speak about who they think they are There hasn39t been much scientific studies TAT which has scientific studies This takes over an hour because there are 20 line drawn pictures and you have to tell them a story They take these stories and they code them Drew Westen made this coding team Handwriting analysis Writing can be perceived as an ambiguous situation You don39t know what you39re suppose to say and there are things about your personality that you aren39t aware of o B Objective tests straight forward very clear to everyone involved Rational Method each item rationally derived from underlying theory Limitations with self report Empirical Method data driven not relying on theory 2 Random items have been chosen based on correlation of the data with the items 2 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI most widely used personality test in the professional setting This was designed to test all personality contracts and clinical There are different scales depending on clinical diagnosed personality disorders 2 Advantage not transparent so hard to fake repHes 2 Disadvantage shrinkage often poor validity these findings are often don39t replicate Factor Analysis sophisticated extension of rational method Take the rational method and do some statistical stuff on things that you are trying to measure 2 Uses sophisticated statistics to help measure target construct uses computer model to look at a wide variety of test items and extract the underlying factors 2 Big five factor analysis of 17954 traits words 9 5 underlying factors El 0 Big Five 1 Neuroticism negative emotionality 2 Proneness to experience negative emotionanal reactions anxiety sadness ager embarrassment etc Depending upon one s level of Neuroticism he or she may be classified as being ReactiveHigh Negative Emotionality Cautious alert that something might go wrong Sensitive to the distresspain of others Easily discouraged or overwhelmed Feels emotions intensely Vulnerable to metal illness depression anxiety eating disorders etc 392 Resiient Low Negative Emotionality Largely unfazed by negative possibilities or actual negative outcomes May ignore others discomfort or distress Can handle high levels of stress and remain calm in the face of crisis Better health longer lifespan 2 Facets anxiety anger depression self consciousness vulnerability immoderation impulsivity don39t need to memorize these 2 Extraversion sociabiity 2 Social orientation U Jung 392 ExtravertHigh extraversion Craves high levels of stimulation especially of a social nature Energized by social interactions enjoys group settings amp parties Drawn to leadership roles Usually has breadth but not depth in friendships and other relationships Not typically prone to introspection Very expressive and easy to read IntrovertLow extraversion Craves quite settings with lower levels of stimulation Energized by isolation exhausted by large social gatherings Independent not inclined to follow the crowd Intense depth of relationships but a small circle of close friends Highly productive on projects Reserve hard to read 2 When low in these areas you might be growing 2 10 thousand hours it takes 10000 hours to master what you are practicing deliberately 2 World class performance are usually introverts 2 Facets friendliness gregariousness assertiveness activity level excitement seeking cheerfulness Openness openness to new experiences 2 the tendency to seek out or create new experiences perceptions and concepts 2 do you like things the way they are or do you like change 2 Not all good and not all bad 2 Correlation to openness and IQ is 4 2 Exporer high openness Highly imaginative and creative In any given situation able to envision new possibilities for what could be Invites change in fact easily bored with things as they are Broad intellectual curiosity Open to seeing even cherished truths and principles framed in a completely new way May be viewed as impractical and having head in the clouds 2 Preserver ow openness Focused on the here and now highly practical Wants to conserve and preserve cherished institutions and practices Uncomfortable with change Finds beauty in ritual and repetition Prefers not to question existing views and beliefs May be viewed as narrow and dogmatic Exam 2 Notes 9814 622 PM Yerkes Dodson aw describes relationship between performance and arousaL Mindfulness meditation for people who have decreased test scores because of test anxiety this meditation can take arousal from being really high to the sweet spot before it tapers off Daniel Kahneman Only psychologist that has won a noble prize He won it in economics he discovered dozens of different of ways how people are biased Extensively processed Two major modes of thinking system 1 and system 2 1 What every non human brain does all the time over earned effortless super easy way to perceive world around us EX Lecture in English nouns and verbs gender etc Gives us all of our intuitions 2 Much less developed comes online if you are engaging in critical thinking and in order to sustain this system your mood isn39t positive Effort full Big Five in theory these 5 are unrelated to each other so one isn t going to influence the other 4 Agreeabeness interpersonal warmth amp trust 0 The tendency to maintain a positive emotional tone in all interpersonal dealings o Accommodator High Agreeableness go up as age Avoids conflict keeps opinions to self Always puts on a pleasant exterior Viewed as pleasant and likeable by nearly everyone Tends to view others as honest and well intentioned Highly trusting but may be gullible Prefers cooperation to competition natural team players Often quite spiritual o Chaenger Low Agreeableness Comfortable with conflict and the expression of negative reactions towards others Not at all concerned with how others view them May be seen as tactless or aggressive Highly skeptical and analytical Typically evaluate each statement for its logical consistency Often competitive may be difficult to engage in team concept 0 Facets trust morality altruism cooperation modesty sympathy 0 When in a very positive mood you don39t have full potential in critical thinking so if you are comfortable you don39t want the chaHenge 5 Conscientiousness dependability organization 0 The tendency to pursue goals in an organized methodical fashion 0 Organizer High Conscientiousness Wellorganized and efficient in all they undertake Prefer to plan ahead and uncomfortable when things deviate from the plan Highly reliable They always show up and show up on time Very outcome oriented they are often content with uninteresting tasks so long as they produce a valued result 0 Sacker Low conscientiousness Often disorganized prone to putting things off until the last possible moment Highly spontaneous and flexible and capable of adjusting the implementation of a plan to account for unforeseen developments Very process oriented the usually value the journey more than arriving at the destination 0 Facets sef efficacy orderliness dutifulness achievement striving sef discipine cautiousness Usefulness of big 5 Factors 0 If you know where they fall on the big 5 you can have a good prediction of the outcome it is very very hard to make O accurate predictions most of the time people suck at prediction Experts are not better then chance You can establish how someone is in each of these 5 by the time they are adolescent If we have severe trauma these 5 traits can change over night 1 Neuroticism clinical diagnosis any physiological disorder 5 times more likely to be diagnosed treatment outcomes divorce rate more likely to get divorced People with higher neuroticism are less likely to take to treatment well They also have higher levels of stress hormones cortisol is for acute stress the problem is cortisol at high doses day after day is toxic to the body and brain To the body it promotes inflammation irritable bowl asthma heart disease ect over time cortisol hurts the brain How much The average person by the time they are 60 has a frontal cortex that has shrunk by 20 Something that causes greater brain shrinkage is neuroticism Alzheimer39s is also an inflammatory but we can bring the risk down with fish oil and foods to bring down inflammatory women are higher then men 2 Extraversion life satisfaction pleasurefoodsex longevity They have pleasure circuits in the brain that are much more active introverts are skinnier extraverts are more likely to become overweight and they also consume more alcohol and enjoy the company of other people more Extraverts find something that can light up their pleasure center in anyone They enjoy sex more Introverts are more likely to have better academics and achievements due to not wanting to go out and drink and party and enjoy themselves Extraverts live longer 3 Openness vocational interestfit IQ political orientation They believe the other higher or lower is so baffling If you are very far apart form someone in your life you will feel like you just don39t connect and don39t click Kids with high openness like imaginary things and are artistic ect People high in openness just want to understand and want to learn about new things Someone high in openness are relentlessly high in curiosity and ask the most disturbing and inappropriate questions People high in openness want to look forward to the future back to curiosity Your level of openness is very dependent on political and religious views Your level of openness is going to be a big predictor of what you are going to be happy doing job wise in life People high in openness are going to be happy in a job with flexibility or artistic ect People low in openness are better at jobs with structure like baking or military or accounting 4 Agreeableness cardiac health overall health likeability Has a big gender difference higher in female If you are low in agreeableness people don39t like you 5 Conscientiousness job performance achievement higher a little in women over men Best predictor of job performance People high in this are the ones high in work ethic They will get projects done People low I contentiousness are higher and more likely to have ADHD If you have a high IQ you are usually below average in conscientiousness o Universality of 5 factors Critigues Trait theorists no real reason just happen to be 5 Biological model perhaps 5 major neural circuits re temperament Temperament is like a biological predisposing to different types of personality Evolutionary perhaps we39re wired to assess 5 major things with adaptor significance about other Big five superficial understanding of personality psychology of a stranger is the big 5 spend some time with someone and tou can be in the ballpark Mischel Need to know how each trait varies by situation If x 9 then Y under what circumstances is Tess outgoing Or quiet If they are in this station then the are very Westen Big 5 comes from words real life comes in storiesnarratives HEXACO use better statsfactor analysis get 6 factor honesty New group of researchers they use more complex modeling and that39s how they get the 6 factor honesty Integrity trustworthy Myers Briggs How do 5 factors interact Profile analysis Doesn39t tell you when two factors are really low This test interprets your answers and gives you the interaction with all of the 5 factors to come out with a very very close resemblance to yourself McAdams Readinqs 3 Levels of personality description 0 O Level 1 trait eve fairly superficial level of knowledge Level 2 concerns motives tactics what do they want most amp how do they get it Level 3 a person39s core identity life stores the person uses toe explain self Narrative Identity how we explain ourselves to others and this is the core way people use to organize their identity These are the key influential events that has shaped them 2 Common BIG Themes Contamination everything was going well and then something bad happened and it went down hill from there lost best friend Redemption horrible thing happened but then this amazing thing happened person that came into life that guided you to becoming a better person or change life Agency achievement you knew you couldn39t get to a goal but eventually got there because you kept going after it Communion someone came into your life and your connection with that person completely reoriented yourself Found themselves through that person or group Meaning finding some over arching meaning reigious practical philosophical Biological Model Overview Key assumptions every thought feeling and behavior occurs as the result of brain activity Metaphor brain hardware mindthoughts ampfeeingssoftware The mind is what the brain does Change the brain change the mind Computational theory of mind 0 O O 0 Brain made up of 100 billion neurons The neuron is exquisitely designed to transmit information Neural networks can process information compute How much Estimated at 100 trillion operations per second Comparison Fujitsu K Computer 10500 trillionsecond Moore 395 Law Intel every year they double in memory storage etc and then he came up with the idea that its getting faster every 18 months The programing in our brain is unbreakable Haven39t found the Rosetta stone for deciphering the code of the brain If model correctchange the brain 9 change personality 0 Ex Phineas Gage 160 years ago he made medical history by having a rod going through this cheek behind his eye and comes out passing through the frontal cortex on the top of the head He lived amp carried the rod around From this accident he has changed by losing his filter and being the opposite of what he once was Gage is no longer gage Anatomical localization of software function in brain 0 OBJECTION Mind bodv dualism your mind and body are complete distinct two different things Mind is something that controls our body and the body is a completely different thing Every human culture has experienced mindbody dualism Minds are non material things that control the body but are independent This is false like the idea that earth is the center of the universe Change brain change mind Change thoughts changes brain Biological reductionism Only thing that is important is the brain The brain is the only thing that matters Therefore the brain changes the mind not the other way around We are all mutants we carry somewhere between 50100 completely new genetic factors that our parents didn39t have Coqnitive neuroscience 0 Triune Brain reptiian paeomammalian o Hindbrain Reptilian Brain RAS Eysenck introversionextraversion 2 It was the first structure found in the brain by a working scientist Hans Isaac that linked to personality He noticed that this part regulates the level of arousal pipeline for sensory information His idea was that if you have this pipeline that is big then you don39t need a lot of stimulation and if you get too much stimulation you get a sensory overload If you have a little pipeline you don39t get sensory overload cause your cortex is craving more stimulation In Big RAS introvert 2 Little RAS extrovert 2 Not the whole story there are exceptions 2 Lots of other brain reasons Hypothalamus 4 Fs 2 Fight Flight Feeding Reproduction II neo mammaian o Midbrain paleomammalian brain Limbic system mediates emotion El Raw primal emotion system 2 Amygdala emotional appraisalintensity El The hub of emotion processing this has projections that go throughout the brain and gets input from anywhere Grand Central Station Emotional appraisal we have two different fast and slow system 1 amp system 2 Amygdala is fast system 1 1 Does fast and primitive emotional appraisal 2 Regulates the intensity of emotion If someone takes a lot of psychological medicines it turns down the activity in the amygdala Charles Whitman first psychopath shooter at college and kills 16 people before he is shot dead by SWAT He had a tumor on his amygdala and was blocking circuits therefore it started to fire too much If you remove the amygdaa losses all emotion Not everyone will act the same way because of different circuitry Hippocampus memory consolidation El Hippocampusmemory amp as time comes people tend to forget and it changes their personality Memory consolidation takes place while you sleep and stress can hinder your memory consolidation Because stress hormones cortisol interferes with the process of memory consolidation in hippocampus Cingulate gyrus error detection give a damn pain El Anterior plays critical role of error detection tells you that something is wrong You then go and check because you forgot to do something and you have that itch that something is not right When you go check it calms down the anterior cingulate Some people don39t get the memo and El the anterior cingulate doesn39t clam down after checking Ex OCD also someone with a personality of perfectionism give a dam level to the degree of which you care about something that needs to get done Many psych medications can turn down this give a damn level Most people who take an antidepressant they don39t have extreme motivation and personality changes Omega 3 they can turn down activity in the cingulate gyrus Can be altered by psychoactive drugs 0 Forebrain neo mammaian brain large cortex Four cortical lobes El Prefrontal newest and uniquely human Very fragile if you are sleep deprived the functioning is affected Frontal part of the brain that regulates our conscious awarenessidentity It determines most of our personality 1 Inhibition orbitofrontal eye right self regulationwill power We can say no to things that could be harmful in the long run We are allowed to see things happen in the future Wipowerdiets they will suck at delayed gratification We only have so much willpower to go around and every one of us differ on the level of willpower It39s a personality trait Occurs on two different scales immediateimpulse long term goal both important When we have strong emotional feelings we want our frontal cortex to light up immediately If you get an injury to the right side then you will alter this trait Also when you are sick or when your blood sugar is low your willpower goes down 2 Initiation left frontal goaldirected reward based activity The ability to pursue rewarding goals The ability to translate our intentions into actions Linked to mood states Ex Happy and positive If you are positive you are more motivated to go get goals When we are in an negative mood state we tend to be much more inhibited When ever someone is clinically depress their left frontal cortex is shut down If someone has an injury to the left frontal cortex they are much more likely to become depress If injury to rightdisinhibited Once any activity becomes a habit it turns out that when you do this activity it lights up the reward circuit in the brain It takes about 20 times for it to become a habit 3 Emotion regulation eftgtrightpositive rightgtleftnegative Your frontal cortex has a lot of regulation that comes down to your amygdala It has a lot of regulation of how you are feeling If left is more active than right you will be positive mood state if your right is more active than left you will be in a more negative mood state Richard Davidson he got curious about who the happiest people on the planet And he found out that those people were Tibetan Monks Mindfulness meditation is what they practiced 4 Logical reasoning dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC Region of the brain that is a memory buffer it39s the part of the brain that is important in organization ability 0 System 1 vs System 2 6 resides in the DLPFC kahneman 0 Working memory 0 Abstract thinking 0 Organizational skill 5 Empathy cognitive vs emotional o Ventromedia cognitive o Inferior frontal gyrusemotiona Logical reasoning dorsolateral prefrontal cortexDLPFC El El El El system 1quot versus system 2quot Kahneman Working memory Abstract thinking Organizational skill DLPFC dorsal lateral pre frontal cortex Region of the brain that specializes in giving you a working memory buffer For holding information and then manipulate to come up with connection Part of brain is most curtail for abstract reasoning System two resides here You will be better at critical thinking and working memory Sleep deprivation knocks out system 2 abstract thinking suffers ADHD have compromised DLPFC activity DLPFC hits peek at 25 Westen did the study watching people engage in political debates The arguments revolved around system 1 emotions The DLPFC isn39t on during the debate Amigdla lit up when presented info about kerry that he said contradicted himself The DLPFC flat lined When he sowed them ones of bush contradicting DLPFC lit up like crazy DLPFC is often tied to emotional arousal El 5 Empathy cognitive versus emotional both tend to be higher in women higher in men with age and immediately goes up after the birth of a child testeostone goes down empathy goes up ventromedial cognitive empathy ability to actually understand what someone else is feeling Intellectual knowledge of another persons state of mind Psychopaths are good at reading other peoples emotions and thoughts but they don39t care They don39t experience emotional empathy They are really good at reading people and they don39t give a fuck about hurting you Emotional hinges on emotional empathy in the brain inferior frontal gyrus emotional people with autism Once they can tell someone is hurting then they care and get upset but its hard for them to tell what someone else is feeling the part of the brain that is most important in personality is the frontal cortex Temporal cortex works with limbic system to regulate emotion intensity Assigning signi cance to events TLE temporal lobe epilepsy a subset of these individuals get very spiritual Psilocybin active ingredient in magic mushrooms It lights up the regions of the temporal lobe so strongly it creates a feeling one being one with everything and everyone and everything is goooood It doesn39t matter if you know before or are a skeptic once you take it you are a true believer no matter what Parietal Cortex Interpreting emotional social cues right parietal lobe main job is controlling motor movement tracking perception to brain but it also is in charge of tracking what other peoples bodies do Right poritial lobe helps us figure out facial expression body language and tone of voice Facial expression Body Language Tone of voice prosody Role of Neurotransmitters Brain neural computer information processed in a neural network 100 billion neurons average neuron connected to 1000 others Trillions of synaptic connections each one codes information Neurotransmitters messenger that transmits chemical signal between neurons Each neurotransmitter seems to specialize in signals related to specific brain functions software 1 Serotonin Regulatesinhibits amygdala emotional intensity Regulatesinhibits stress response circuits If you are highly neurotic and you get fight or flight if we ramp up serotonin it might mellow you out If you have low levels of serotonin you are more likely to develop PTSD Anterior cingulate give a damn level serotonin regulate this But serotonin circuits stimulate drive for social contact when we are fighting the flue we get a huge drop in serotonin and we want to withdraw and not be around anyone same with depression SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor lexipro Zoloft paliz Prozac celexa turns down emotions both good and bad Anti depressant meds for vast majority large studies suggest that El El El No more effective then placebo for most depressed patients Placepo for depression isn39t the same as no treatment The placebo response rate in depression is 13 and is going up because we believe in the power Difficult side effects Withdrawal syndrome Exam 3 Notes 9814 622 PM One part of the brain that is most important in your personality frontal cortex BDNF It increases the hormone so that you have a greater impact of experience on the brain Agreeableness high trusting ow critica spirituality Carl Jung Reducing Neuroticism 1 SSRISNRI more effective in short term brain pushes back in long term Antidepressant but ong term is less productive Takes brain longer to process like 15 years 2 Exercise aerobic or high intensity intervalsresistance training this reduces stress and anxiety This also targets other neurotransmitters like dopamine short burst are better 3 Omega 3s EPA molecule 1000 mgday vegans ALA 5000 mgday Brain is mostly made of fat 60 Body doesn39t know how to make omega 3 and it39s a key in hormones that regulate brain and tissue formation EPA is a power psychoactive drug you can get this from fishlivestock that are natural You can get this from fish oil capsule this gives you a calming and soothing effect 4 Probiotics helps good microbes in body regulate brain39s anxiety circuits 100 trillion microbes in body and you have 10 trillion cells These are important in the digestive tract absorption They communicate with immune system gives it a heads up when there is an unfriendly microbe They also spend a lot of time talking to the brain and provide the brain with information and how much they should produce neuroticism There are a lot of things that we do that encourages bad microbes and destroy good microbes We take antibiotics that can kill bad microbes and destroy good microbes in ecosystem in gut flora skin hair is called microbiome If we eat junk food we kill good microbes and encourages bad ones Sugar is addictive and lights up reward circuit in brain Toxic microbes that eat sugar tells the brain to crave sugar They have hacked into our brain to tell our brain to crave sugar but if you take a supplementprobiotic to reverse this PB8 5 Sunlightlight box direct effect on serotonin signaling in brain We have specialized light receptors in eyes that will only fire in outdoor lighting These were put there to regulate body clock hormone levels hunger etc The biggest one is serotonin By the end of winter we are most deficient in our serotonin and they become more sensitive Bipoar DO NOT USE LIGHT BOX IN MORNING IT39S DANGEROUS 6 Meditation even 10 minday has measurable effect 7 Anti Rumination redirect attention from negative thoughts to engaging activity 8 Belonging we39re a social species wired to belong to tight social group Have a pet does reduce neuroticism Neurotransmitters 1 Serotonin 2 Dopamine 0 They give you the feeling of cravings 0 Used by pleasurereinforcement centers in brain 0 D2 receptors addiction proneness craving extraversion They play a critical role on how active these reward circuits get and the more the better People who have high levels on D2 receptors are less likely to get addicted to anything You get a reward from simple things in everyday so like eatingsocializingseeing beauty High levels of D2 receptors and interaction with drugs alcohol vicodin every drug of addiction targets dopamine circuitry and you have too much of these drugs they put the breaks on the reward system and which makes the drugs not that awesome If you have low D2 receptors you don39t get high on life but if you get involved with a drug of addiction the reward system gets really lit up and your brain thinks that it39s the best thing ever Which makes you more vulnerable to become addicted to anything So what makes your D2 receptors Your genetics but experience changes the brain If you are socially isolated D2 receptors plummet depression and abuse also plummet o Dorsolateral PFC logical reasoningworking memoryattention 0 Also regulates energymotivation level People who are highly motivated are high in dopamine circuitry and this leads to people being more extroverted On average extroverts get more enjoyment from food sex and alcohol 0 Assess dopamine function eye blink rate higher when higher in dopamine o Psychostimulants RitalinConcerta AdderallVyvanse Provigil Hormones and Behavior Hormone chemical messenger secreted into blood stream testosterone estrogen adrenaline human growth hormone etc o Testosterone Most widely studied hormone regarding behavioral effects This is also a steroid it promotes bone densitymuscle strength It turns out that it has profound brain functions Testosterone is one of 6 major androgens Levels vary considerably by gender MF 81 and within gender Also can depend on what time of day and what age If men keep healthy and exercise they can keep their peak when they were adolescents Testosterone amp Aqqression 2 1 Men more aggressive than women from infancy onward 2 2 Men with high testosterone levels more aggressive than men with lower levels In 3 Violent offenders have higher levels than non violent offenders High rape assault Dab 2 4 Rambunctious fraternity members elevated testosterone Animal houses high Academic low 5 Age effects El Other behavioralpersonality correlates of testosterone El Phthalates we have these in our system they are in plastic food container They are in shampoos conditioners lip balms 30 have dropped in testosterone level in the past decade therefore it has effected all those factors below Pushing your self and competing boosts your testosterone level Alcohol suppresses testosterone Testosterone improves brain health as you age 1 Social dominanceconfidence swagger Inequality in our society has been increasing If people perceive themselves as low in status they have more psychological problems Any time we see something that raises our social status our testosterone increases When fans of a team their brains perceived that the people on the court was on the same team as them or family so when they lose then not only the players drop in testosterone but so do the avid fans Looks like we are wired this way 2 Reduced anxiety males are have less in this field than women This is shown to be true within all species and cultures and situations 3 Impulsivityrisk taking this is the idea of how testosterone makes us stupid if high 4 Activity level boys typically have more activity level than girls do 5 Sex drive men have higher than women amp Antidepressants decrease sex drive Some women want testosterone patch to increase sex drive Testosterone can not increase sex drive if it39s not accompanied by estrogen 6 Positive mood 7 Reduced empathy increase testosterone decreases empathy so they don39t really care much 0 Estrogen El 8 Visua spatia ability mental object rotation vs Verbal fluency higher can facilitate this task so men can do this better but it also comes with decrease in verbal fluency 9 When falling in love testosterone drops in men and increases in women Higher testosterone levels are more likely to cheat 10 Drops in men after childbirth Testosterone makes us stupid The plural of anecdote is data It influences key brain circuits and continues to regulate our behavior over time The level in the womb doesn39t correlate with where we are right now Digit Ratio 2D4D indexring finger El El El 1 Female 101 2 Male average 097 3 Crude indicator of testosterone exposure in utero 4 More masculine ratio athletic ability spatialmechanical ability poorer school performance ADHD dominant facial structure 5 Sexual orientation in women not menprobaby gay have more masculine ratio Fluctuations especially sharp drops in tandem with progesterone associated with depressed mood peri menopause PMDD Interacts with testosterone to boost competitiveness with other women Works with testosterone to determine sex drive women and men Sexual attraction El Estrogen high 9 preference for high T men 2 Hormonal birth control 9 often preference for lower T men This has widely underappreciated levels of changing our personality 1 amp 9 are taking antidepressants and they are usually peri menopause 1 amp 4 are in their 40s Estrogen has receptors throughout brain that has serotonin estrogen promotes activity in serotonin circuits 0 Oxytocin Attachment hormone mother infant attachment in all mammals Strong drive to affiliate in every mammal it has evolved as motherinfant They sky rocket in mother and baby When you receive a hug or shake hand your oxytocin levels surge and they give you a feeling of reward They also go up during sex so therefore this means keep doing this stay with this person Breast stimulation in women has the highest oxytocin levels surge Oxytocin when released your trust level increases Agreeableness sky rockets when oxytocin levels increase When blocked in rats they lose all social memory In humans increase our sense of trust in others 9 social connection Strongly increases cognitive and emotional empathy psychopaths They are low in oxytocin levels and increasing oxytocin levels in psychopaths doesn39t work very well This is because the oxytocin doesn39t have anything to bind to in their brain because they don39t have enough oxytocin receptors You can take a virus called retrovirus to change the genome and change their brain 0 Vasopressin Really closely relation to oxytocin Surges when having sex males This is prevalent in male reward circuits in the brain Receptors in brain of male rodent vole gt monogamous attachment When they mate they have a huge release and they bind to the reward circuits saying she s the one keep doing this but with her If you block these 9 player Related finding in human males vasopressin gene 9 pair bonding Biology of Sexual Orientation I Pervasiveness of same sex behavior in animal kingdom O O O Penguins chinstrap penguins Roy and Silo they were at the Bronx Zoo They took turns incubating an egg shaped rock and then the next year they gave them a real egg and it hatched Raised Tango together then after 6 years because a new chinstrap penguin came in Skippy and seduces Silo and Roy becomes despondent and doesn39t eat or anything Very devastating Bonobo Chimps only species that has sex face to face and make out they are closely related to us They are much less aggressive than common chimps they are very sexual Have long term relationship with female to female Sheep hypothalamus link males have no desire to have relationships with females in the womb their hypothalamus called the SDN was much more masculinized and becomes bigger and tells the ram that they are sexually attracted to females So therefore in gestations the SDN remains small and they don39t get the signal to select females as their target Rats 450 Others II Female Homosexuality O O Finger ratios male pattern CAH high prenatal androgens gtsame sex attraction syndrome that she gets a tumor on adrenal glands when in the womb and they become masculinized but after they are born O O Cick evoked otoacoustic emissions hearing sensitivity male pattern they have one similar to males so they don39t hear as well as an average women does Startle Inhibition male pattern males don39t normally jump when hearing a startling boom and same go for homosexual females Waist hip ratio male pattern not curvy like average women Large right gt left cerebral hemisphere male pattern males tend to have a bigger left hemisphere to females Males are much better with directions like 3D map Approx 70 report gender roe alienation in childhood Heritability estimates 50 o twin studies etc III Male Homosexuality OOOOOOO O Hypothaamus smaer SDN region female pattern Amygdaa more active with arousing stimuli female pattern Anterior commissure arger female pattern Spatial abiity poorer female pattern Visual memory for object ocation better female pattern Verbal fuency greater female pattern Odds of being gay increase 33 o with each older brother h Y antigens Approx 70 o report gender roe alienation in childhood Behavioral Genetics Examining the influence of DNA genes on patterns of behavior personality Heritability h the proportion of variance in personality accounted for by genetic factors 0 Basic methodology compare similarities between people who are related to varying degrees identical twins siblings adoptive siblings etc 99 of all human genes are identical from one individual to another Behavioral genetics looks at the 1 o that differs 3 billion nucleotides are different Among that 1 o Monozygotic identical twins 100 Dizygotic twins fraternal twins 50 Mother and Child 50 Father and Child 50 o Full siblings 50 o Half siblings 25 Adoptive siblings parents 0 Every second of every day our genes perform 10 thousands operations on all of our cells Striking evidence of genetic effects identical twins reared apart The Jim Twins reunited in adulthood and were separated 4 weeks after birth and grew up 45 miles apart in Ohio Bouchard s Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart U IQ 80 2 Neuroticism negative emotional reactivity 70 2 Aggression 67 2 Religiousness 62 2 Traditionalism tendency to follow rules 59 2 Leadership 57 392 Selfcontro 56 392 Risk taking 45 2 Intimacy closeness to significant others 15 392 Also no similarity in romantic partners Iconoclast tearing down iconsidols the things that people worship 2 H genes 2 E environment subdivided into C common family environmentparenting and U unique environment 2 In majority of genetic studies of personality c 0 or 01 and u 03 Once we adjust for the measurement error of personality instruments Genes predict about 23 of variance in most personality traits If you did the pie chart to determine height how much would be genes unique and parenting Most of the height is determined by your genes 200 years ago the genetic influence on height was lower there was a lot more variability environmentsdiseases can stunt growth So no influence of family on personality 2 Judith Harris interpretation Freud amp Psychoanalysis Starts editing textbooks that others people write and she starts ghost writing Then she starts to write this review paper very scholarly She wrote this about how genes matter a lot and she wrote this to get the people who are in the behavioral genetics attention that genes are very important She said that our peers are very important to our personality and its starting in adolescents o 1 Leads to conformity and group identity cliques o 2 Within every group or when you become a part they encourage specialization Ex Being the funny one the jock leader etc They have to find a nitch Groups will tend to accentuate parts of your personality so that you can suppress some parts and increase others Competing pressures to conform and to be own individual Genes big effect but common environment not so much Peer groups are a big in uence Starting to pressure kids into certain groups O Sigmund Freud Trained as research neurologist No money in it re trains in hypnosis under Charcot Called the people who had brain problems hzsterics Sets up practice in Vienna invents talking cure Freud wasn39t good at hypnosis Discovery of childhood sexual abusetrauma It was scandalous to use the word pregnant in that Victorian time period Decides it never happened in most cases must be fantasy Part of them have a desire but it was tramatizing that they have these un pure thoughts Development of psychoanalytic theory psychotherapy Psychoanalysis and the Structure of Mind 0 O O O O Conscious vs Unconscious Freud came along after Darwin origin of species Freud was influenced by Darwin but he was wrong At the core we are all driven by the same motivational instincts as our ancestors libidothanatos There is no such thing as randomness Psychic Determinism anything that happens in your mind it is meaning full and there are no accidents Every moment of forgetting and slip has purpose amp its all telling us something 3 primary parts of mind Id Ego Super Ego Id repository of animalistic urges unconscious Two components libido amp thanatos sex and aggression Libido drive for things that are pleasurable Clues of existence dreams Freudian slips forgetting etc Id is irrational primary process thinking infantile Ego develops out of id rational conscious delayed gratification Ego channels id39s drives to optimize gratification This is where we kind of live consciously Having a big Ego would be an achievementheroic a baby is all Id Freud The Ego is actually wants what the Id wants so it gets its power from the Id But the Ego is much smarter and plans ahead unlike the Id who is primitive Ego can delay gratification Patfield and Clark study You aren39t the master of your own ship completely 0 Superego internalized social norms Part of your psyche that give you guilty that you aren39t living up to other peoples standards You have a set of norms that are telling you that if you go after the things you want you are a bad person and will be punished or deserves punishment 0 Intrapsychic conflict source of all mental illness Conflict in your mind 247 When ego is overwhelmed with conflict or strong enough to make a compromise you will have 1 or 2 forms of mental illness 2 Neurosis intense debilitating anxiety 2 Psychosis lose touch with reality Need to have a strong healthy ego so that you don39t fall under the mental illness But he doesn39t think that we have a strong one so we have to utilize our strategies 2 Ego Defense Mechanisms coping strategies 1 Dissociation often happens when something really traumaticfrighteningpainful happens and you are so overwhelmed that you split off part of your conscious awareness Which means you look at things that seem very unrealdream like or you think that it39s happening to someone else out of body 2 Denial something that is very overwhelming and you can39t accept it and it doesn39t seem like its right therefore you don39t believe that it happened When it39s a short term strategy it39s not unhealthy but it39s universal If someone uses this chronically that is a real problem People who live in denial are commonly people who are addicted eating disorders parents about their children friends that are being cheated on but cant see it 3 Repression this is the most important and most universal It is your ego keeping the conflict out of conscious awareness like setting up barriersgates Therefore you are going to feel anxious and feel weird but you don39t know why you can39t handle the truth You never become aware of this problem cause it never becomes conscious It takes a lot of mental energy to have repression happen all the time and therefore it doesn39t allow your mind to grow and you look very immature and you have neurotic anxiety 4 Suppression pretty common you do become consciously aware of the conflict And you consciously choose to push it away into the unconscious and distract themselves Is this always a bad thing In certain circumstances suppression can be beneficial Ex Heart attack group of men that became obsessed of their cardiac health and took that to become super healthy The other group though about their heart attack and didn39t do anything about it and didn39t do anything about it The next group didn39t even make changes and just choose to not think about it and they did better than the group that thought about it all the time and didn39t do anything 5 Reaction Formation you take some sort of unacceptable urge emotion impulse thought and turn it into it39s complete opposite It39s kind of childish defense You can39t come to terms with what you are feeling Ex Children who act mean to those who they actually like but it39s too embarrassing to admit that they like someone 6 Projection when you have some unacceptable impulse emotion urge thought action that you project it onto someone elseor thing They have the conflict they have the problem Ex Someone who is gay but projects that onto someone else and acts like they are a homophobe 7 Rationalization we all use this you have done something or about to do something that your super ego is telling you can39t do that thing and only bad people would do something like that Your ego is going to plot an excuse to why you can do this thing and rationalize why they can do this When we use it ourselves we believe our own self Ex Rationalizing about cheating in a relationship he made me do it and that39s why people are judging me 8 Intellectualization we are turning a feeling into a thought We are taking painful unacceptable emotions and we are keeping them from being overwhelming by putting them in a thought Ex everything works out everything is okay Bible stuff This is a ego defense if you use it to keep feelings a bay 9 Displacement you are taking your unacceptable feelings impulses urges from person A on to person B Ex Mad at boss but take it out on family when goes home 10 Sublimation he said this is the most sophisticated and if you use this you are psychologically advanced and you take the pain and turn it into something creativeartisticbeautifuI This could be humor doesn39t have to be art A lot of stand up comics are pretty disturbed Think about the music that you find the most movingtimelessepic and those are the ones that are sublimating the pain They don39t have to be consciously aware of this but the best comes from those who are consciously aware of their actions Stages of Psychosexual Development If you qet stuck in one stage you will have issues in the rest of the stages after 0 A Oral 018 months Fixation can occur in any stage A Focus of pleasure mouthsucking B Metaphor dependency on mother C To avoid fixation balance of gratificationfrustration nursing Good parents don39t give in to every want of the child don39t hover they aren39t super frustrated and aren39t overly harsh D Fixated personality clingy amp dependent irrationally independent Baby39s are narcissistic they are self absorbed Big bundle of need As an adult they chew nails bite pens and they are dependent o B Anal 1836 months A Focus of pleasure anusdefecation B Metaphor control amp orderliness right time right way C To avoid fixation balance of gratificationfrustration potty training its about who is in charge and who has control You have to have parents that give appropriate controls but set limits D Fixated personality anal retentive perfectionist control freak very uptight and their attitude toward authority is very respectful and worship themanal expulsive messy chaos disorganized and their attitude is very questionable they love investigate journalism and questions every authority Some people swing between two extremes Phallic 36 years A Focus of pleasure opposite sex parent B Metaphor presages adult sexuality C Key terms Oedipal conflict kill daddy and marry mommy Electra conflict castration anxiety take daddy out directly it will go badly penis envy D To avoid fixation identification with same sex parent E Fixated personality conflicted sexuality Latent 712 years Genital 13 years FINAL EXAM Notes 9814 622 PM Stages of Psychosexual Development Phallic Stage 36 years 0 Every little boy falls in love with mommy and every little girl falls in love with daddy If you are absent of this you are ruined and stuck in this stage 0 Boys come to the conclusion that women were castrated o Ego is going to come up with a compromise that daddy is your role model 0 You will be either promiscuous short term or you will have lots of anxietyfear about sex Latent Stage 712 years 0 A Focus of pleasure none sublimated into work learning how to be generative and productive in school 0 B Fixation trauma 0 C Fixated personality workaholicconflicted work Genital Stage 13 0 Mature psychological functioning 0 love and work 0 Generativecreative 0 Make love deeply and fully and also engage in work that39s very productive Psychoanalysis and Dreams Dreams are Freud39s Royal Road to the Unconsciousquot They speak in symbols not directly 0 They always express a wish arising from the ID always something your ID wants 0 Expressed in primary process thinking the ID is very primitive and only in the moment ID s wishes give rise to intrapsychic conflict Ego passive observer If conflict too intense Ego interrupts 9 dreams ends When you sleep the Ego lets down it39s guard and the ID comes out and tells the brain what it wants Nightmare is a result from your superego it tells you the consequences of your actions Ego can stop the dream Freud believed that our dreams used the ego defense mechanisms of displacement Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar Principles of Freudian Dream Interpretation Write down dream in as much detail as possible Identify and interpret any symbols Find personal associationconnections to dream elements Identify the Id s wish libido and orthanatos Not evidence of the intrapsychic conflict id vs superego How to Fix a Fixation Psychoanaysis technical name of Freudian psychotherapy 0 Typically 4 sessions per week for several years 0 Uncover unconscious conflict via free association dream analysis Analyst offers interpretation initially met with resistance Two basic curative mechanisms insight amp catharsis Where id was there ego shall be Freud the goal of psychoanalysis is to relieve the pain from neurosis to the pain of every day existence Contributions of Freudian Theory Most ambitious theoretical model of personality Popularized talking cure Importance of early childhood experience for adult personality Influence of trauma in causing mental illness Art amp literature surrealism somewhat dreamscapes salvido dolly Critiques of Freudian theory Unscientific he lacked evidence he put forward his idea like dogma not to be tested with evidence He thought of himself as modern day Moses Lack of parsimony simplest solutions are always to be preferred Sexist Karen Horney womb envy one of his few female followers She wrote a satire that basically said his whole business about penis envy is a defense mechanism 0 he assumed every little girl has penis envy Sometimes just plan wrong the idea we have an instinctual drive that is incestry It is clinically shown it wrong we are hardwired to ignore that and not do it We are all mutants How many mutations do you have your parents don39t 4080 If you are a project of incestuous sex you are going to die because of the mutated doubly copy you get Modern Reactions Orthodox Freudians read him like it39s the gospel It is a dying bread Neo Freudians psychodynamics means someone who wants to hold on to the best of Freud and let go of some of the crazies Psychodynamics 0 childhood actually matters and effects personality We are not always fully rational that we are kind of irrational in the ways we don39t see the world or ourselves accurately We have biases and distortions We are really kind of a divided self Importance of our emotion 0 Post Freudians majority of the field Every psychologist you have talked to Fraud is dead he39s wrong lets move on 0 Attachment theory Freudian legacy Carl Jung Freud39s Wayward Prot g brilliant Swiss psychiatrist was intensely spiritual Importance of spirituality Synchronicity coincidences one in a million coincidence o Meaningful coincidence o Littewood s Law of Miracles British math mathematician something concidiciental was likely to occur Unconscious as directive force a wholeness 0 Personality dimensions MyersBriggs o 1 Introversion vs Extraversion Jung coined the terms Its based on where you direct your energy and where you get your energy You get your energy by withdrawing Extraverts get energy from the people around them and it would be exhausting to get the energy from within themselves 0 2 Sensing vs Intuition openness how do you get information about the world around you Sensing down to earthgrounded notice details like colors and feelings Intuitive you are spacy you don39t notice the things around you you notice the ideas You don39t care that we have always done it one way you want to improve and tweak it Where is this headed What is the next big thing 0 3 Thinking vs Feeling Agreeableness how you make decisions Do you make them based on rational criteria or your concern for others Maps on openness o 4 Perceiving vs Judging conscientiousness how much you want things settled If you are a judging type person you feel better after you make the decision judging types You are all about I don39t know maybe there is something more or more information perceiving you don39t feel better after the decision they are low in contentiousness they like the journey not the destination 0 The Myers Briggs will give you a profile Collective unconscious we all have access to the same set of symbols Archetypes something that comes out of this collective unconscious Universal symbol Jungian dream interpretations Some Jungian Archetypes Snakes birds black ones death House self room parts of self basement unconscious Water unconscious self Fire dramatic change Travel your path through life vehicle self bridge new opportunity Hero the potential of your completed self come from obscure ideas and they always have a mission to help others and that means that they make sacrifices Shadow unassimilated parts of self Through the unconscious our dreams can actually forecast the future His dream 27 years old Interview at duke on the wait list Got into Carolina has a dream that he was running and saw a suspension bridge and the other side is the campus of Duke Leaped of the bridge and flew on the quad Principles of Jungian Dream Interpretation 1 Assumption Dream is trying to tell you something 9 psychological wholeness If only you will listen 2 Identify archetypes universal symbols that are timeless and found in the stories and myths all over the world amp pop up in dreams 3 Look for personal associations with these symbols 4 Interpret each character in dream as part of yourself 5 Dream the dream forward lucid dreaming When we are fully comfortable we don39t grow we need to experience uncomforting situations ATTACHMENT THEORY A psychodynamic theory First formulated by John Bowlby o Harow s terry coth mother experiments 0 Secure attachment 9 explore environment 0 Internal working model Mary Ainsworth develops strange situations test Four primary attachment styles 0 Secure o Anxious Preoccupied o FearfulAvoidant o DismissiveAvoidant Identical twins their capacity of emotional intimacy with others didn39t correlate Hypothesis early attachment persists into adult relationships especially romantic Once it39s formed it39s not likely to change interested 624 months is how long you can stay in intense infatuation stage with your shmoopy If you can make it through a long distance relationship you can stay infatuated indefinitely due to not seeing them every day Least strongly correlated between identical twins their passion for emotional closeness with others Four primary attachments styles 0 1 Secure o 2Anxious Preoccupied o 3 Fearfu Avoidant o 4 DismissiveAvoidant Hypothesis Early attachment persists into adults relationships especially romantic Ainsworth strange situation the stranger is different the kid might be used to daycare Primary attachment figure is dad or an older sibing When the mother left it wouldn39t be a big deal Attachment style is not set in stone What happens in the first coupled years in life with permanently imprint on your life but data does not support that Trait approach biological model 5 points if you use this fraud psychoanalytic psychodynamic jung and other cognitive existentialhumanistic Each 3 models you are to talk about personality data Two questions what are the like And why What are they like depends on data The data that you get to describe personality is going to vary from one section to another Informant data for Freudian approach List is as bullet points at the beginning of Freud or you can integrate it into your writing Until Friday of finals week 16quot 5pm Behaviorism John Watson 1913 behaviorist manifesto science of psychology Like natural science psychology should focus on directly observable data 0 a behavior not thoughts amp feelings can39t objectively measure it o b the environment environmental determinism Functional analysis measure change in the environment and how does it produce change in behavior It is deterministic every organism is ultimately programed by their environment Four key assumptions of behaviorism o 1 Each person born a blank slate tabula rasa environment can imprint anything it wants genetics don39t really matter FALSE 0 2 Exception organisms motivated to maximize pleasure minimize pain how do you objectively observe You can39t o 3 All behavior caused by environment environmental determinism o 4 No need to know what goes on inside a person black box Three primary Forms of learning experience changes behavior 0 1 Habituation simpest decrease response to a stimulus anything in the environment upon repeated exposure If you repeat or an extended period of time braces When you first get them its weird you notice all the time but after a while like couple weeks you forget about it you habituate Occurs in single celled organism like ameba s We habituate to both positive and negative We habituate to things we like like a song we like a lot but hear too many times it doesn39t give us the same feeling after a while Clinical application graded exposure hierarchy gradual exposure We are going to make a list from easy exposure to really hard terrifying exposures Has a successes rate of over 90 Hedonic treadmill one of the most important findings in psychology Over time something really good happens that we have dreamed about and our happiness spikes and then the thing becomes the new normal and we habituate and our happiness goes right back down to normal Dan Gilbert made a career of how horrible we are at predicting what will and wont make us happy and how happy you will be Its called affective forecasting Our brains never seam to learn we habituate If we do something that matters to us or someone else we don39t habituate We are hardwired to chase stuff we think will make us happy forever but doesn39t maybe our genes have an agenda that is different then our own happiness that we can always do better We don39t habituate to meaningful work spending time with people who matter natural beauty pain nocuous noise pollution As simple as habituation is it is widely used in clinical settings We can habituate to anything that causes us fear anything we are anxious of if we are repeatedly exposed o 2 Classical Conditioning pavolv a modifies our reflexive unlearned reactions b UCS UCR CS CR c extinction d Stimulus generalization o 3 Operant conditioning skinner a reinforcement any consequences of behavior that increases future probability COGNITIVE MODEL this is newly discovered 0 Personality arises from information processing activity in brain software Focuses on cognitionthinking system 1 amp system 2 as key determinant of personality Less fully developed than other models of personality not fully integrated Many cognitive models but we are talking about Schema Large influence on clinical psychology cognitive model of personality disorders Schema 0 Children naturally categorize and classify things develop schemas Schema core belief summary of experiences Form a template a category that you can refer back to Schemas act as filters bias our interpretations of new expenence They39re sef sustaining Often we39re not aware of schema operates in background as a given Most schemas develop during childhoodadolescence Gives us a lot of information and goes fast Maladaptive schemas cognitive basis of personality disorder Jeffery Young Defectiveness Unrelenting Standards Mistrustabuse Vulnerability Dependence Emotional deprivation Social isolation FaHure Sef sacrifice Abandonment Entitlement Insufficient sef contro Schema chemistry if you have a schema you will be attracted to all the wrong people that agree with the schema you have This feels right to put ourselves in situations that fulfill our schema Healing a Maladaptive Schema Identify schema see recurrent patterns in person39s life Identify origins link schema to painful early expe ences See schema as chid s point of view develop empathy Develop adult point of view adaptive schema Corrective experiences wwwschematherapvcom Reinventing your life book ExistentialHumanistic Existential O O Other theoretical models view psychology as science Implicit assumptiona behaviorthoughts fully determined no free will Existential perspective science has limits Phenomenology subjective conscious experience of things most important thing about being human is that we are conscious about everything Neuroscience can tell us a lot about what happens in the brain in certain situations if you see blue the other person might see it as green but CALLS it blue Thrownness all that39s given that we don39t get to choose we were thrown into this life we didn39t choose anything that makes up us Some people can exercise free will to have a life that science didn39t predict from the beginning Angst anxietydread We start taking in that we are limited Bad Faith selling out choosing to go with the flow Authentic Existence being fully awake and living each moment authentic using your free will in a realistic way Humanistic OOO Existential model European somewhat pessimistic Humanistic American variation optimistic Carl Rogers Sef actuaization we are born to have a drive that takes us to authentic existence Conditions of worth people that we respect say that we are only worthwhile if they do what they say They don39t unconditionally love you but you are only conditional if you do all conditions o Unconditional positive regard We meet one person who looks into our core and says I believe you in everything that you are
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'