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by: Sarah


Marketplace > Kansas > Biology > Anatomy
GPA 3.3


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About this Document

This document has all of the notes I took in this class from day one. Even if you are not in this exact class with this teacher, it is a really good bundle of information that you can refer too.
Biology, anatomy, Physiology, bone, Muscles, nerves
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This 73 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah on Friday September 5, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 1052 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/14
Exam 1 Notes 9514 344 PM Anatomy Study of the structure and physical organizations of an organism Physiology Processes and functions in an organism Areas within anatomy Gross anatomy visible with naked eye Micro anatomy need microscope to see histology tissues cell anatomy cytology within individual cells Traditional Approachesregiona by regions look at all structuresorgans of a given region systemic by organ system look at all organs in one system General Anatomical Terminoloqv Anatomical Position 0 O Stance standing up right with your hands at your sides Hands amp arms arms are at sides and hands are palm faced forward Directions 0 OOOOOOOOOOOO 0 Superior above up towards head Inferior below down towards feet Anterior in front of Posterior toward the back Ventral belly side Dorsal backbone side Sides right amp left Lateral away from the midline Medial close to the midline Midline line goes down the middle of body imaginary Deep farther from the surfaceskin Superficial closer to the surfaceskin Proximal closer to the base of an extremity Distal farther away from the base of an extremity Planes or Sections 0 O Sagittal plane that splits you in half from the midline Coronal frontal plane that splits you anteriory posteriorly o Transverse plane that splits you into top and bottom Latin amp Greek Roots 0 Super supra epi hyper above on top of OOOOOOOOOOOOOO Inter between Infra sub hypo below Extra exo outside Intra endo inside Cranio cranial skull Vascuarbood vessels Pectoral shoulder region Pelvic hip region Osseous ossifiedbone bone tissue Chondra chondral cartilage Cervical neck Inguinal groin Orbit orbital eye sockets Buccal oral mouth cheek Organ Systems OOOOOOOOOO Integumentary skin most superficial part of the body Muscular Skeletal Nervous Endocrine not integrated system Digestive Circulatory cardiovascular amp lymphatic Respiratory Urinary Reproductive HistoIogx study of the arrangement and appearance of tissues 0 Tissue groupmasslayer of similar cells and includes nonliving materials that are around the cells This really requires a microscope Many tissues have nonliving material that surrounds the cells and this is called the matrix Some tissues have more matrix than others for example connective tissue has more matrix than cells Basic types 2 Epithelium Covering and lining tissue covers most organs and lines inside most hollow organs and tubes This tissue has so little matrix you cant see it on a microscope Muscular Produces force or movement this makes up the muscles of the body Most are a mixture but most of it is muscular tissues Nervous Specialized for sending signals for example nerve impulses or action potentials They make up the brain and spinal cord and nerves This tissue is associated with coordinating body activities Connective It has more matrix than cells and it fills in spaces But it does more than connect everything Histology cont 0 Epithelium or Epithelial Tissues Layers El Single layers of cells which means its simple There is also several layers of cells which means its stratified Cell shapes El El Squamous which is flat squished cells Cuboid which is cubed shaped and similar in thickness and width Coumnar which is like a column and they are tall narrow cells Major Epithelium Types El El El Simple Squamous One cell ayer fattened 0 Ex Alveoli of lungs small blood vessels Stratified Squamous Several layers thick cells at top squamous 0 Ex In mouth rectum outer layer of skin Simple Cuboidal Single layer of blockycubed shaped cells El El 0 Ex Tubule of kidneys gland ducts and they are used for secretion Simple Columnar Single layer of tall narrow cells o Ex Lining stomach and intestines Pseudostratified Columnar Single layer of mostly tall narrow cells that gives the appearance of more than one layer 0 Ex Lines most of the air passages of respiratory system 0 Connective Tissue Connective tissue proper the tissue that connects and packing material of the body The matrix has fibers and liquid that is gooey El El Loose areoar fi in contains a loose array of fibers and has several different types of cells in it also This connective tissue can be found between muscle and skin the space between alveoli in lungs Dense Irregular Has a lot more collagen fibers and no room for cells This makes up the dermis of the skin very tough layer and gives skin resistance to being torn and punctured Dense regular Has lots of collagen fiber but they are in a parallel array You can find these in the tendons and ligaments ropes and cords of body Ligaments connect bones to bones and tendons connect muscles to bones Adipose Made up of large cells that are entirely filled with fat molecules There is not a lot of matrix just a little In some places you find these really packed together and this indicates a tissue It39s very common deep to the skin There is a lot in your butt and not a lot in your skull It39s used as cushioning in the eye socket around knee and around kidneys More than an energy storage Supporting Connective Tissue More rigid and stiffer Provides most of the frame work of the body 2 Cartilage solid but slightly flexible Comes in 3 forms 0 Hyaine cartiaqe39 Found forming the surfaces in joints that rub together There is a lot of matrix and the cells are in clumps in holes in the matrix Holes are called lacunae You can find this in your nose Elastic cartilaqe This is a little bit more flexible than hyaline Has cells and lacunae But since it has the elastic fibers it will spring back You can find this in the external ear and voice box Fibrous cartilaqe This still has cells and lacunae but it has visible collagen fibers You can find these in places that you need shock absorbed so in the back bone and knee 2 Bone tissueHas a matrix that includes calcium salts which makes this the hardest tissue in the body It also contains lots of collagen fibers and lots of cells The cells are found in the lacunae but they have things that are branching which is called the canaliculi from the structure in the center which is the blood vessel Compact bone It is solid Sponqey bone Network of little struts of bone Fluid Connective Tissue Blood The matrix is liquid plasma and it contains cells 0 Muscular Tissue Skeletal Most common 4045 It is made up very long cells so long they have many nuclei You can see grooves or stripes called striated This is under conscious control so its voluntary It39s called skeletal cause runs from one bone to another Makes up organs because cells never branch Cardiac They are striated but they are shorter and they branch The cells are connected to each other by something called the intercalated disks They also have one nucleus per cell This is also only found in the heart Involuntary Smooth Not striated These cells are the shortest of all muscle cells they are cylindrical and tapered They also have one nucleus per cell You find this in the walls of hollow organs or tubes Ex Intestines larger blood vessels air passages Involuntary o Nervous Tissue Makes up nervous system brain amp spinal nerves Neurons Cells that send and receive signals They usually have extensions called dendrites that helps one neuron connect to another neuron They are the cells that help coordinate body activities Neuroglial Cell They have to be present in order for the neuron to do it39s job They provided nutrients physical support maintenance and repair They do everything but send signals Introduction to the Skeleton 0 General Features it includes bones and articulations which are the joins i Organ of the skeletal system that is mostly bone tissue also cartilage other connective tissue and blood vessels Compact this is dense solid forms outer walls Spongy this is cancellous lighter and springier often on inside Types 2 Long they are much longer than they are wide They almost always has a cavity that contains Bone marrow For example humerousfemurphalanges Narrow and much longen Short they are shorter than they are in diameter They look blocky cubed shaped and hockey puck shaped For example carpalstarsals They don39t have any marrow cavity Fat they have thin parallel faces of compact bone If you slice through there is a layer of compactspongycompact For example roof bones of the skull parietal ribs scapula Irregular these have a variety of shapes and they usually have processes and not nice cylinders For example the vertebrae Pneumatized These include the facial bones Which means there are spaces that have air so like sinuses They are very irregular Sesamoid bones that form in tendons and ligaments Usually happens when a tendon needs more reinforcement like in the base of the thumb and ball of your foot There is one that is universal which is the patella markings Process any projection or bump on a bone usually muscle attachment sights or joins Crest prominent ridge Line low ridge Foramen hole in bone Tubercle small rounded process on a bone Tuberosity larger process that is irregular and rough Fossa region of bone that is scooped out depression Head large smooth round knob almost always part of the joint Terminology El El El El Diaphysis shaft of a long bone Epiphysis knob like structures at the end Epiphyseal plate or disc metaphysis the border between the diaphysis and epiphysis Articuar Cartilage forms between two bones where the joint is Periosteum dense irregular connective tissue that acts like a sleeve on the outside of the bone Meduary cavity or Marrow cavity hollow space in the diaphysis that you will find marrow Filled with adipose tissue and connective tissue Spongy amp Compact Bone diagram 510 amp 53 Development and Growth El El 2 types endochondral amp membranous Endochondral cartilaginous in cartilage Cartilage Model cartilage structure where the bone will form Primary Ossification spongy bone in the diaphysis step 2 amp 3 Happens halfway through gestation Compact bone on the outside and spongy bone in hollow cavity in the middle step 4 Secondary Ossification in the epiphysis you get spongy bone in the interior and as it develops you get the compact bone on the outside Growth the metaphysis remains cartilage and this is where you get growth in length in the bone As cartilage grows it moves up towards the epiphysis and there is bone tissue that grows from the diaphysis This is how it grows in length it39s like a race between new cartilage and being replaced by bone On the other side of the El El metaphysis it creates the articular cartilage on the epiphysis Maturation Cartilage slows bone speeds up and you have bone that replaces all the cartilage which forms the epiphyseal line 58 If the metaphysis is the only place that is growing the rest of the compact bone will grow out at the same time to increase the diameter and some of the cartilage is absorbed making a marrow cavity Membranous intramembranousderma Skull roof bones and lower jaw sesamoids 0 Thick connective tissue membrane 0 It39s so thick that deep in the middle of the membrane there is enough room for spongy bone to form It is also growing in thickness 0 Upper and lower parts of the spongy bone begin to form compact bone Maturation Long bones mid teensend of puberty Pelvic bones mid to late 20s Articulations a joint 2 or more bones joined Synovial freely movable joints this has a sleeve around it called the synovial membrane that secretes a fluid called synovial fluid that acts like a lubricant for the joint Types based on type of movement El El Ba and socket spherical knob that fits into a spherical socket This joint allows for the most freedom of movement movement in 2 planes plus rotation Hip joints and shoulder joints Condyoideipsoid kind of like ba and socket but the knob is oval and it is in an oval socket This joints allows for angular El movement in 2 planes but no rotation They can tilt back and forth the joint between the carpals and radius the 1st knuckle joints and mandible joint Hinge only allows bending in one direction knee joint and distal joint of the finger joint between the ulna and the humerus Gliding flat or nearly flat surfaces that can slide some carpal bones the breast bone or the sternoclavicular joint Non synovia articulations limited movements Amphiarthroses Slightly moveable intervertebral disks in vertebrae Synarthroses Suture immovable joint Skull bones Movement of Articulations El Fexion movement in the anterior posterior plane that reduces the angle between the articulating elements Extension movement in the anterior posterior plane that increase the angle between articulating elements Abduction movement away from the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane Adduction movement towards the medial axis of the body in the frontal plane Rotation of the head that involves left or right rotation Internal or medial rotation turns inward External or lateral rotation turns outwards Integumentary System 0 Only one organ which is the skin which is the outer covering of the body 0 It is the largest organ of the body 0 Skin is made up of 3 layers Epidermis outermost which is stratified squamous epithelium Dermis deep layer which is dense irregular connective Hssue Subcutaneous tissuehypodermis not true layer cause it39s not everywhere 0 Epidermis most superficial part of body and is made of O O stratified squamous epithelium this grows from the deep layer to the surface But as it grows it loses it39s source of nutrients which then causes them to fill with keratin waxy and then die Properties 2 Waterproof keratin 2 Dead cells wear away 2 Meanin pigment brownblack and this darkens skin The function is to block UV rays provide shade for the cells below the skin to be protected Dermis thick layer of dense irregular connective tissue this is main part of the skin that provides mechanical protection Which helps the skin from being torn or punctured It39s full of collagen and elastin to make it tough but stretchy It has a rich blood supply It also have nerve ending that provide a sense of touch Subcutaneous tissue combinations of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue this connects the skin to your bones and organs This is the place that you tend to accumulate fat This is quite variable depending on age gender and health Accessory Structures Hair 2 Shaft this is the part that we see on the surface it extends from this point usually halfway to he skin surface to the exposed tip of the hair 2 Root this extends from the hair bulb to the point where the internal organization of the hair is complete 2 Root Sheath this layer extends from the skin surface to the hair matrix It is filled with all cells from the superficial epidermis but when it joins the hair matrix the cells become some that resemble stratum basale Hair papilla a peg of connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves Arrector Pii a ribbon of smooth muscle that extends from the papillary dermis to the connective tissue sheath surrounding the hair follicle Bulb consists of epithelial cells that surround the papilla Growth 1 The active phase lasts 25 years During this time the hair grows continuously at a rate of approximately 33mmday 2 The follicle then begins to undergo regression and transitions to the resting phase 3 During the resting phase the hair loses its attachment to the follicle and becomes a club hair 4 When follicle reactivation occurs the club hair is lost and the hair matrix begins producing a replacement hair Color Differences in hair structure and variation in the pigment produced by melanocytes at the papilla Genetically determined but conditions can be influenced by hormonal or environment factors Distribution Veus hairs peach fuzz found over much of the body surface Intermediate hairs change in their distribution such as the hairs of the upper and lower limbs Terminal hairs heave deeply pigmented These are the ones on your head like eyebrowseyelashes Glands 2 Eccrine merocrine a type of sweat gland that is more numerous and widely distributed Palmssoles have the highest numbers They are coiled tubular glands that discharge their secretions directly onto the surface of the skin Functions include thermoregulation excretion and protection 2 Sebaceous these are also called the oil glands they secrete sebum which inhibits the growth of bacteria These are found covering the face back chest nipples and male sexy organs 2 Others Sweat glands apocrine which produces the potentially odorous secretion that starts at puberty Mammary glands located in the breasts Ceruminous glands modified sweat glands located in the external auditory canal earwax Nails 2 Growth The nail body covers the nail bed Matrix root where nail production occurs at an epithelial fold not visible from the surface Eponychium or cuticle which is formed when the stratum corneum of the nail fold extends over the exposed nail near the root Lunula This is the pale crescent that formed from the blood vessel that gives the nail the pink color until it reaches the root Functions of skin Waterproofing Protects against UV rays Protects against pathogens Temperature regulation sweating and vasodilation Vitamin D production Mechanical protection 0 Sense of touch Upper Extremities o Pectoral regionshouder o Pectoral girdle skeleton anchor for the upper limb which allows for mobility and anchoring by the muscles to the rest of the skeleton 0 Parts Clavicle collarbone 2 S shaped the bigger more flatter side articulates with the scapula at the acromion process and the more blunt side articulates with the sternum On the bottom there is conoid tubercle hard to see and identify though Scapula shoulder blade 75 2 Borders medial or vertebral lateral and superior 2 Acromion process articulates with the clavicle it39s attached to the spine 2 Coracoid process 2 Infra and supraspinous and subscapular fossa 2 Glenoid cavityfossa where the head of the humerus is Muscles general properties 2 Skeletal muscles organs of muscular system all voluntary movements All part of the lever system 2 Lever systems articulation acts like a fulcrum and the bone acts like a lever and the muscle provides the force OOOOOO 2 Force and movement muscles can only pull so their movement is shortened They cannot push Antagonistic muscles are required to have reversible movement Ex Hamstring is the antagonistic muscle to the quads 2 Things to know about each muscle Action how it moves body part Origin attachments the end that doesn39t move anchor Insertion attachments the end that moves when the muscle contracts Movements atshoulder 2 Scapula 392 Arm Adduction when the it moves medially Abduction when it moves laterally Protraction when it moves shoulder joint anteriorly Retraction when it moves shoulder joint posteriorly Eevate when it raises shoulder Depress when it lowers shoulder Rotation up when you rotate scapula so the glenoid is up Rotation down when you rotate scapula so the glenoid is down flexextend and adductabduct Pectoral Muscles 2 A Axial skeleton to girdle vertebral column and ribs amp clavicle and scapula Trapezius 113 0 Origin is along the vertebral column at the upper vertebrae and inserts on the spine and on the clavicle o All of it retracts scapula the upper elevates scapula and the lower rotates scapula up Levator Scapulae o The origin is along the cervical vertebrae and the insertion is on the superior ange medial border of the scapula o This elevates the scapula Exam 2 Notes 9514 344 PM Upper Extremities Pectoral Muscles cont 113 0 Rhomboidius Major and Minor Origin is cervical and thoracic C7 ampT1 T5 vertebrae and the insertion is the medial border of the scapulae It adducts and downward rotation of scapula o Serratus Anterior Origin is this ribs and inserts on the medial border of the scapula This protracts the scapula and upper rotation also o Pectoralis Minor Origin is the on the ribs and it inserts on the coracoid process of the scapula This depresses and protracts the scapula Arm upper arm Region o Humerus 76 posterior view 76 anterior view o Latin term is brachium that means upper arm Head posterior Anatomical Neck posterior Surgical Neck posterior Greaterlesser tubercle anterior Intertubercular groove anterior Deltoid tuberosity muscle attachment side anterior Trochlea ulnahinge capitulum radius modified ball and socket anteriorelbow Coronoid fossa anterior Latermedial epicondyles anterior Olecranon fossa posterior Pectoral Muscles cont 0 B Axial Skeleton to Humerus Pectoralis Major insertion is on the upper anterior humerus 2 Clavicular head originates on the clavicle that pull more superiorly 2 Sternal heads originates on the sternum and some ribs that pull more laterally El Action flexion adduction and medially rotator of humerus Latissiumus Dorsi El Originates on the thoracic vertebrae and inserts onto the upper anterior humerus on the tubercular groove Extends adducts and medially rotates scapulahumerus o C Pectoral Girdle to Humerus Teres Major El El Originates on the inferior angle of the scapula and insertion on the intertubercular groove of the humerus Extends and medially rotates the humerus Pectoral guardian or rotator cuff muscles El Subscapularis anterior origin on the subscapular fossa and inserts on the lesser tubercle of the humerus Medially rotates the humerus Supraspinatus superior origin is the supraspinous fossa and inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus Abducts humerus Infraspinatus posterior origin is the infraspinous fossa and inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus Laterally rotates the humerus Teres minor posterior origin is the lateral border of the scapula and inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus Laterally rotates the humerus Deltoidius detoid Origin is on the clavicle and acromion and spine of the scapula The insertion is on the deltoid tuberosity El Abduct the humerus If the front only contracts then you get flexion and medial rotation and if the back only contracts you get extension and lateral rotation Coracobrachilais origin is the coracoid process of the scapula and the insertion is on the medial humerus 2 Adduct and flex the arm Forearm Region 0 Una Olecranon process Coronoid process Trochlear notch Radial notch Head Styloid process Radius Head Neck Radial tuberosity Ulnar notch Styloid process Ebow Articulation Humeroulnarjoint hinge joint Humero radia joint ball and socket Superior radioulnarjoint gliding joint Distal Articulations Inferior radio unar joint most of the rotating action of the forearm Wrist articulation 2 Radiocarpal joint hinge joint 2 Intercarpal joint hinge joint Muscles that move EbowForearm Biceps brachii muscle with two heads 2 Origin is the coracoid process of the scapula and on top of the glenoid fossa of the scapula The insertion is on the radial tuberosity Flexes elbow and supinates the forearm and it can also flex the arm bicep has no affect on shoulder joint Long head Short heads Brachialis muscle that is deep to the biceps El El Origin is on the front distal humerus and inserts on the proximal ulna and coronoid process Flexes the forearm and is the main forearm flexor muscle Triceps Brachii El El El Origins lateral head is attached to the later and posterior humerus medial head is inferior and deep to the lateral head and is attached to the posterior humerus and long head that is attached right below the glenoid fossa of the scapula These all then come to a tendon and attachinserts to the olecranon process Extends forearm at elbow o Pronation and Supination movement of radius Supination anatomical position holding soup Pronation palm posterior o Forearm Muscles Brachioradialis El El Origin is on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the insertion is on the styloid process of the radius Flexes forearm Supinator El El Originates on the later epicondyle of the humerus and inserts on the anterior proximal radius Supinates the forearm Pronator Teres El Origin is on the medial epicondyle of the humerus and inserts on the proximal lateral radius El Pronates the forearm Pronator quadratus four sides El El Origin is on the distal ulna and inserts on the lateral distal radius Pronates the forearm o Movements at Wrist amp Hand Metacarpals hand Phaanges fingers El Thumb only has 2 phaanges Carpals wrist Adduction medial movement pulling fingers in Abduction lateral movement pulling fingers out FlexorExtention anteriorposterior Joints El Metacarpophalangeal knuckles adduction and abduction flexion and extension Interphalangeal allows flexion and extension only hinge joints Thumb extensionflexion lateral and medial adductionabductions tight against hand or swings anteriorly amp Wrist muscles Flexors medial origin mostly anterior Extensors lateral origin mostly posterior Latera media component flexors can have either a lateral or medial insertions and extensors can have either lateral or medial insertions You can have flexext that do abduction and some can do adductions Forearm Muscles Flexors 3 sets 1010l El Superficial originates on the medial epicondyle of the humerus anteriorly Flexor carpi radialis 0 most lateral and inserts on the II and III metacarpals 0 Flex and abducts wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris O 0 most medial and inserts on the 5 metacarpal Flexor and adductor wrist Palmaris longus O O inserts on the palmar aponeurosis which is a flat sheet of connect tissue that covers the structures of the palm of the hand Flexes wrist 2 Intermediate Flexor digitorum superficialis Origin is the medial epicondyle and anterior radius and ulna Insertion is on the middle phalange of 2 3 4 and 5 Flex fingers and wrist 2 Deep Flexor digitorum profundus O 0 Origin is on the medial anterior ulna and the insertion is on the distal phalanges 25 Flex fingers Flexor pollicis longus Carpal Tunnel 0 Origin is on the anterior radius and inserts on the distal phalanx of the first digit Flex thumb 2 Groove formed by the wrist bones that all of the tendons pass through to the phalanges 2 Carpal Tunnel syndrome irritation of the tendons due to the extensive flexion and extension of the wrist Forearm Muscles Extensors 2 Superficial origin of all is on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus Extensor digitorum o Insertion is on the phalanges 25 0 Extends fingershand Extensor carpi radialis Iongus 0 Insert on the 2 and 3 metacarpals o Extend hand and abduct hand Extensor carpi radialis brevis short 0 Insert on the 2 and 3 metacarpals o Extend hand and abduct hand Extensor carpi ulnaris o Inserts on the 5 metacarpal o Extend hand and adduct hand 2 Deep Abductor pollicis Iongus 0 Most lateral of all origin is on the proximal ulna and radius and it inserts on the 1 metacarpal base 0 Abducts the thumb Extensor pollicis brevis short 0 Origin on the distal radius and it inserts on the proximal phalanx of the 1st 0 Extend thumb abduct hand Extensor pollicis Iongus 0 Origin of the lateral ulna and it inserts on the distal phalanx of the 1 0 Hand Region Hand Skeleton 2 Carpals Some overs try positions that they can39t handle Scaphoid lunate triquetrum pisiform trapezium trapezoid capitate hamate Lateral 9 Medial 2 Metacarpals 392 Phalanqes pollex vs fingers Intrinsic Hand Muscles 2 Thenars base of thumb Abductor pollicis brevis o Abducts the thumb o Insertion is on the proximal phalanx of thumb Flexor pollicis brevis o Flexes the thumb and assists with the abduc ons o Insertion is on the first proximal phalanx Opponens Pollicis o Insertion on the first metacarpals o Opposes the thumb 2 Hypothenars mirror thenars Adductor pollicis o Inserts on the proximal first phalanx o Adduct thumb 2 Lumbricals Flexion of the of the metacaropholangal join and extension of interphalangal joint 2 Dorsal interossei Tucked down between the metacarpal bones They abduct the fingers 24 2 Palmar interossei Antagonistic of A Adduct the finger 2 4 5 Upper Extremities Blood Vessels and Nerves Arteries o Subclavian under the clavicle o Axillary arm pit Posterior amp anterior humeral circumflex o Brachial Upper armhumerus anterior 0 Deep brachial goes behind the humerus posterior Branches 0 Radial lateral o Ulnar medial 0 Deep amp superficial palmar arches anastomosis when artery artery veinvein arteryvein wo capillaries Veins 0 Deep follow the arteries Deep palmar arch anastomosis Ulnar Radial Brachial front of humerus Axillary Subclavian o Superficial don39t follow the arteries Nerves Superficial palmar or dorsal arch Cephalic vein lateral joins axiary subcavian Basilica vein medial joins axillary o Brachial Plexus Musculocutaneous nerve 2 Location anterior and lateral in forearm 2 Motor muscle control arm flexors biceps brachialis 2 Sensory lateral forearm skin Median nerve 2 Location anterior arm and forearm 2 Motor muscle all but 2 forearm flexors both pronators 2 Sensory lateral hand and fingers Ulnar nerve 2 Location most medial of nerves in arm and forearm 2 Motor muscle flexor carpi ulnaris and abductor pollicis and flexor digitorum 2 Sensory medial hand fingers 4 amp 5 Radial nerve 2 Location off of the median nerve on the posterior cord mostly posterior Larger nerve of the upper extremity 2 Motor muscle triceps and superficialdeep extensors of forearm 2 Sensory posterior arm and forearm and posterior hand Axillary nerve 2 Location off the median nerve on the posterior cord smallest nerve of the upper limb runs straight to the armpit and around the shoulder joint 2 Motor muscle controls deltoid and teres minor 2 Sensory skin of the shoulder region Lower Extremities Terminology o Thigh from hip to knee femur o Leg from knee to ankle tibia amp femur Pelvic girdle bony pelvis o Innominate bones os coxae coxal bones hip bones o Saccrum 3 parts start as 3 separate bones 2 ilium 392 ichium 2 pubis Acetabulum hip socket parts of ilium iliac spines iliac crest iliac fossa auricular surface tuberosity sciatic notches parts of ischium ischial tuberosity ischial spine ramus parts of the pubis superior pubic ramus inferior pubic ramus pubic symphysis obturator foramen o greater false pelvis lesser true pelvis inlet inside open outlet posterior opening 0 Articulation with femur o Femur Anatomy Head Fovea Neck Greater amp lesser trochanter Lateral amp medial epicondyles Lateral amp medial condyles Linea aspera Patellar surface Popliteal surface Intercondylar notch fossa o Pelvic Muscles Hip region 4 groups 2 Iliopsoas deep anterior 2 Gluteus large posterior 2 Lateral Rotator small deep 2 Adductor medial on thigh Iliopasoas 2 Iliacus Origin is on the iliac fossa and insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur Flexes hip 2 Psoas Major Origin is on the lower vertebrae and insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur Flexes thigh and flexes lower vertebral cmumn Gluteus 2 Gluteus Maxiums Origin is on the posterior and superior ilium and sacrum and insertion is on the iliotibial tract and the posterior femur Forceful extension and later rotation of femur 2 Tensor Fasciae Latae El El Origin is from the anterior superior iliac spine and insertion is on the iliotibial tract Book medial rotation of the hip and extension of the knee Lateral rotation of the knee Gluteus Medius anterior to GMax Gluteus Minimus anterior to GMax and deep to GMed Both originate from the lateral ilium and insert on the greater trochanter of the femur Powerful abductors of the thigh and minor function of medial rotation Lateral Rotators El El Piriformis Origin is on the sacrum Gemellus superior Obturators internus Gemellus inferior Quadratus femoris Origin is on the ischium all insert on or near the greater trochanter of the femur all have lateral rotation of the hip Adductors El Adductor longus Upper part can flex and lower part can extend hip Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus PecUneus Origin is the anterior pubis and insert on the posterior femur on and near the linea aspera Flex and adduct the thigh Gracilis El Origin is the anterior pubis and inserts down on the medial tibia and crosses two joints hip and knee Adductormedial rotator of the thigh or flexor of the tibia Location medialadductor compartment 0 Anterior extensor compartment Quadriceps femoris group El El El Vastus Iateralis Vastus Medialis Vastus Intermedius deep to the rectus femoris Origin is on the shaft the femur Rectus Femoris Origin s on the anterior inferior iliac spine All insert on the patella tibia Location anterior thigh All extend leg knee and the rectus femoris flexes the thigh Patellar tendonquadriceps tendon Runs to the patella Patellar ligament This then connects on the tibial tuberosity Sartorius Originates from anterior superior iliac spine to and inserts on the medial tibia Flexes leg and flexes and laterally rotates the thigh sit cross legged o Posterior flexor compartment Hamstring muscles Biceps femoris El El On lateral side two heads One of the heads originates on the ischial tuberosity and the other head is on the posterior femur and inserts on the fibula and lateral tibia Flexes leg and extends the leg laterally rotating the thigh Semimembranosus 2 On medial side and flatter deep Semitendonosus 2 On Medial side and superficial 2 Originates on the ischial tuberosity and inserts on the medial tibia 2 Flex leg extend hip medial rotation of thigh Tibia Anatomy arger carries most of load o Condyles lateral amp medial Articular surface facet Soleal popliteal line Inferior tibiobibular join Inter condylar eminence Tuberosity Anterior crest or margin o Medial malleolus Fibula Anatomy o Head 0 Neck o Lateral malleolus Knee Articulations 81 817 o Articular cartilage on top o Cruciate ligaments OOOOOO o Bursae sack of synovial membrane with fluid that acts like a cushion amp you have these a most large joints o Patellar surface 0 Femur condyles lateral amp medial O at the distal end Semilunar cartilage meniscus lateral amp medial Patella Popliteal surface Tibia condyles lateral amp medial Posterior crusciate ligament o Anterior crusciate ligament helps stabilize knee Patella OOOOO Superior fibrous tibiofibula joint between the fibula and tibia 0 Formation sesamoid bone formed in the tendon or by membranous bone formation 0 Function protect tendon across front of knee Movements of ankle o EversionInversion o DorsiflexionPlantarflexion Hallux pollex 0 Big toe o Pantar sole of foot 0 Inferior surface of foot Leg 4 Muscle Groups 0 1 Anterior extensordorsiflexion Tibialis anterior 2 Origin is on the lateral tibia and inserts on the 1 metatarsal 392 Dorsiflex and invert foot Extensor diqitorm lonqus 2 Origin is on the anterior fibula and inserts on the phalanges of toes 25 2 Extends the toes 25 Extensor halluces lonqus 2 Origin is on the anterior fibula and inserts of the distal phalanx of the first toe 2 Extends the big toe o 2 Lateralfibularis fibularperoneal Fibularis lonqus lperoneus lonqus 2 Originates on the upper fibula and inserts on the bottom of the first metatarsal 2 Evert and plantarflex the foot Fibularis brevis lperoneus brevis 2 Origin is on the shaft of the fibula and is inferior of FL and inserts on the fifth metatarsal 392 Evert and plantarflex foot Extensor retinacula lsupr amp infrl 2 Bands of connective tissues that go across the ankle and it keeps the tendons tightly across the surface of the ankle o 3 Superficial flexors posteriorplantar flexion Gastrocnemius 2 caf two headed muscle origin is on the lateral and medial condyles of the femur and comes to the Achilles tendon calcaneal tendon that inserts on the calcaneus bone 2 Major plantarflexor of the foot and also crosses the knee which also assists on flexing the leg Soleus 2 Origin is on the posterior tibia and fibula and inserts on the calcaneus 2 Plantarflex foot Plantaris 2 Deep to the gastroc but over the soleus origin on the lateral femur and insertion is on the calcaneus 2 Plantarflexor of foot and flexing leg 2 Tiny weak musce kind of like an accessory Popliteus 2 Origin is on the lateral condyle of the femur and insertion on the posterior tibia 2 Medial rotation of the tibia this unlocks the knee 0 4 Deep flexors posteriorplantarflexion Flexor hallucis lonqus 2 Origin is on the posterior fibula and inserts on the on the distal phalanx of toe 1 2 Flexes the big toe Flexor diqitorum lonqus 2 Origin is on the posterior tibia and inserts on the distal phalanxes of 25 2 Flexes the toes 25 Tibialis posterior 2 bw tibia and fibula and it39s origin is on the shafts of the tibia and fibula and inserts on several tarsals and metatarsals 2 Inverts and plantarflexes foot Ankle Joint o Tibia medial malleolus o Fibula lateral malleolus o Talus o Calcaneus o Calcaneal Achilles Tendon 0 Action of Ankle Joint o Main plantarflexdorsiflex o Minoreversioninversion o Condylar not hinge joint SKELETON OF FOOT o Tarsals Calcaneus Talus Navicular Cuboid 1 cuneiforms distal to those mentioned above 2quotd cuneiforms 3rd cuneiforms o Metatarsals I V o Phalanges digit phalanx hallux o Arches Longitudinal Arch from the heel to the ball of the foot Transverse Arch on the tarsals it acts like a spring Makes walking efficient o Sesamoid Bones Ball of the foot bunch of tendons that formed Plantar side of foot On big toe has two MUSCLES OF THE FOOT o Intrinsic o Dorsal superior Extensor Digitorum Brevis 2 Extends toes 14 0 Plantar ventral 4 Layers 1 layer 2 Abductor hallucis abducts big toe 2 Abductor diqiti minimus abducts small toe V 2 Flexor diqitorum brevis flexes toes 25 2 layer 2 Quadratus plantae flexion of toes 25 2 Lumbricals flex metatarsophalangeal joint extend interphalangeal joints 3mayer 2 Flexor hallucis brevis flexes 1st toe 2 Adductor hallucis adducts 1st toe 2 Tendon sesamoids in flexor hallucis brevis 4 layer 2 Dorsal interossei abduct toes 2 Plantar interossei adduct toes LOWER EX TREMI TIES BLOOD VESSELS amp NERVES Blood Vessels of Lower Limbs o Arteries o Veins Aorta terminal bifurcation split at the end Common iliac artery Internal amp external iliac Femoral 392 Medial femoral circumflex 2 Lateral femoral circumflex 2 Deep femoral Popliteal Posterior and anterior tibial 2 Fibular 2 Dorsalis pedis Dorsal amp Plantar Arch Dorsal arch 9 anterior tibial Plantar arch 9 posterior tibial 0 Parallel to arteries Anterior amp posterior tibial Fibular Popliteal behind Deep Femoral Femoral circumflex External amp internal iliac Common iliac Inferior Vena cava Superficial leg veins 2 Greater amp lesser saphenous veins Dorsal Venous arch superficial Plantar venous arch deep 0 Nerves Signals sensory tactile and motor command Plexuses U Lumbar T12 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 0 Femoral Nerve 0 Motor deep anterior hip muscles amp anterior thigh quadriceps o Sensory skin of the anterior thigh and medial leg and foot 0 Location find on diagram Obturator Nerve 0 Motor medial compartment muscles of the adductors of the thigh o Sensory medial thigh 0 Location find on diagram 2 Sacral Sciatic nerve 0 Motor hamstring muscles 0 Branches popliteal Common Fibular nerve peroneal 2 Location Vertebral Column Regions 0 OOOO Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccyx Functions Weight support and protect spinal cord 0 O O O O O OOOO Weight 9 vertebral bodies El Tibial Protect cord 9 vertebral arches Discs 9 flexibility Parts of a vertebra Body Arch Pedicleside walls Laminaroof Spinous process Transverse process Motor Fibularis and anterior leg muscles toe extensors Sensory front of the leg and top of the foot Deep and Superficial branches nerve Motor deep and superficial flexors and plantar foot muscles Sensory posterior leg and sole of the foot Branches into medial and lateral plantar nerve Superior amp inferior articular processes Vertebral foramen o Intervertebral Foramen o Intervertebral disc 0 Articulations Discs carry most of weight Articular processes constrain the movement Cervical Region Neck have transverse foramen 7 0 First two special C1 atlas 2 Holds up head no body 2 Movements flexion and extension of the head C2 axis 2 Dens 2 Movements pivot for atlas where rotation occurs C3 to C7 2 Has bifid tip of spinous process Thoracic Region looks like a deer head 12 o T1 to T12 spinous process points down 0 Ribs O Articulations articular facet 2 on each side of body and 2 on each side of transverse process Mobility flexionextension and rotation T11 ampT12 Appearances looks a little more like lumbar vertebrae Lumbar Region 5 O O O L1L5 General appearance looks like a moose has a thick vertebral body and spinous process jut straight out and shorter Mobility flexion and extension Sacral Region 5 OOOOOOO S1S5 Auricular surface tuberosity Ala lateral masssuperior pelvic amp sacral foramen Articular process Sacral Canal Base Apex Coccyx 4 o Tailbone Curves of Vertebral Column 0 Primary Kyphosis thoracic sacral 0 Secondary Lordosis cervica and lumbar Format of Test Pectoral muscles amp humerus 9 Forearm muscles and bones 20 Hand muscles and bones 8 Arteriesveinsnerves upper limb 9 Hip and pelvic muscles and bones 12 Thigh muscles and bone and knee and leg 8 Leg muscles muscles 8 Foot bone and muscles 6 Arteries viens and nervers of lower limb 8 Vertebral column 12 o 66 questions 100 points worth Exam 3 Notes 9514 344 PM Muscles of Vertebral Column Axial Muscles o Act on the axial skeleton vertebral column skull and ribs Helpful terms o Capitis inserts on the skull o Cervicis inserts on the cervical vertebrae o Thoracis inserts on thoracic vertebraeribs o Lumborum inserts on lumbar vertebrae groups of groups Posterior 2 main groups o Erector Spinae I love spaghetti Iliocostalis 2 Ilium and sacrum 9 ribs and transverse processes of cervical vertebrae Longissimus 2 Sacrum amp transverse process of lumbarthoracic vertebrae 9 transverse process of more superior vertebrae and base of skull Spinalis 2 Spinous processes of vertebrae 2 Lower vertebrae 9 higher vertebrae o Deep tansverospinalis or oblique group Semispinalis 2 Transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae 9 spinous processes of cervical vertebrae and skull Multifidus 2 Sacrum amp Transverse processes of lower vertebrae 9 spinous processes of higher vertebrae o Actions Erector Spinae 2 If right and left contract extension 2 If only one side contracts lateral flexion Thersversopinalis 2 If right and left contract extension 2 If only one side contracts rotation Longissimus amp semipinalis 2 Extend and rotate head and neck Neck Muscles o Posterior Nuchal Ligament ligamentum nuchae 2 Spring to support part of weight of head Splenius capitis cervicis 2 Origin is on the cervical vertebrae and insertion is on the mastoid process of the skull 2 Both sides contracting extend neck 2 One side contraction rotation and tilt toward side 0 Lateral Sternocleidomastoid 2 Origin is on the sternum and clavicle and inserts on the mastoid process 2 When both contract Fex head pull it forward 2 When one contracts extends and rotates to opposite side Scalenes anterior middle posterior 2 Origin is the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and insertion is the first two most superior ribs 2 Elevate ribs and lateral flexion of the neck and for both they flex neck Cranial and Neck Region Skull 0 2 regions Face front inferior Cranial brain case 0 Sutures immovable joints 0 Landmarks Orbits Nares opening of nasal cavity septum partition Zygomatic arch 2 Zygomatic process of temporal bone 2 Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mandible External auditory cana ext acoustic meatus Foramen Magnum opening for spinal cord Mastoid process zygomatic bone nasalb maxilla maxillary bone mandible ethmoid b sphenoid b lacrimal b frontal b o Braincase cranium proper frontal b parietal bs temporal bs occipital b sphenoid b 0 Floor of cranial cavity foramen magnum petrous portion temporal b sphenoid b greater amp lesser wings sella turcica cribriform plate crista galli occipital b parietal b frontal b o Inferior view occipital condyles hard palate zygomatic arch styloid process foramen magnum alveolar arch ext occip protuberance stylomastoid foramen carotid canal jugular foramen temporal b occipital b palatine b sphenoid b zygomatic b maxillary b maxilla mastoid process zygomatic arch both processes 0 Sutures coronal sagittal lambdoidal squamous temporal o Mandible body ramus angle condylar process condyle head coronoid process neck mentum Muscles of Facial Expression all insert on skin or connective tissue 103 A o Orbicularis Oculi Surrounds the eye Close eye 0 Orbicularis Oris Surrounds the mouth purse ips Pucker o Levator Iabii superioris Elevates the upper lip o Depressor Iabii inferioris Depresses the lower lip o Mentalis Elevates and protrudes the lower lip pouUngquot o Zygomaticus Major inferior 2 Elevates corner of mouth Minor superior 2 Elevates the upper lip o Depressor anguli oris Pulling down on the corner of the lips mouth 0 Buccinator Squeezes cheek against teeth Frontalis frontal belly of occipitofrontalis Wrinkles forehead and raises the eyebrows Muscles of Mastication 106 lchewinql 0 External to mandible Temporalis 2 Origin is on the temporal bone and insertion is on the coronoid process of the mandible 2 This elevates the mandible Masseter 2 Origin is on the zygomatic arch and inserts on the ramus of the mandible 2 This also elevates mandible 0 Internal to mandible origin for both is the pterygoid process of sphenoid Medial pterygoid 2 Inserts on the medial side of ramus on the mandible O 2 Moves jaw laterally Lateral pterygoid 2 Inserts on the neck of the mandible 2 Protrude the jaw amp move it sideways Hyoid bone 241 618 0 Location 0 Attachments 0 Body 0 Greater amp Lesser Horns 0 Main support of the larynx and pharynx Larynx and Pharynx 246 0 Location passages Under the Hyoid bone Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage smaller and wraps around Arytenoid cartilage pair and stretch and relax vocal cords Epiglottic cartilage posterior amp fold down to prevent food from going down your windpipe o Trachea main air passage under larynx Hyoid Musculature 109 o Suprahyoid above hyoid bone Mylohyoid 2 The muscle that forms the floor of the oral cavity 2 Originates on the mandible and inserts on the body of the hyloid 2 Elevates the hyoid and floor of the mouth and minimally depresses the mandible Digastric OOOO 2 Looks like two separate muscles 392 Anterior belly Origin is on the mandible and inserts on to the sling on the hyoid bone 2 Posterior belly Origin is on the mastoid process and inserts on to the sling on the hyoid bone 2 These elevates larynx and depress mandible Stylohyoid 2 Origin is on the styloid process of the skull and inserts on the lesser horn of the hyoid 2 This elevates the larynx o Infrahyoid below hyoid bone Sternohyoid 2 Origin is on the sternum amp clavicel and inserts on the hyoid 2 This depresses the hyoid and larynx Thyrohyoid 2 Deep to the sternohyoid 2 Origin is on the thyroid cartilage of the larynx and inserts on the hyoid bone 2 It can either depress the hyoid or elevate the larynx Pulls hyoid closer to larynx Sternothyroid 2 Origin is from the sternum to the thyroid cartilage 2 This depresses the larynx HEAD AND NECK CIRCULATION Arterial 2213 0 Common Carotid Arteries RightLeft differences 2 Right side the brachiocephalic trunk 2 Left side common carotid and subclavian artery Split 2 External superficial Carotid Artery Supplies blood and tissues to outside the skull Has major branches 0 Facial serves the face 0 Occipital lower lateral and posterior region of the skull o Maxillary inside jaw zygomatic and upper face 0 Super cial temporal upper lateral and superior region of the skull 2 Internal deep Carotid Artery Venous 2221 Supplies blood and tissues to inside the skull O OOOO Carotid sinus has sensors for blood pressure and blood chemistry Carotid canal of skull Ophthalmic orbit eyes AnteriorMiddePosterior cerebral Circle of Wiis Cerebral arterial circle Cerebral communicating arteries 2 posterior and 1 anterior Basilar connects A to the vertebral arteries Vertebral right and left and runs to the subclavian o Venous Sinuses in membranes that surround the brain which are commonly called the meninges they are like channels and cavities Sagittal sinuses El El Superior Inferior Straight sinus great cerebral vein goes to this sinus Transverse sinus Sigmoid sinus S turn o Internal Jugular Vein Sigmoid goes to internal jugular foramen and then becomes the IJV Goes down to the right and left brachiocephalic and subclavian Anastomosis that connects internal and external JV 0 External Jugular Vein Superficial vein that goes to the subclavianright and left brachiocephalic El El Maxillary Temporal 2 Facial 2 Occipital o Other Vertebral in between vertebral column Brachiocephalic left and right Superior vena cava superior part of the heart CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CNS Brain main coordinatinq system and control for the body 0 Tissues types Gray matter outer layer contains mostly cell bodies of neurons This is the part that has information White matter inner layer contains mostly axons This is the part that sends signals 0 Ventricles fluid filled spaces Lateral twoleft amp right main upper part of the brain cerebrum Third diencephalan Fourth in the brain stem Cerebrospinal Fluid 6 this fills these ventricles and its made out of plasma kinda found in blood It carries nutrients and waste products and also acts like a cushion in the space surrounding the brain 0 Meninges Singular Meninx 163 Dura Mater 2 Superficial has dural sinuses This is the thickest layer Arachnoid 2 Middle in the subarachnoid space is where the CSF is Pia Mater 2 Deep covers the outside of the brain 0 Brain Regions 161 Cerebrum amp forebrain larger than the rest of the brain combined 392 Hemispheres leftright Sulci inner grooves but if bigger then its called a ssure Gyri gyrus meaty part of the brain Lobes Frontal emotion memory and judgment Temporal auditory and visualauditory memories Parietal tactile sensing and understanding speech Occipital visual processing and sensory integration Cortex gray matter is the outer region Lateral Ventricle Corpus callosum Functions memory though reasoning planning Olfactory bulbs lobes smell Diencephaon was El El 3rd ventricle Thalamus one on each side switchboard for sensory signals that move in and out of the cerebrum Hypothalamus floor of the 3rd ventricle smallest part of the brain major autonomic control center for the body Controls involuntary body processes body temperatureappetiteregulates hormonesregulation of heart rate Cerebellum El El El Posterior amp inferior to the cerebrum Cortex gray matter outside Arbor vitae tree of life white matter on inside SuperiorMiddleInferior peduncles wrap around so it connects the cerebellum to the rest of the brain Superior midbrain Middle pons and Inferior medulla oblongata 2 Function coordinates balance and regulates muscle movement Site for learned reflexes 2 4 ventricle Brainstem 2 Midbrain mesencephalon mostly white matter on the outside and grey matter in nuclei clumps on the inside and connects the higher and lower centers of the brain 2 Pons connects the cerebrum and the cerebellum and has an accessory breathing center Regulation of respiration muscles 2 Medulla Oblongata sends signals up to the brain Sensory is up and motor is down to the spinal cord 2 autonomic control center after hypothalamus Controls respiration rate swallowing blood pressure 2 Foramen magnum amp spinal cord Decussation crossing over this is the signals tofrom brain to opposite side of body 0 Spinal cord Starts at the foramen magnum and runs down the vertebral column This is an inferior extension of the brain Meninges same three levels like the brain 2 Dura mater 2 Arachnoid 2 Pia mater Runs through the vertebral foramen Spinal nerves Cross section spinal cord 2 AnteriorPosterior horns 2 Gray Commissure 2 Spinal CENTRAL canal 2 Anterior median fissure 2 Posterior median sulcus 2 White matter 9 funiculi Posterior Columns Lateral Columns Anterior Columns 2 Spinal Nerve roots Dorsal root Dorsal root ganglion swelling Ventral root Tracts 392 Ascending aff sensory more anterior 2 Decending eff motor more posterior Spinal cord SEGMENTS and SPINAL NERVES 2 Cervicas 8 2 Thoracics 12 2 Lumbars 5 2 Sacra 5 Growth Spina cord vs vertebral column U Length 2 Cauda equina horse tail bundle of nerves on the lowerend of the vertebral column below the spinal cord Pathways of signals in the spinal cord 2 Spinal refexes behavior controlled by spinal cord 2 Reflex arc route from the sensor to the muscle Simplest o Knee Jerk stretch reflex o Monosynaptic only one synapse is involved so like when you touch a hot surface 0 Withdrawal reflex is done before you feel the sensation o Polysnaptic more than one synapse is involved this involves sensory inter and motor neurons Therefore withdrawal is part of this PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Cranial Nerves comes directly from the brain 0 12 Pairs 1622 0 SensoryMotorMixed I Olfactory 2 Sensory sense of smell 2 Tract what you see 2 Nerves what goes from the bulb to the nasal cavity II Optic 2 Sensory sense of visioneye to brain 392 Eye 9 o nerve 9 o chiasm 9 o tract III Occulomotor 2 Motor controls 4 of the 6 extrinsic eye muscles 392 Superior Inferior and Medial Rectus amp inferior obHque IV Trochlear 2 Motor controls 1 of the 6 extrinsic eye muscles 2 Superior Oblique V Trigeminal 2 Mixed motorsensory 2 A Ophthamicbranch tactile from eyes and above 2 B Maxillary branch tactile from upper jaw to incline palate 2 C Mandibular branch tactile to lowerjaw which is the muscles of mastication VI Abducens 2 Motor controls 1 of the 6 extrinsic eye muscles right eye to right and left eye to left 2 Lateral Rectus VII Facial 2 Mixed motorsensory controls most of the muscles of facial expression controls 2 of 3 salivary glands on each side and carries sensory signals from the first 23 of the tongue taste VIII Vestibulocochlear 2 Sensory acousticauditory 2 Carries these sensations from the inner ear Cochlear branch sound detectionhearing Vestibular branch equilibrium sensation balance IX Glossopharyngeal 2 Mixed sensorymotor carries sensory signals from the posterior 13 of the tongue taste and it controls the swallowing muscles and this also controls the remaining salivary glands biggest one X Vagus biggest cranial nerve 2 Mixed sensorymotor has branches that extend to the rest of the body It controls the heart stomach intestines and detects sensory information from these as well visceral organs Also carries tactile sensations to outer ear and some pharynx muscles XI Accessory 2 Motor controls hyoidlarynx muscles sternocleidomastoid and trapezius XII Hypoglossal 2 Motor control the tongue muscles Nerves Old Opie Occasionally Tries Trigonometry And Feels Very Gloomy Vague And Hyperactive SensoryMotorBoth Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Bigger Brains Matter More Spinal nerves comes directly from the spinal cord ganglia ganglion small group of gray matter outside of CNS 0 Major Plexuses Cervical Brachial Lumbar Sacral 0 Typical Branches trunk region 147 Dorsal Ramus Ventral Ramus 2 Lateral Branch 392 Anterior Branch SENSE ORGANS Eye 105 o It senses light 9 sensation vision 0 Orbit amp external stuff Extrinsic extra ocuar muscles 2 4 Rectus Lateral move laterally medial move medially superior look up and inferior look down 2 2 Oblique Inferior roll eye up and laterally and superior rolls eye down and lateral o Optic Nerve at base in the back 0 All empty space is filled with adipose tissue to make the optic nerve to move around easier and it give its cushioning o Lacrimal Apparatus 1819 Lacrimal gland Lacrimal gland ducts Lacrimal canals Lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct 0 Eye Sagittal Section 1821 Conjunctiva Cornea lets light in Aqueous humor 9 anterior cavity 2 chambers Iris coloropen and close pupil Lens Pupil Suspensory ligament cilliary body ring of muscle and controls the lens shape Posterior cavity vitreous humor Ear Outer fibrous tunic made of collagen and elastic fibers 2 Sclera makes up most of the outer surface of the eye 2 Cornea Middle vascular tunic 2 Chorid full of blood vesselsbetween the retina and the sclera 2 Ciliary body supports the lens 2 Iris adjust pupil amount of light allowed in Inner neural tunic 2 Retina contains the light receptor cells photoreceptors 2 Fovea part of the retina where you have the sharpest visionmacula lutea 2 Optic disc no photoreceptors blind spot 2 Optic nerve carries the signals back to the brain Internal spaces 2 Anterior cavity aqueous humor Anterior chamber anterior to iris to cornea Posterior chamber posterior to iris to ciliary body 2 Posterior cavity vitreous humor Light sensors photoreceptors rods and cones Hearingvestibular senses Outer 189 Pinnaaurice Ext auditory canal ex Acoustic meatus Tympanic membrane Middle Auditory eustacean tube ME ossicles 2 Maeus hammer 2 Incus anvil 2 Stapes oval window stirrup 0 Inner Vestibule vestibular complex Bony abyrinth space in bone Membranous abyrinth tubes and sacs within body Iabryinths 0 Hearing sensors Cochlea detection of sound 2 Vestibular duct scaa vestibule 2 Choclear duct Organ of Corti spiral organ have hairs and go to the fluid filled space but there is a membrane on top of them Hair signal 2 Tympanic duct scaa tympanic o Equilibrium sensors Orientationstatic rotationdynamic Vestibule 18151817 detect orientation 2 Saccule hair cells gel crystals 2 Utricle lt macula A 2 Semicircular canas loopy things that detect head rotation Ampua when head moves the fluid will try and stand still and the gel will bend the hair cells which then sends a signal to your brain U Sensa ons Olfactory sensors airborne chemicals 0 Chemoreceptors o Nasal cavity Gustation taste receptors dissolved chemicals in contact 187 o Papillae 0 Taste buds THORAX Thoracic Region Rib Cage ribs thoracic vertebrae sternum and costal cartilage Ribs head neck tubercle body flat bones 0 True own costal cartilage 7 0 False Sternum o Manubrium 1st 0 Body 2quotd o Xiphoid process 3rd Rib Muscles Intercostals o Crossed layers Vertebrochondral costal cartilage combines 810 Floating no costal cartilage 11 amp 12 External intercostals elevates ribs increase volume Internal intercostals depress ribs decrease volume Diaphragm floor of thoracic cavity 1012 0 Breathing at rest 0 Attachments Origin is on the vertebral column xiphoid process and costal cartilage and insertion is on the central tendon 0 Action lower the floor to increase volume for the lungs o Openings haitus or foramen Esophagus and aorta 9 hiatus Vena cava 9 foramen Thorax organs amp structures 212 0 Lungs Heart Membranes Visceral amp parietal pleura surrounds the lungs visceral is on the inner side and the parietal is on the outer side Visceral amp parietal pericardium surrounds the heart visceral is on surface of the heart and the parietal is the outer layer Tubes amp vessels Esophagus digestive system Trachea air passage to the lungs and splits into bronchus Aorta main outgoing artery from heart Superior and inferior vena cava main veins of the body Mediastinum Space between the lungs ON THE TEST Muscles of vertebral column 5 Skull 6 Facial muscleschewinghyoidlarynx 5 Head and neck arteriesveins 6 Brain 11 Spinal cord 5 Cranial nerves 7 Spinal nerves 2 Eyes5 Ear 7 Olfactorygestation taste and smell 2 Thorax 5 Total 66 FINAL EXAM NOTES 9514 344 PM Heart Function pumppropel blood through the body Doublecircuit system 0 2 pumps left amp right side 0 Systemic circuit most of the tissues of body 0 Pulmonary Circuit to lungs Chambers 0 Atrium 2 smaller superior o Ventricle 2 inferior large chambers External heart anatomy o Atria right and left amp auricles Ventricles right and left Apex tip of the heart at the bottom Interventricular sulcus anterior amp posterior bw ventricles Vena cava superior amp inferior Pulmonary Trunk Aorta ascendingarchdescending Pulmonary Veins Coronary Sinus o Pericardium parietal ampviscera Internal heart anatomy o Interventricular septum o Valves Atrioventricular 2 Right tricuspid 2 Left bicuspidmitral Semilunars 392 Right Pulmonary Semilunar valve I Left Aortic Semilunar valve 0 Valve function keep blood flowing one way 9 pressure operated 0 Valve order 1 AV open semilunars closed atria contract 2 Ventricles contract closes AV opens semilunar 3 Relaxes all valves close 0 Papillary Muscles OOOOOOOO o Chordae Tendineae hold valvesthreads o Layers of heart wall Visceral pericardium epicardium OUTER Myocardium layer of cardiac muscle tissue most of the heart Endocardium Inner connected tissue and inner epithelial layer Skeleton of the heart 0 Not bone and surrounded by interlocking rings of fibrous connective tissue called the FIBROUS SKELETON Support valves Control system modified muscle cells 0 S A node in the wall of the atrium this is the natural pacemaker of the heart This causes both atria to contract o A V node this is where the atria contact the ventricles and after the atria contracts there is a 4 before the A V node contracts 0 A V bundle bundle of Hiss o Purkinje fibers spread over ventricles Operating Sequence BLOOD VESSELS 221 Layers of wall o Tunica externa tough connective tissue sleeve adventitia o Tunica Media middle layer and has elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle 0 Intima tunica interna thin layer of connective tissue and lining of epithelial tissue Capillaries are only made up of intima one layer Path of blood through body 0 Heart Aorta the largest and branches into other large Elastic larqe arteries their media contains lots of elastic tissue Muscular mediumsmall arteries they have a lot of smooth muscle in the media O Arterioles smallest and they are so small that their adventitia is just scattered and media is a single layer and intima is a single layer also This go to capillaries Capillaries arteries smallest vesicles 2 Function where all the exchanges occurs In Size RBC barley fit through Capillaries veins 2 Pressure is low Venules 0 Small amp medium veins Large veins Superior amp Inferior vena Cava less muscles less elastic connective tissue Heart 2 Pulmonary arteries deoxygenated Lungs capillaries 2 Pulmonary veins oxygenated pressure is lower Heart Differences 2 Arteries high pressurethicker was circular cross section 2 Veins low pressure thin walls oval cross section Many of the large veins have valves two cusp valves RESPIRA TORY SYSTEM Function gas exchange 02 in and CO2 out 0 Parts following air path 0 OOOOOOO Naresnostris external Nasal cavity Internal nares connects nose to throat Nasopharynx pharynx connects the nostrils to trachea Oropharynx pharynx connects the mouth to trachea Laryngyopharynx connects to the larynx Larynx Trachea o Bronchi bronchus pair split off from trachea o Lungs Nasal Region 0 Nose Nasal Septum Turbinatesconchae Superior Middle and Inferior Olfactory membrane Openings for Auditory tube Sinuses Lacrimal sac Paranasal air sinuses o Maxillary o Frontal ethmoid sphenoid o Tempora mastoid Inward from nasal cavity 0 Internal nares 9 nasopharynx 9 oropharynx 9 laryngeopharynx 9 larynx OOOO Larynx review 0 Vocal cords o Stretching higher and relaxing lower 0 Holding breath closing glottis or vocal folds o Swallowing Trachea o Bronchi singular bronchus Primary first branch Secondary branch off of primary each goes to a lobe so 2 on left and 3 on the right side Tertiary Bronchioles 9aveoi and capillaries Lung Structure Apex Base Media mediastinal amp costal surface Parietal and Visc Pleura Lobes amp fissures OOOOO Right 2 Fissures horizontal amp oblique 2 Lobes superior middle inferior Left 2 Fissures oblique lobe 2 Lobes superior and inferior Breathing Mechanism 0 Quiet Diaphragm inflates lungs 2 Inspiration inhaling is when the diaphragm contracts 2 Expiration diaphragm relaxes because of elasticity o Forceful Diaphragm amp ribs Raise amp lower ribs 392 Inspiration U Expiration Abdomen Abdominopelvic Cavity Space below the diaphragm and superior to the inguinal region Contains 0 Digestive Organs stomach and intestines o Peritoneum Parieta lines cavity Viscera surroundscovers organs Mesenteries sheets that hold organs in place Kidneys in the wall of the cavity retroperitoneal Speen immune system Urinary amp reproductive organs in pelvic cavity Abdominal Wall muscles Rectus abdominus External obliques Internal obliques Transversus abdominis Abdominal Circuation blood vessels 0 Arterial OOOO Aorta 2 Celiac trunk Left gastric Common Hepatic Splenic artery 2 Superior mesenteric Small Intestine 2 Inferior mesenteric Large Intestine 2 Right and Left Renal kidneys 2 Right and left ovarian gonadal 2 Right and left testicular gonadal 2 Terminal Bifurcation split Right and left common iliac 0 Internal iliac 0 External iliac o Venous Internal and external iliac Common iliac right and left Inferior vena cava 2 Right and left gonadal ovariantestes 392 Right and left renal Several hepatic liver Ligestive System 2 Main components Alimentary cana gut tube 0 Complete hollow tube 0 GI tract 0 Digestive tract Digestive glands 0 Break down food Liver pancreas salivary glands Main Parts 0 Mouth oral cavity 255 Palate cheeks tongue Mastication chewing 2 Salivary glands Parotial below ear glossalpharangeal nerve Sublinqual sidebelow of the tongue facial nerve Submandibular below the mandible facial nerve 2 Saliva softens liquefy sticks together amp has digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates 2 Swallowing rapid pharyngeal phase and slow esophagealphase o Pharynx o Esophagus transport only to the stomach o Stomach 2510 Cardiac orifice opening from the esophagus Fundus Body Pyloric region Pyloric orifice and sphincter leads to small intestine Greater and lesser curvature Greater and lesser omentum lesser is on top and greater is over the intestine looks like an apron Func ons 2 1 Storage allows you to eat a meal without it going straight into your intestines 2 2 Mixing and liquefying food 2 3 Chemical breakdown of protein Walls thick with smooth muscles 0 Small intestine smaller in diameter but longer 3 parts duodenum jejunum ileum 2 Duodenum first foot Shape Chemical breakdown Absorption food molecules moving into the blood In Jejunum 8 2 Ileum 12 392 Lining Villi villus finger like projections 0 Large intestine Colon Ileocecal valve Cecum pouch Vermiform appendix immune system Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Haustra hanstrum o Rectum o Anus o Digestive glands Salivary glands 3 pairs Liver partly digestive chemicals and partly wastes 2 gallbladder 2 Common bile duct Pancreas 2523 2 Secrets chemicals used for breaking down food Removes toxins and wastes from blood and modify food molecules that are then stored Hepatic portal system review arteries 2 Superior and inferior mesenteric portal veins 2 Gastric portal veins 2 Hepatic portal vein 2 Hepatic Vein Portal system 9 capillaries veins 9 capillaries URINARY SYSTEM Functions 0 Remove waste products from the blood urea o Regulate concentration of body fluids 0 Excrete ions excrete water Main components 0 Kidneys pair O O O Ureters pair Urinary badder single Urethra single Kidney Structure 0 O O O Capsule Cortex Hilus book hilum notch MeduHa Pyramids Papilla Renal columns Renal obe pyramind and associated cortex Renal calyx calyces Minor with each papilla Major two or more minors merge Renal pelvis blood vessels come from all the calyces Ureter Blood Vessels Renal artery and vein Inter lobar artery and vein between the lobes Arucuate artery and vein arching Inter lobular artery and vein inside the lobes Nephrons actually filter the blood and make urine million in each kidney Renal corpuscle knob shape in cortex granular appearance Collecting ducts in pyramids fibrous Urete rs O Contractions 9 push urine down to bladder Bladder 2610 0 Location floor of the pelvic cavity in the true pelvic o Valves ureteral openings one way 0 750 ml when quite full Urethra tube from bladder to exterior O 0 Female straight shot 1 2 Male more complex 6 8 Membranous region Prostatic region Penile region REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Last organ system to become functional 0 Function Primary produce offspring Secondary endocrine functions hormones and maintaining amp regulating function of reproductive system o Female reproductive system anatomy Location pelvic region and inguinal region 2 Ovaries primary sex organs because they produce the reproductive cells gamatesovaegg ces 2 Uterus the womb where the embryo develops 2 Vagina tube connecting uterus to exterior 2 Vuva external genitas surrounds the opening of the vagina Sagittal section bladder urethra 2 Ovaries uterus vagina vulva Anterior view frontal 2 Ovaries uterine tubes fimbriae amp infundibulum Sagittal section details 2710 2 Mons pubis thick layer of adipose tissue 2 Vulva external genitals Labia majora surround opening of vagina and urethra Labia minora inner fold of mucus membrane 2 Clitoris can inflate with blood External inferior view 2719 2 Labia majora 2 Labia menorah hood like stricture called prepues 2 Clitoris and prepuce El El El Urethral orifice Vagina Mons pubis Ant View frontal 2715 El El El El El Ovaries one on each side Uterine tubes fallopian tubes and one for each ovary Connects to uterus Fimbriae Infundibulum Uterus Body almost everything Fundus slight bulge on top above uterine tube Cervix where it attaches to the vagina Isthmus where it constricts at the end ndometrium inner most lining goes through a cycle of getting thicker and then shedding during pe od Myometrium smooth muscle makes up most of thickness of walls Brood ligament Ovarian and round ligamentt Vagina Male reproductive system 271 El El El Testes primary sex organ Scrotum 274 holes testies Partitions septa divide it into segments which seminiferous tubules Seminiferous tubules one long tube in each partition section Rete testis sperm cells travel here Epididymis back of testies Comma shapted Ducts deferens comes out of bottom of epididymis vasdeferens Seminal vesicle glands pair Prostate gland only one size and shape of buckeye Under seminal gland Penis Ejaculator duct Urethra Prostatic in the prostate gland Membranous Penile covernous spongy Semen mixture of liquid and sperm cells Seminal vesicles 60 of liquid comes from here Prostate gland 3034 liquid comes from here Bulbourethral gland produce small fraction of seamen 510 o Sperm cells strictures 279 Erectile tissue sponge like tissue that can be inflated with blood And when it is inflated it is called engorge and that causes it to enlarge and become rigid Corpus cavernosa two and upper Erectile Hssue Corpus spongiousum single lower Erectile tissue Vents off to the side and is the crura root Urethra through the corpus spong Glans Prepuce foreskin Proximal attachment Root carus plural crura bulb attached by roots or ligaments to the hip bones Bulb held by connective tissue to the floor of the pelvic cavity Other erectile tissue El El El Nipples Clitoris 2 Corpora cavernosa Coitus sexual intercourse El Arousal penis becomes engorged labia and vagina enlarge ENDOCRINE quotSYSTEMquot Is it a system Ejaculation caused by friction and seamen is ejected into the vagina Path of sperm Into cervix Through uterus Into uterine tube where fertilization happens If ovulation within about a day 0 Zygote fertilized egg one cell stage 0 Implantation stick to endometrium and burrows into the endometrium Produces HCG which tells mom is pregnant and blocks menstrual cycle 0 Pregnancy 0 Group of glands some interact and some are independent Relationship to nervous system 0 An alternate signaling and coordinating system amp the nervous system has fast short lived signal Therefore the endocrine system uses chemical signals they are slower but longer las ng Endocrine gland secret directly into the blood ductess glands Exocrine gland these have ducts Hormones chemical signal that is released directly into the blood and causes change in one or more target organs Major endocrine glands amp their hormones o Pituitary gand hypophysis Anterior adenohypophysis El El El El FSH amp LH regulating the reproductive system Growth hormone GH Prolactin milk production by mammary glands TSH ATCH regulating other endocrine glands Posterior neurohypophysis U Release site for hormones that are actually made in the brain 2 ADH regulates kidney function 2 Oxytocin very important in the reproductive system of females during and after pregnancy 0 Adrenal Gland Cortex outer 2 Steroid hormone 2 Aldosterone kindey function 2 Cortisol used as storage of food molecule Medulla inner 392 Adrenaline epinephrine 2 Flight or flight reflex heart rate increases BP increase and breathing rate increases 0 Pancreas Both endocrine and exocrine Insulin amp glucagon act on fat cells amp liver to regulate blood glucose Pancreatic islets clumps of endocrine tissue 0 Thyroid Contains two iodine hormones T3 ampT4 These target most active tissues of body 0 Para Thyroid PTH calcium regulation and storage 0 Gonads secondary endocrine organs Ovaries estrogen 2 Produce estrogen amp progesterone 2 Regulates menstrual cycle and reproduction physiology 2 Progesterone hormone of pregnancy Testes testosterone 2 Maintain sperm production 2 Maintain secondary sexual characteristics 0 Brain Hypothalamus secrets some hormones into blood and transfers some hormones to posterior pituitary 0 Others Examples of actions of major hormones 392 Adrenal medulla adrenain epinephrine Fight or flight response 2 Adrenal cortex aldosterone Adjusting proportion of differations in blood Regulates and balances sodium and potassium ions 2 Pancreas insulin causes blood sugar to be stowed away lowers blood sugar glucagon causes sugar to be released into the bood increases blood sugar 2 Thyroid gland T3 ampT4 Regulate metabolic rate sum of all energy using processes Temperature regulationheat production 2 PituitaryHypothalamus Hypothalamus TRH releasing hormone 9 pituitary TSH thyroid stimulating hormone 9 thyroid T3 ampT4 Adrenal cortex 9 cortisol inhibitory effect on hypothalamuspituitary Control amp Regulation of Endocrine Glands o 3 Categories 0 1 Direct nervous system control by nerve impulses Part hypothalamus Connected adrenal medulla Examples 2 Releasing hormones from hypothalamus 2 Adrenaline from adrenal medulla 2 ADH and Oxytocin from the posterior pituitary o 2 Nervous system control using hormones slower Examples 2 Thyroid 2 Anterior pituitary 2 Adrenal cortexcortisol 2 Gonads o 3 Mainly respond to conditions in body blood chemistry Examples 2 Pancreas insuingucagon 392 Parathyroid PTH FINAL EXAM INFORMATION 100 questions Review 0 52 questions Integumentary system 3 Pectoral regionhumerus 4 Elbow 9 hand 7 Upper limp arteriesveins nerve 3 Pelvic region and femur 4 Knee 9 foot 4 Lower limb arteriesveinsnerves 2 Vertebral column and back muscles 4 Skullfacehyoid muscles 5 Head circulation 2 CNS 6 PNS 3 Senses 5 OOOOOOOOOOOOO 2 D E 48 questions thorax 4 heart and blood vessels 8 respiratory system 8 abdomen 3 digestive system 8 urinary system 5 reproductive system 7 o endocrine system 5 On review material on muscles only ID and insertions One half page of piece of paper cheat sheet OOOOOOOO


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