Nonverbal Communication COM 225
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Bennett Notetaker on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COM 225 at University at Buffalo taught by Scott Murszewski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Interpersonal 01/27/2016 ▯ Definition: One to one communication or one to small groups ▯ ▯ Nonverbal Com: Facial expressions (Lie to Me) Gestures, Body Language (Kinesics), Smell, Haptic (touch), Proximity, Appearance, Chronemics (use of time), Artifacts (personal items), Vocalics ▯ ▯ Kinesics Visible body movements, including facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, and body postures Cultural o Eye contact varies Leadership o Eye contact People in power look at you when speaking, away when listening People lacking power look when listening, away when speaking Gesticulation People in power move their body purposefully, with intention Facial Mobility ▯ Vocalics Vocal characteristics, such as loudness, pitch, speech rate, and tone o Paralanguage (vocal intonation, just as joking or being serious when conveying a message) o Silence (to convey anger; convey power) Leadership o Vocal projection o Keep your rate measured ▯ Haptics Duration, placement, and strength of touch Cultural & Contextual Examples: o Costa Rica, shaking hands, and kissing o Gender and Covert Affection Especially how men express liking and inclusion with other men Varies based on cultural context Leadership o People with power touch their subordinates far more often than the other way around o Handshakes Firm Long ▯ Proxemics Use of personal space Cultural & Contextual Examples o USA vs middle eastern cultures Breath on face US military personnel in Iraq Leadership o Imposition and space The Johnson Treatment- intimidating use of space ▯ Chronemics Use of time Cultural & Contextual Examples o Meetings and appointments Trouble for international students (depending on where they’re from) o Inuits and interruptions Leadership o People with power can make people wait but you can’t make them wait Ex.) Scott’s uncle at work…”bob I got edd” Had a boss he didn’t like because his boss thought he has better than everyone else, he set up a meeting and was very late so Scott’s uncle left before he got there ▯ Appearance Hair, body type, and other physical features Cultural & Contextual Examples o Hairstyle of the 50s versus 80s versus today (are we current) o Inferences based on body shape and physicality Constantly changes Leadership o Trim features and halo effects- typically subscribed to celebs or very attractive ppl, it’s the idea that because they’re beautiful they’re a good person: endorsements o These are the people of Walmart video ▯ Artifactual Communication Use of possessions and objects to communicate to others Cultural & Contextual Examples o Rolex vs K-Mart watch o Fancy car or the house you live in Leadership o Power of expensive interviews During interviews Ex.) one guy going to job interviews dressed at different levels- found that when you wear more expensive stuff you’re more likely to get the job ▯ Smell Use of smell to communicate to others Cultural & Contextual Examples o Deodorants o Perfume Designer perfumes vs. knock offs Who picked out your perfume Genetic scent preference and immune system markers- our genes and the scent we give off effects attraction to someone…have partner pick out perfume or cologne so they’ll jump your bones!!! Nonverbal All messages not expressed by words themselves Nonverbal involves messages o Messages are symbolic o Difference between NV communication and NV behaviors All communication not expressed by words o Indicative of the complexity of NV Nonverbal Behavior More action based ▯ Characteristics of Nonverbal Guided by Rules o We’re so indoctrinated in these rules, we usually can’t even tell you what they are o But, we know them when we see someone break them Rules Guided by Culture o The way things are done here may be quite different elsewhere o “I’ve got your nose” ▯ Reciprocal Effect Engaging in behavior associated with a specific emotion can lead you to feel that emotion or affective state o Study: Actors on Stage After they are told to make a certain expression the actors would then begin to feel the emotion associated with that particular facial expression Implications for Leadership o “Fake it till you make it” o Carrying yourself as someone who is confident, for instance, can lead you to feel confident ▯ Method Approach Focusing on the emotions experienced during a previous event can transfer emotions to the present o Ex.) if you need to be sad you focus on something that would make you sad ▯ Everybody across the world have the same basic 7 expressions of emotions Happiness (real smile) o Crow’s feet wrinkles o Pushed up cheeks o Movement from muscle that orbits eye Sadness o Drooping upper eyelids o Losing focus in eyes o Slight pulling down of lip corners Fear o Eyebrows raised and pulled together Anger Disgust o Nose wrinkling o Upper lip raised Surprised o Eyebrows raised o Eyes widened o Mouth open Contempt o Lip corner tightened and raised on only one side of face typically left side Not learned, relevant and used in law enforcement all the time to keep people safe. It’s a worldwide application Display Rules Humans have conscious control over facial expressions and will moderate their facial expressions in context based on cultural norms Ex.) some cultures not allowed to laugh at dinner table Basically we need to learn how to control our emotions so we don’t break social norms or if you’re playing poker ▯ Nervous System 2 aspects o Central- under our conscious control (what you say) o Peripheral-running in the background (breathing), don’t think about it you just do it Facial expressions are affected by both aspects of the nervous system o Stroke victim and smile o Crying during a movie- guys on dates watching the Notebook because they want to make an impression When lying we can be betrayed by our own faces because of the dual nature of the nervous system o In high stakes situations, humans may feel emotions about lying, or may be lying about an emotion ▯ Microexpressions and Emotions When lying we can experience emotions like fear, sadness, and anger Occur most often when the person does NOT want to show the emotion they are feeling Briefly shown expressions they are so instinctive that we can’t mask them Expressions may be whole or “squelched” only partial .25 of a second of an emotion on the face Real emotion is expressed symmetrically ▯ -In Security Contexts The goal is to more efficiently identify deceptive individuals Race and Gender Neutral Relatively inexpensive to train personnel Once people are trained it takes away using expensive equipment ▯ -Different channels of communication when we’re talking about facial expressions, face, body, and voice channel (sound, nature of pitch), a channel is one method of communication of the body. ▯ Facework: Goffman Definition of face- the identity a person claims for him or herself during social interactions Social/Public, Situated, Claimed (different types of faces) Social/Public Face o Only exists in public eye o The image you want others to see, it’s not how you actually see yourself o Stuff you do in private you would never do in public Situated o The image you present likely depends on context o Shift your face depending on who you’re talking to (cursing in front friends and not parents) Claimed o You put I the effort to make people believe you are a certain thing, the identity you wish to present o Ex.) trying to look smart Negative Face- the want to be unimpeded, looked up to, RESPECTED Positive Face- the want to be approved of in certain respects, included, part of the group, LIKED FTAs=Face Threatening Actions o Threats to own face o Threats to other’s face o Important because we’re emotionally invested in our own face Exception is when we’re trying to hurt or insult someone Working Agreement- an adequate match between the cognitive processes of one person and the expressive processes of the other. It is not: Mind reading, perfect agreement, or necessarily conscious o Significance of identities for communication Which identities are salient in an interaction How you’re going to carry yourself Seldom is tightly defined We usually infer identities, not announce Cognitive process- what people think about themselves and those with whom they are interacting; expectations for what should happen Expressive processes- how people act and show their identities Identity is linked to emotions Easy to misinterpret We give the benefit of the doubt to other’s identities (sometimes) DON’T need complete agreement Ex.) fake professor video ▯ Identity It’s how you answer the question “who are you” You have multiple identities The Johari Window: o First window- Open= known to self and others You and at least one other person agrees this is who you are o Second window- Blind= not known to self but known to others How others see you o Third window- Hidden= known to self but not to others Scott was an introvert growing up Or someone who is depressed o Fourth window- Unknown= not known to self or others Something subconscious Role o Subset of salient identities in any given interaction Ex.) your role is different with your teacher and your grandma Ex.) crossing the friend zone line ▯ Social Identity Theory Developed in order to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination (group against group) Proposed by Tajfel and Turner (1979) Idea of self-concept o A) personal or self-identity, our personal qualities o B) collective identity, we only get from being in a group o A person’s level of self is often contingent on social contexts, therefore, causing an individual to think, feel, and act differently based on the given social situation Group Identity o The collective relationship between an in-group is considered the group identity (family) Role Identity o The functioning position of each member is the role identity (Mother, Wife) Personal Identity o What makes an individual unique, distinct from others is called the personal identity (Any individual) Social Identity o The sense of self derived from social group membership o We are constantly trying to identify who is and who is not part of groups to which we belong Attribute of our evolutionary success o Shared resources o Mutual defense (Male Warrior Hypothesis) : we are less violent in today’s day and age compared to tribe days Communication implications of Social Identity o Carries over into how we appraise and treat those who are either not a part of our group or group members not living up to expectations Social sanctions- punishments for breaking a group’s rules (not written down anywhere) Ex.) crapping in public or budging in line Derogation- putting people down Why?! Because it reminds people outside of the group that they aren’t apart of the group Bullies Lacking self-esteem or a ton of self-esteem Bulling stops at the highest rungs of self-esteem Like if they’re the ruler of the group o Why stop?! Because you have nowhere else to go on the ranks and there’s no one else left to bully ▯ Social Stigma Prejudice, discounting, discrediting and discrimination directed at people belonging to devalued social groups and the individuals, groups and communities with which they are associated Who do you choose to interact with? o Social networking In-group/Out-group o Language differentiation (togetherness vs. disparaging terms) What you do/don’t tell people if you belong to the group? o It varies by context and depends on what groups you’re involved in (disclosure and appropriateness) What you would say to friends but not to teachers ▯ Attribution Ambiguity Heightened awareness of behavior that may signal bias or discrimination, coupled with a tendency to attribute such behaviors to bias or discrimination, even when other reasonable expectations are available (personal…someone’s treatment towards you) o Doctor treats you with poor bed-side manor because you have aids you’ll think that’s why he’s treating you that way ▯ Confirmation Bias Looking for behaviors or examples that confirm our stereotypes, while ignoring examples that challenge our stereotype o Ex.) all women cry during romantic movies so you see one women cry and you think that proves this assumption o How we process the communication of others o Blue eye vs. Brown eye glasses example ▯ Stereotype A conventional, formulaic and oversimplified conception, opinion or image ▯ Stereotype Threat Awareness of stereotypes about one’s group and mindfulness about performing ways that confirm such stereotypes Above and below threshold of consciousness ▯ Leadership: Taking Action and Social Proof Social Proof- looking to others to determine your course of action o Especially when there is high uncertainty and similarity Pluralistic Ignorance (mass event) o During ambiguous events, the tendency for everyone to be looking to see what everyone else is doing Catherine Genovese and NYC 1964 A ton of people saw but didn’t do anything about it, they just watched her get stabbed ▯ Culture The Iceberg Analogy- there’s more beneath the surface o Edward T. Hall 1976 o The external is conscious it’s what we can see: objective o The internal is the subconscious includes some beliefs and values that underlie behavior (difficult to change because it’s something you learned): subjective Intercultural Communication o Interaction between individuals from different cultural backgrounds who use different meaning systems (both verbal and nonverbal) o Co-Culture Cultural groups and norms hat exists within larger cultural systems o Mirco-Culture Small group norms, such as, communication among individuals within a family Ex.) sport teams or student council o Perceptual Lens The convergence of personal and cultural experiences that shape how we “see” the world High and Low Context Cultures o High Context: Meaning is implicit in relationship and situation (not one right way to behave) Indirectness valued o Low Context: Meaning is explicit in the words spoken (American Culture) Straight talk valued Think Donald Trump: tries to communicate directly, not shy about saying what he thinks Individualism and Collectivism o Collectivism: Focus is on group Responsible for the group Get things for and through the group o Individualism: Focus is on self Responsible for oneself Get what YOU work for Power Distance o The degree to which members of a society accept an unequal distribution of power Low Distance Minimize power differences (Everyone is equal) High Distance Maintain power differences (some people are better/more powerful than others) Uncertainty Avoidance o Level of comfort with uncertainty and ambiguous/new situations o Also an indicator of social tolerance levels o If you have high uncertainty avoidance than you try to avoid this situations of uncertainty (type A individuals) o If you have low uncertainty than you’re more like a hippie Intergroup Communication o In-groups: Groups with which we identify o Out-groups: Those individuals and groups that we view as different o Social Sanctions: Punishments administered to those who are perceived to break group norms (doesn’t have to be a legal punishment) Ethnocentrism o The tendency to see one’s own culture and/or group as superior to all others ▯ ▯
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