Popular in Human Nutrition
Popular in Biology
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Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week One Introduction to Biology Lecture Notes Learning Objectives 5 characteristics of living things Homeostasis Adaptation and its effects on survival and reproduction Scientific method steps observations to conclusions Theory vs Hypothesis Lecture notes Life is organized starts small and moves bigger each branching off of each other from atom up to ecosystem Cell is the smallest unit of life All living things need energy sun to build repair and reproduce plant grow tallfix broken leafmake more All living things need to maintain internal constancybalance homeostasis ex humans body temperature All living things come from other living things reproduction DNA is copied and then passed All living things evolve perfectly suited ex hummingbird polar bear etc Adaptation is the inherited characteristics that help organisms to survive best adaptationsongest survival Evolution is the change in the genetic makeup of a population overtime not an individual ex natural selection The characteristics of living things 1 Organized 2 Energy 3 Internal constancy 4 Reproducegrow 5 Evolution We study the natural world through a simple process Costa Rica hills ex 1 Observations 2 Ask a question 3 Propose hypothesis 4 Come up with a prediction ifthen Experimental design sample size ex several trees Independent variable experimenter manipulates ex nutrient N level lowhigh Dependent variable the response how we measure ex the growth of the trees height diameter etc Standardized variables factors that all must be given the same to each group ex rainfall temp pot size sun etc Control group the basis for comparison ex same setup just no added Nitrogennutrients Collecting data the next step in the experiment ex run for a year and measure every month InterpretAnalyze leaves you to ask more follow up questions Conclusions must be equally specialized in line with your hypothesis Nothing can ever be proven even if it39s clear we always leave open the opportunity for more the door is always open Publishing results peer reviewpublication very rigorous process of submitting to scientific journals and getting feedback Therefore when studies are published they are very accurate Hypothesis vs Theory misused in everyday language Hypothesis narrowfocused explanation the preliminary explanation it must be testable scientific method and falsifiable could be false and it can never be proven Theory well substantiated explanation facts laws and tested hypothesis serves as the umbrella a unifying explanation ex string theory theory of plate tectonics etc Example apple falling to the floor fact theory of gravity explains it Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week Two Organic MoleculesCells Lecture Notes Organic Molecules compounds containing both carbon and hydrogen Many are macromolecules large usually Polymers chains created by linking subunits called monomers together ex train and each train car 4 main types of organic molecules must know the polymersmonomers 1 Carbohydrates simplest used as source of energy and structure the primary fuel source 0 2 types Simple sugars mono and Complex carbohydrates Poly 0 Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen o Glucose simple sugar monomer C6H1206 easily broken down by organisms to use the energy Use it break it down and release Store it shortforms glycogen polymer to store ongbecomes fat 0 Fructose simple sugar monomer 0 Union of two monomers simple sugarsdisaccharides then digested 0 Starch complex polymer longer chainspoysaccharides then broken down to monomers for digestion 0 Example oranges fructosedoesn t last cereal compexonger period of time 0 Structure benefits Cellulose polymer for plant structurefiber not digestible for humans but still helpful 2 Lipids all insoluble in water rich in energy good for long term storage lots of C H bonds 0 3 types Fats Sterols and Phospholipids o Fats fatty acids monomers can be packed tightly solid at room temp ex animal steak fat triglyceride polymers 0 Saturated fats each carbon is bound to two hydrogen single bond unsaturation cites kink double bond liquid at room temp ex pantsoive oil 0 Degree of saturation measure of fatty acids H content 0 Hydrogenated trans fats artificial addition to improve taste texture shelf life ex Twinkies unhealthy 3 Proteins A chain of amino acids monomers very diverse more functions on the cell than any other type of molecule 0 Different functions Structural hair Protective immune Regulatory hormones Contractile muscles Transport carry molecules through the body 0 Amino acids monomer 20 different kinds different combinations 0 Structure fold into unique 3D structures inside the cell primary secondary tertiary quaternary o Shapefunction each proteins shape is unique and explains the diversity of proteinsif you change the shape enough you can destroy it denatured ex cooking an egg 4 Nucleic Acids main function storage and transmission of genetic information Two types 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid polymer made up of nucleotides Stores genetic information on how to make proteins and replicate itself copy holds the instructions Deoxyribon nuceic 5C sugarnitrogenous GTCA Double stranded helix 2 nucleotide built like a twisted ladder the sugars and phosphates sides and the nitrogenous bases steps 0 RNA ribonucleic acid polymer made up of nucleotides Ribon nucecic 5C sugarnitrogenous CGAU 0 Nucleotide the monomers of nucleic acids Each consisting of 2 A 5C sugar 2 A phosphate group 2 A nitrogenous group All cells share these characteristics in common Cell membrane boundaryseparation very thin separates the cytoplasm from the outside regulates what goes in and out of the cell helps to maintain homeostasis in the cell critically important structure the bilayer 2 phospholipid category of lipids containing water loving on the outside layer and water fearing on the inner layer fluid mosaic both phospholipids and proteins movebend within the bilayer ex rubber ducky in bathtubshaping bubbles DNA genetic material RNA protein synthesis Ribosomes sites where proteins are created aminos are strung Proteins that do the cells work Cytoplasm jelly like fluid on the inside Size matters in cells they are small by necessity they need to maintain a large surface area relative to its volume ratiovoume increases quicker than surface area cells can be bigger if there is a division of labor inside the cells facilitating the process organelles Two major categories of cells defined by presences or absence of organelles Prokaryotes 1st cell to ever exist simplesmall structure no nucleusno membrane no organelles no division of labor 0 The basic structure is like an open warehouse distinct spaces for different tasks but there are no walls that divide groups no physical separation Eukaryotes complexlarger structure includes nucleus and membraneorganees division of labor 0 The structure is like an office separated by cubicles each cubicle performs its own function cubice organee physically isolated 0 10100 times bigger than prokaryotes o specialized biochemical reactions occur inside Nucleus genetic control of the cell executive boardroom all the important information genesDNA is stored there Chloroplasts organelles in plants and algae that are responsible for the process of photosynthesisenergy from sun for food only in eukaryotes Mitochondria mighty powerhouse the sites of cellular respirationmakes sugars from food into fuel that can be used very important the energy that fuels the cell39s metabolism is generated here in Eukaryotes Endosymbiotic Theory endoinside symbiosisreationship between organisms how they came to be By taking in the prokaryote they became interdependent and eventually an organelle mitochondriachloroplasts Overtime genetic changes made the microorganisms unable to live on their own prokaryotesorganees eventually becoming eukaryotic cells Evidence chloroplastsmitochondria smaller in size own DNA reproduce by splitting in two all similar to prokaryote Energy the ability to do workmove matter energy flows through the earth through the making and breaking of chemical bonds Potential energy stored energy waiting to be used ex the water that is held back by a dam has PE if let go it would flow ex the chemical energy stored in the bonds that link our food together has PE we eat it to save for when we need it Chemical bonds hold potential energy gucoseex concentration gradient the natural want to flow from high to low concentration has PE has the potential to move ex being at the top of a hill on a bike you39d have PE with a small push you would easily move down Kinetic energy energy of motionmovement used to do work ex a carbikeperson that is in motion ex the ions diffusing from high to low concentration are moving to get from one place to the other ex the water flowing once it is released from the dam any moving object Metabolism the sum of all the reactions in cells the building of new molecules and the breaking down One way energy flow all living things constantly need energy energy used is replaced by energy from the environment needs to keep coming it isn39t recycled o Producers absorb and convert the suns energy photosynthesis capture and convert into sugars 0 Consumers herbivores eat the plant sugars and break it down cell respiration not just animals plants too Chemical Reactions 2 main types Endergonic reactions require energy go from simple to complex molecules start with less energy and the products end with more energy investment Exergonic reactions release energy break apart the largecomplex molecules breaking bonds the productsfinish have less energy then the reactants starters Example the breaking downassembling of glucose 0 exer goes from glucose to 6CO2 6H2O o ender goes from 6CO2 6H2O adds energy and becomes glucose ATP cell39s enerqy currency it39s the temporary chemical energy storage the main energy carrier the rechargeable battery a high energy molecule that the cell uses to do work Adenosine triphosphate structure adenine nitrogen base ribose sugar triphosphate three phosphate groups similar to RNA ribo nuceic acid ATP can donate its phosphate group to another molecule phosphates get uncomfortable around each other it goes from ATP tri to ADP di releases energy exergonic ATP synthesis going backwards requires investment endergonic Cyclical process it39s very important to cells of living things energy Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week Three PhotosynthesisCellular RespirationDNA Lecture Notes see all diagrams in notebook Photosynthesis transforms light energy to chemical energy used by plants some protests algae and some bacteria some prokaryotes can too it39s just done differently Used by autotrophs photoautotrophs self feeder the producers of most ecosystems Basics of Photosynthesis input sunlight water and carbon dioxide output oxygen and sugar CO2 enters the leaf and O2 exits through the holes in the leaf surface The water comes form the roots it39s pulled from the soil Two types of reactions dark and light 0 Light dependent dependent on energy from the sun solar energy is captured and transformed to chemical energy water is split to produce oxygen lose the hydrogen produce two high energy molecules ATP NADPH Light is absorbed by photosystem electrons are excited and then jump to the electron acceptor electrons are replaced by the two H and the O is released water The electrons pass through electron transport chain energy is released each time the electron is passed ex hot potatoe loses heat as it39s passed E released by electrons is used to pump H across the membrane high H on one side of the membrane creates potential energy ADP to ATP The electrons which lost a lot of their energy pass to the next photosystem and when they strike it they get excited again and they are added to NADP and get NADPH convertedgained Hydrogen It harnesses the energy from the sun 0 Dark dependent Calvin Cycle not dependent on energy from the sun doesn39t mean it has to be in the dark it just doesn39t need the sunlight uses chemical energy produced in light reaction takes the CO2 out of the air and turns it into glucose Cyclic reaction multiple CO2 are used to get to the sugar The sugar factory the goal is to make sugar 2 plants use glucose for energy it fuels their metabolism to make leaves flowers etc 2 The plants store the glucose as starch polymer of carbohydrate ex make cellulose the chemical energy produced from photosynthesis is stored in the bonds of sugar molecules it originated from the sun transformed from ATP to glucose How light is absorbed plant pigments are the bridges between sunlight and photosynthesis the antenna they link sunlight Absorb lights of different wavelengths Wavelengths that aren39t absorbed are reflected Ex when reflecting our eyes perceive the leaves as green because the green is not being absorbed by the chlorophyll so it is being reflected Ex fall leaves redorange down in chlorophyll pigments broken down and stored in stems and up in carotenoid reflect red and absorb green spring leaves green up in chlorophyll and down in carotenoid reflect green and absorb red All life on earth is solar powered ex consumers are indirectly dependent on solar power History of Photosynthesis for years it was believed that plants obtained their mass from the soil After the experiment Jan Baptista van Helmont realized it39s from the particles in air and not from the soil graph CO2 increases when it39s dark because it needs the sun to be able to take the CO2 out of the air photosynthesis CO2 decreases during the day sun Cellular Respiration not everything can photosynthesize but ALL can perform respiration harvests energy stored in organic molecules glucose PE is harvested and converted to ATP Generates ATP for cellular work Cychng ATP powers every activity that requires energy input in the cell VERY important Explains constant need for food ATP potential energy we can39t survive long without food out of energy Three main processessteps o Gycoysis2ATP gycogucose and ysisbreaking lower energy not much ATP many unicellular organisms depend on this alone occurs in the cytoplasm jelly like not an organelle prokaryotes too doesn39t require oxygen a six carbon glucose molecule is split into two three carbon pyruvate molecules Krebs Cyce2ATP occurs in the mitochondria power house carbons are converted into CO2 which is released into the atmosphere lower energy not much ATP Electron Transport28ATP occurs in mitochondria uses the energy released by the fall of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondria membrane down the train creates a concentration gradient highlow stores potential energy used to make ATP pumped back down and adds ADP to hydrogen to get ATP oxygen is the final electron acceptor ex cyanide blocks ETC removing cell39s energy so energy can39t be producedbad No Oxygen 0 there is cell respiration that produces water 0 there isn39t animals that produce lactic acid ex burning sensation when you work out switching from oxygen to no oxygen yeast that produce ethanol ex fermentation wine beer vodka tequila Photosynthesis aerobic respiration need oxygen give off oxygen Cellular Respiration exergonic breakdown complex to smaller Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week FourFive DNA structure DNA replication Lecture Notes ALL LECTURE NOTES ON THE LECTURE POWER POINT Midterm exam 80 40 questions multiple choice pencil and 20 short answer a sentencetwo or fill in the blank 2 pages penpenci Thursday September 19 one multiple choice question for each lab big picturegeneral idea 4 questions just an overview Learning Objectives study guides exams are all lecture based PARTNER STUDYING 1 1 Carbohydrates monomer glucose polymer glycogen 2 Proteins monomer amino acids polymer none protein is the polymere 3 Lipids monomer fatty acids polymer triglyceride 4 Nucleic Acids monomer nucleotides polymer DNA and RNA 2 Photosynthesis InputOutput CO2 sun water 02 sugar Sun comes in light dependent Water split to form 02 Electron transport chain concentration gradient ATP NADPH NADH Dark Reaction Calvin cyle turns C02 into glucose Glucose stored as starch Aerobic cellular respiration 1 Glycolysis breaking of glucose input C6H1206output two sets of C3 little ATP 2 Krebs cycle mitochondria proteins input the C3output CO2 into atmosphere little ATP 3 Electron transport chain hydrogen gradient concentration ADP H ATP last use of oxygen most ATP is made 3 DNA Replication Get the info Predict Unzip and floating nucleotides rezip Write 10 nucleotide sequence AT GC TA CG AT GC TA CG GC AT 4 MitosisMeiosis Sister chromatid the two chromosomes pair that are genetically identical DNA Homologous chromosomes one from momone from dad a pair that are not genetically identical similar but not the exact same Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week Six Lecture Notes on Power Point Learning Objectives 924926 Know what cells are totipotent and what it means to be differentiated Totipotent all powerful stem cells turned on Differentiated all start to grasp onto different functions turn off only expressing the genes that help to do their specific job lung cells like lung cells and heart cells like heart cells Know what the Central Dogma of Biology is The two steps Protein Synthesis 0 Transcription DNA to RNA 0 Translation RNA to Protein Know what happens during transcription and translation and where they occur Transcription first stepDNA to RNA the message on the DNA is transcribed or written onto the RNA and it takes the message from the nucleus leaves and hooks up with a ribosome Translation second stepRNA to Protein the message on the RNA is translated to a protein mRNA is fed through the ribosome tRNA brings what is needed to the mRNA complimentary pairing ribosome slides down the line each is a very specific amino acid and together they make the polymer protein protein folding How are DNA and RNA different DNA deoxyribo RNA ribo nucleic DNA is double strand RNA is single strand DNA has ACTG RNA has a U Understand why it is significant that the genetic code is nearly universal among all organisms Links the mRNA to protein Codons specify 20 amino acids Used to put together the proteins All had a common ancestor httpwwwvoutubecomwatchv41 Ne5mS2s Transcription and Translation process Know the prevailing viewpoints on inheritance before Mende s research mini human in sperm blended inheritance first thought 1600 s that a pre made human was contained in every sperm cell can39t be true because babies can resemble their mom too Blended inheritance blended 5050 from each parent not necessarily a 5050 ratio 0 Then came Mende s law of Inheritance Understand why Mendel chose the pea plant Easy to grow Quick reproduction Could be cross poinated he could directly manipulate the mating process Allowing scientists to control the crossingmating Easily observable traits only two possibilities Understand why each somatic cell has 2 alleles per gene Because one came from mom and one from dad one sperm and one egg In meiosis only one copy of each gene is placed in each gamete Understand Mende s system of crossing plants including monohybrid crosses Discovered dominant and recessive alleles Short times shorttall times short Monohybrid crosses mating between two individuals that are heterozygous Tt Know how to use a Punnett Square to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios Put each on the outside and combine in the middle part Terms to know Allele each gene can have several aees alternative forms ex eye color blue brown etc Dominant capital letter the one that obscures T Recessive lower case letter the one that gets obscured t homozygous two alleles that are the same 39l39l39 true breeding heterozygous two alleles that are different Tt genotype express the genetic makeup using etters ex homozygous recessive or dominant heterozygous phenotype the outward expression of the individual being tall short purple white etc Punnett square uses the genotypes of the parents to predict the alleles that the offspring might inherit calculate Mutations Substitution doesn39t change reading frame just change that specific protein Deletion shift reading frame by taking one away Insertion shift reading frame by adding Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week 7 Lecture Notes on the Power Point Learning Objectives 101 108 Know exceptions to Mende s laws there are some situations in which phenotypic ratios do not conform incomplete dominance incomplete dominance the exception when a heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygotes looks like blended inheritance in the F1 but is clearly not in the F2 polygenic traits depend on more than one gene many genes working together common ex eye color is encoded by multiple gens blue green brown etc sex inked traits the traits from the parents that are only carried on the X chromosome male XY girXX ex color blind trait environmental influence example skin color polygenic trait that is influenced by the environment much more than originally thought skin color coded in 3 genes Know how people thought species arose before Darwin39s Theory of Natural Selection thought that earth was 6000 years old young that species didn39t die out or change that the number of species never changed until the fossils of huge mammals started being found Explain what is evolution the genetic change in a population over a period of time in science no emotionalethical ties fact focus on how life has changed and diversified overtime doesn39t talk about how life was started simply how it has changed Know what evolution by natural selection is and know the three conditions for natural selection natural selection is the idea of survival and reproduction explanation of how they could have possibly changed mechanism some will survive better reproduce better than others The three conditions 0 1 Variation for trait fast medium slow 0 2 Variation must be heritable must be able to be passed on o 3 Differential Reproductive Success more offspring produced than can survive competition for resources water food etc some are better competitors that survive and reproduce Know how genetic variation arises and how it contributes to differential reproductive success differences in traits come from adaptations to surrounding environmental conditions ex bird beaks related to the types of food they ate the organisms that have the best adaptation will survive and reproduce the longest Be able to explain evolutionary fitness defined as a measure of relative reproductive success not a measure of physical strength Know the result of evolution by NS populations adapted to their current local environment Explain why natural selection doesn39t produce perfect organisms that39s not the point of natural selection you can be good enough and still survive and reproduce pass on genes environmental changes cause adaptation it depends where you are to determine what will help an organism reproduce and survive Distinguish the three modes of Natural Selection directional disruptive stabilizing Directional one extreme phenotype either really short OR really tall the moths completely change colors to blend in Disruptive both extreme phenotypes against the middle and the shorttall are favored the salmon the largest can get in and fertilize and the super small can go through without being seen to fertilize but the middle get attacked Stabilizing intermediate phenotype the medium length would be favored babies average of 7bs too smadeath and too big can39t get out Know the different mechanisms of evolution can overlap Natural Selection acts on the variation Sexual Seectionbirds dancingfeathers the females choose which males they will reproduce with Mutation introduces the variation change in DNA sequence randomchance ultimate source of genetic variation change in allele frequency addsubtract resistance antibiotic Migration into and out of a population affects gene flow affects allele frequency Genetic Drift change in allele frequency that occurs by complete chance random chance event like a hurricane that may wipe out a large number of individuals wrong place at the wrong time genetic bottleneck Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week 8 Lecture Notes on the power point Learning Objectives 1091016 Understand the process of speciation basically splitting one species into two or more goes along with reproductive isolation and genetic divergence accumulation of genetic changes can39t produce viable and fertile offspring the trees read from bottom to top can be traced back to first species Know how we define species in different ways the definition of species is invented by humans as a concept to help get a better understanding of all the diversity in the natural world Morphological Species Concept basis for comparison Phylogenetic Species Concept molecular tools comparing DNA and protein sequences phylogenetic trees Biological Species Concept most used the fact that they can39t interbreed offspring must be both viable and fertile Know how reproductive isolation can occur and understand pre and post zygotic isolating mechanisms reproductive isolation biological species concept makes gene flow between groups impossible the mechanisms Prezygotic prevent fertilization o Ecological isolation not interacting different environments 0 Temporal isolation not active at the same time seasons 0 Behavioral isolation different mating dances o Gametic isolation lock and key sperm can39t fertiize won39t fit 0 Postzygotic prevent viable and fertile offspring after fertilization 0 Hybrid inviability the zygote will never be able to fully survive 0 Hybrid infertility the zygote will never actually reproduce Liger Speciation too Know the different lines of evidence of evolution Fossils although not complete physical evidence of change overtime extinct tiktaaik is the waterland animal hard parts dense populations wide distribution persisted long time Biogeography patterns of how they are spread around the world change in genetics originated in one place and then spread adapted to their own environment kangaroo example Comparative Anatomy shared ancestry making comparisons adult forms are very different descent from common ancestors o Homologous structures shared features that reflect a shared ancestry o Analogous structures evolved independently evolved separately several different times wings o Convergent evolution not closely related spiky outer cores 0 Molecular Data the same genetic code 20 amino acids use the DNA sequences to make comparisons inherited from a common ancestor humans and chimp What are vestigial traits and how do they illustrate that evolution is not perfect they are the holdovers they don39t illustrate genetic change wisdom teeth appendix goose bumps Be able to explain why science and religion are not dichotomous science does not and cannot confirm or refute the involvement of a higher being there are certain questions beyond science Know the basic structure of a virus at least two parts 1 Protein coat many shapes capsid container made of protein 2 Nucleic acid small genomes don39t have a lot of genetic material DNA or RNA some double helix and some single Don39t respond to antibiotics new shot every year RNA viruses are constantly mutating Be able to explain why viruses are not considered alive DO have genetic material and they do evolve BUT DON39T have don39t metabolize respond to stimuli they don39t reproduce on their own host cell can39t be a considered a living thing Understand how viruses replicate host cell Uses the host cell39s machinery First the host cell replicates the DNA of the virus Then it is transcribed into the mRNA Then translated into viral proteins Some kill the host cell or some can keep producing more viral proteins Know how to read and construct a phylogeny Read from bottom to top Must have a least one common ancestor Breaking off happens at the nodes which are the events that cause the splitting The tips represent the descendants of that ancestor Show patterns of shared ancestors Unique history once the two split shared history can be more or less depending on how recent Not ladder like tree ike Can be flipped around make sure to read BOTTOM TO TOP Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week 9 Lecture notes on the power point Learning objectives 10171024 Be familiar with ways in which unicellular organisms can increase genetic diversity in a population Ex Bacteria horizontal gene transfer transfer DNA by having a tube that connects two organisms and swapping genes to increase genetic diversity Understand why taking the entire prescribed course of antibiotics is important Because if you don39t finish the antibiotic out then the bacteria cells that are still alive are the ones that are most resistance and they can start reproducing and make it harder to get rid of them Be familiar with probiotic therapy To swamp your body with benignhelpful bacteria to outnumber harmful bacteria precaution fighting good bacteria to bad bacteria Understand similarities and differences between bacteria and archaeans Similarities small size prokaryotes singe ceed Differences DNA cell wall structure Flagella whip like extension Know basic characteristics of archaeans Extremophilies lovers of extreme environmentwhere most proteins would denaturefound almost anywhere beans intestine Know protist taxonomy domain eukaryote and kingdom Protist and how they are classified pant algae living in water photosynthetic different pigments fungus slime molds water molds don39t have chitin in cell walls anima ike most unicellular maaria need human and mosquitoe protists know what groups they gave rise to evolutionarily Know how fungi are similar to and different from plants Similar need water Different lack chloroplastdon39t photosynthesize heterotrophic unicellular Know the examples of fungi presented here Yeast uniceuar alcohol and bread break down sugars genetic engineering experiments requiring a simple eukaryotic cell Chytin swimming spores killing of frogs spreading quickly in water global problem affecting diversity worldwide Lichens pollution indicator survive in many environments Mycorrhizael symbiotic relationships roots underground get nutrients in return for carbs Understand how plants have adapted to life on land and what structures have made that possible Green Algae is the common ancestor many common characteristics the transition 475 million yrs appearedevolved overtime features that allowed them to o Resist drying out learn to absorbretain water 0 Absorb nutrients 0 Stand up right without outside support 0 Reproduction not dependent on water reproductive strategies Know the 4 major evolutionary advances in plants 1 Embryo Protection all plants nourish a multicellular embryo in the body of the female plant non vascuar plantsbryophytes 2 Vascular tissue separates vascular from non vascular o Xylem transports waterminerals from roots upward o Phloem transports organic nutrients sugars from photosynthesis in the leaves down the rest of the plant 3 Seeds separates plants with seeds from seedless vascular plants 0 an embryo and stored nutrients within a protective coat Compare and contrast bryophytes seedless vascular plants gymnosperms and angiosperms Bryophytes non vascuar embryo protection first group to split off share the most with algae simplest and most primitive lack roots and vascular tissues dependent on water for reproduction MOSSES Seedless vascular plants has vascular tissue FERNS section in lab use spores for reproduction itte polka dots single cell DNA RNA proteins wind dispersed Gymnosperms has vascular tissue CONE BEARING pine treeconifers seeds use seeds for dispersal rather than spores naked seeds not covered by anything don39t need water to reproducedon39t produce flowersfruits very successful in many diverse places Angiosperms has vascular tissue seeds produce FLOWERS and FRUIT Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week 10 Lecture Notes on Power point Learning Objectives 10241030 Know basic flower anatomy Male parts Stamen 2 main parts 0 Anther little top parts that hold the sperm how the transfers happen 0 Filament the bottom stem like part holds up the anther Female parts Carpel 3 main parts 0 Stigma sticky top part 0 Style stem part that holds up the structure 0 Ovary holds the eggs where fertilization occurs Describe how angiosperms use flowers to attract pollinators use examples from movie Trickery the plant mimics to be something it39s not to attract the insect the bees video Bribery plant offers something of value like sugary nectar to the insects Describe how angiosperms use fruits to disperse their seeds use examples from movie Fleshy fruit good tastehealthbright colors attract animals to eat them keep the seeds in their stomach and then poop them out Cactus desert open at night and bats come to pollinate die in morning and go to the bottom where animals come to eat the fruit Windwater dispersal the wind blows the seeds away Brunsvigia desert that dies in the sunlight and breaks off to roll around and move seeds after the few days of pollination Spikey fruits hook onto organisms and then once they fall off they have spread example from movie make predictions about seed dispersers based on fruit structure CLICKER question a white flower that opens up at night and has a thin long tube with nectar at the bottom pollinated by a bat Biology 1101 start of final notes 9714 358 PM Week 11 Lecture Notes on Power Point Learning Objectives Know the defining characteristics of all animals in general first slide Well developed tissues Eat other organisms heterotrophic by ingestion digest food in internal digestion cavity Animals move for at least some part of their life Know which traits allowed animal groups to differentiate 1 True tissues sponge none 2 Symmetry radialbilateral Gut development direction protostomedeuterostome Growth by molting yesno Vertebrates invertebrates Chordates Limbslungs Amniotes eggsreptiles hairlong legsmammary glands 39 quot39gtS Recognize the 9 major animal phyla reading left to right from phylogeny Chordates monkey Echinoderms starfish Arthropods insect Roundworms elegans Molluscs muscles Annelids earth worm Flatworms tapeworm Cnidarians jelly fish Sponges Know what features set the chordates apart must have all 4 features at some point in their life Notochord flexible tissue rod of tissue from head to tail used in locomotion Dorsal nerve cord forms central nervous system Gill pouchesslit in embryos early chordates needed because they were all aquatic but now many lose them in adulthood Postanal tail sometimes present only in embryonic form humans Be familiar with the vertebrate groups Vertebrae protect nerve cord places for muscle attachment opened way for adaptive radiation transition from water to land Phylogeny reading left to right 0 Lampreys bigger leeches Cartilaginous fishes sharks Ray finned fishes Lobe finned fishes Amphibians frog Reptiles and birds Mammals three types OOOOOO Know the three groups of mammals 1 Monotremes only 5 species platapuss no nipples young suck nutrients from the hairs 2 Marsupials develop in mom39s pouch kangaroo Australia 3 Placenta mammals humans placenta to support developing babies most types of species Understand animal phylogeny and all major evolutionary adaptations as presented here true tissues all but sponges working together type of symmetry Radial multiple planes divide the organism jelly fish Bilateral only one plane divides the organism down middle humansbutterflies development of the gut Protostome mouth firstdevelops from front to back mouth to anus basic gut Deuterostome mouth second develops from back to front anus to mouth humans Molting shedding an exoskeleton and replacing it with a larger one at regular intervals do v don39t Vertebrae have a backbone protect nerve cord places for muscle attachment first appeared in water Jaws amp fins Paired together Jaws hinged bones that frame the opening of the mouth evolved as defenses for prey Fins allow fish to swim fast and straight and allow for greater maneuverabilityprecision Lungs water to land gills to lungs evolved from swim bladder found in rayfinned fishes hollow sack like organ that stores air Four legs gravity problem evolved from jointed fins found in lobefinned fish support animals weight Amniotic egg transition from water to land need to make sure eggs aren39t dry developed a waterproof membrane eggshell allowing the water to stay inside the egg and not evaporate no longer dependent on water to lay eggs Feathers before birds unlikely for flight for courtship sexual behaviors Hair long legs amp mammary glands Mammals Hair insuation allowing them to trap heat from cell respiration and use it to regulate temperature Long legs allowing for more mobility and increase rate of cellular respiration and thus heat faster running to catch prey Mammary glands for nursing young providing them with food substance to nourish them Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week 12 Lecture Notes on Power Point Learning Objectives Define population and population ecology Population a group of individuals of the same species that are interacting in the same environment ex star fish usually multiple populations make up one species Population ecology the study of populations in relation to their environment including environmental influences on and density and distribution and population size Population growth how is our population growing Help us to understand the capacity of species Change in population size births immigration deaths emigrants Understand Exponential growth J shaped curve increases at a rate that is proportional to its size characterizes rebounding populations hunting became illegal recover too quickly populations cannot grow unchecked forever population crash reindeer limits growth by carrying capacity limiting resources Define carrying capacity K the maximum population size the environment can support Explain what can limit exponential growth can be limited by resources rebounding populations hunting elephants population crash reindeer varies with abundance Understand how logistic growth takes K into account starts to slow down until K is reached some populations overshoot K before settling down to a relatively stable density Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week 13 Lecture Notes on Power Points Learning Objectives Define biological community an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential intercation Understand species interactions community interactions Competition when species compete for a resource in short supply local elimination of a competing species one leads to resource partitioning no two same species can occupy the same niche Predation the predator kills and eats the prey negative for the prey feeding adaptations for the predators strong selective pressure for the prey symbiosis two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another parasitism fungus and tongue eating fishmutualism fungi and ant and plant relationshipcommensalism 0 hard to document cattle egrets facilitation one species has positive effects without direct and intimate contact common in plants ex black rush plant makes the soil more hospitable Know the various defense strategies that have been selected for in prey Behavioral defenses vomiting bird Chemical defenses ex poison dart frog Mechanical defenses ex porcupine Morphological and physiological defenses Cryptic coloration camouflage leaf moth ex bright warning colors toxic poison dart frog Mimicry pretend to be another species Batesian harmless imitating harmful Mullerian both harmful species ex lizardbeetle imitation Explain the difference between primary and secondary succession and situations in which each would occur a gradual change in species composition overtime Primary no soil exists bare rock ripe conditions leaves the area with NO LIFE Secondary much more common when a community had been damaged but soil remains primary succession with a head start Know examples from the Life chapter shown in class ALL NOTES IN LECTURE POWER POINT Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Week 14 Lecture Notes on Power Points Learning Objectives Define ecosystem all the organisms in a community as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact no specific size largesmall two main processes energy flow and chemical cycling Understand that energy flows through and nutrients cycle through ecosystems Energy flow Constant input sunlight is ultimate source flows through the ecosystem Nutrient cycle recycle the atoms that make up every object in an ecosystem chemicals are cycled Understand how the laws of thermodynamics relate to energy flow 1 Law energy cannot be created or destroyed only transformed moves from one trophic level to the next and is then lost as heat 2quot Law every exchange of energy increases the entropy chaosdisorganization of the universe not completely efficient and some energy is always lost as heat Know what a trophic level is and explain trophic efficiency why is only 10 of the energy at one trophic level available to the next Trophic level position in the food chain relative to ENERGY the flow of energy primary producers are firstbottom and then only 10 o moves to the next level keeps getting smaller all energy is eventually lost as heat Explain the ultimate fate of energy reaching Earth ALL of the energy is eventually lost as heat nothing else to move on not enough Explain how global vegetarianism among humans would impact available energy because eating meat is a relatively inefficient way of tapping in to photosynthetic production agriculture could feed way more people if we all only ate plants Understand how the law of conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created nor destroyed relates to nutrient cycling continually cycled cycle through the biotic and abiotic components biogeochemical cycles Know the general pattern of a biogeochemical cycle Chemical nutrients 1 Autotroph s take up CO2 and incorporate it into glucose 2 Heterotroph s incorporate it as animal tissue glycogen they ate the autotrophs and burn the glucose 3 Repeat through the food chain at the different levels 4 Decomposers release the elements from the dead tissuewaste back into the environment in inorganic form explain the carbon cycle in detail photosynthetic organisms convert the CO2 to organic molecules that are then used by heterotrophs tapping into carbon reservoirs lots of different ones picture diagram Define biodiversity in three ways can be many different ways 1 Genetic diversity genetic variation betweenwithin population 2 Species diversity variety of species in an ecosystem throughout biosphere 3 Ecosystem diversity variety of ecosystems in biosphere Explain the different ways biodiversity impacts humans Benefits many save money for all the processes performed Human biophilia allows us to recognize the value of biodiversity Understand and give examples of ecosystem services Air and water purification Detoxificationdecomposition of wastes Cycling of nutrients tropical rainforests example Moderation of weather extremes hurricanes etc coral reefs mangroves Pollination agriculture dependent bees Describe patterns of loss of diversity extinctions Background extinctions normal extinctions that happen over a period of time Mass extinctions a large proportion of species are lost in a short period of time Know the major threats to biodiversity 4 including examples given 1 Habitat destruction greatest threat habitat fragmentation splitting it up and destruction reefsprairieswetlands look at specific Ohio examples 2 Introduced species invasive species humans move from native locations spread rapidly disrupt their adopted community and become invasive ex cane toad accidental introductions ex brown tree snake good intentions but disastrous effects ex kudzu plant 3 Overharvesting taking more than the environment can recover on its own taking too much plant life and vegetation overfishing catching more fish than are being produced 4 Global Change Acid rain global warming depletion of the ozone etc Understand the difference between the ozone problem and global climate change The ozone problem is a hole or just general depletion of the ozone 03 This is happening from CFC s and other human influences The depletion of this layer is harmful because it absorbs carcinogens mutagens and UVB rays which are all harmful to humans Global changes are the increase in CO2 and temperature that is occurring More CO2 is being released from burning fossil fuels and since more trees are being cut down there are less plants to absorb the amounts of CO2 which are remaining and getting stuck in the atmosphere causing the increase in heat Acid rain is a problem with global change sulfur and nitrogen Be able to explain why the phrase global warming does not adequately describe the issue of climate change Climate change is from a number of things not simply the idea of global warming For example acid rain is having a major impact on global changes Biology 1101 9714 358 PM Final Exam December 10 Week 15 Lecture Notes on Power Points Learning Objectives Understand important influences on biodiversity 1 Solar Energy the most intense sun allows for the most diverse life at the equator tropical regions 2 History going way back millions of years the major climatic disturbances ice age the longer time without disturbance the more diverse that area is 3 Rate of disturbance within a shorter period of time fires both low and high disturbances cause low diversity intermediate disturbance causes the highest and most ideal diversity Explain what restoration ecology is Helping to recover biological communities that have been destroyed can39t always be put into the same exact state but help to achieve a more natural and speed recovery Basically to mimic secondary succession in order to help Understand the basic idea behind Dr Smock s research Costa Rica Since all the forests are being cleared for agriculture the deforestation has caused a lost in top soil and thus a loss in species How can this be fixed led to the experiment what are the major limitations to growth in the Tropics Seed availability The Soil acidAl toxicityPhosphorus fixationLow Nitrogen what is an A accumuator How could it be used in a restoration context A tree that has huge concentrations of Al and increases Phosphorus ava ab ty 0 Help get rid of poor soil conditionsimprove shade for the rain 0 Harm give too much Altoo much shaderoot competition what is a N fixer How could it be used in a restoration context A legumetree that has symbiosis with Nitrogen living in the roots 0 Help Increase the levels of nitrogen in the soil soak up the excess rain 0 Harm Shade too muchroot competition what were the results of the study described Mostly a null effect zero on soil and growth BUT a positive effect of trees on soil temperature extremes The study site grew very very very slow overall bad areas require more time 9714 358 PM
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