Islamic History, Week Five and Six Notes
Islamic History, Week Five and Six Notes HIST131010
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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Ari Notetaker on Monday March 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST131010 at University of Delaware taught by Rudolph Matthew in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see ISLAMIC NEAR EAST:1500-PRESENT in History at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Islamic Near East 1500- Present Week Five and Six - King Faysal (1883-1931) • British set him up as King of Iraq because they felt guilty about betraying the deal they made with his father. • True “outsider:” different culture and way of life than the people of Iraq. - Balfour Declaration (Nov. 17, 1917) • Written British support of the idea that the Jews would have a home in Palestine. It said that nothing should prejudice the current inhabitants. - King Abdullah (1921-51) • King of Jordan, brother of King Faisal, rule established by British. His grandson Husayn took over. - Turkey (“the heartland”) • Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) - Leader of resistance movement, motivate by Treaty of Sevres and the invasion of Greeks trying to capture old lands (Greater Greece). - Goes to Samsun (1919), marches inland to Ankara and established the capital for the resistance group. - Pushed Greeks back - French, British, and Italians do not get involved due to the devastation of WWI. - City of Ismir burned down: thousands of Greeks killed. - Remaining Greeks in the region repatriated to Greece and Muslims were forced to relocate into their residences. - Downplayed role of religion and wanted secularization of church and state. - Abolishes caliphate 1924, abolishes shari’ah law 1926, curtails power of ulama, takes over school system, Quran translated to Turkish, changes arabic alphabet to Latin - Cut Turks off from their past of Ottoman Turkish - Seceded by Mustafa Ismet Inonu (1884-1973) - Iran • Reformists, merchants, and clergymen are the main groups that want the dictator deposed. • William Knox d'Arcy: Responsible for really developing the oil excavation in Iran. - 1890 was when oil was discovered in Iran but the British and the Russians didn't know there was so much. • Wilhelm Wassmuss (German: 1880-1931) - Lived with the tribes of Arabia for a decade and a half. - The British viewed him as an evil mastermind, responsible for trying to incite tribal uprisings against the British. • Ahmad Shah Qajar (last of the Qajars, deposed in 1925) - Weak ruler, packed his bags and lived life in "exile" in France. • Reza Khan (later becomes Shah: 1921-1941) - Clever farmer, moved army forces and staged a coup. - Established power after the deposition of Ahmad Shah (however, some felt the British helped him) - People are happy and supportive of his power, mainly because they were tired of the weak Qajars. - Created a military school, later destroyed the tribes and is the reason Iran is no longer a tribal country. - 1925- Orchestrates a campaign to establish a republic, but is met by enormous opposition from the clergy who saw what was happening with Turkey. Clergy would only accept a monarch so the clergy could keep power. - Took the name Pahlavi in order to deemphasize Islam and bring back the ideas of pre-Islamic Iranians = push for nationalism. - He was semi-literate and had no interest in culture. - Futuristic: plan to connect the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf by railway, saw religion as an obstacle to modernization, broke the power of the clergy, introduced westernized laws without abolishing shari'ah. - Removed ulama from holding judge positions by making a degree from his school a requirement. He took their land and wealth from them and is known for not respecting them. - He centralized the government and paciﬁed violence. - Improved women's standing: right to education because their half of the population should be utilized. However, he banned the veil which caused some women a lot of grief. - 1935- founded University of Tehran, women were accepted the year after. - Actively sought the alliance of Germany to keep British and Russians neutralized. - 1941- British and Russians invade and Iran became a corridor for supplies to the Soviet Union. - He was forced to abdicate his power and lived life in exile in Africa. His son took over in 1941.
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