EXAM 1 Lecture Notes
EXAM 1 Lecture Notes ANTH 1003
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Date Created: 09/19/15
August 31 2015 Archeology o The study of physical remains from the past 0 You need evidence for archaeology to function 0 No evidence 2 no case for an argument 0 Excavating and unearthing the past o it isn t about hunting for treasure and raiding tombs 0 Modern archeology started in the early l700s from Pompeii o CONTEXT is very important it shows 0 Location Ca site 0 Evolution from an earlier form 0 imported from somewhere else family heirlooms are sometimes found which explains why some things are l000s years older than others 0 Relationship to other items Ca site 0 Wider culture around the area ie Aztec Native American Other types include o Biblical Prehistoric Covers early humans gt beginnings of documented history Underwater New World llistorical industrial 0 Contract you can make off this kind Goals of archaeology i We are stewards of the past so we need to conserve sites for the future 2 Context helps us see how cultures developed over time 3 Archaeologists guess what was happening but can t know for sure since there are limited written records no living accounts witnesses 4 Explain why cultures change or remain the same over time OOOOO Bishop Usher one of the first archaologists o Added everything up in the Bible and deduced when the world was created 0 His guess October 2339 6000 years ago Nabonidus o NeoBabylonian king who created a museum for things l000 years earlier from his time Thomas Jefferson o Credited as first American archaeologist 0 Found Native American artifacts CJ Thompson l7ZZl865 o Coined the 3 Age System to classify artifacts still used today i Stone Age 2 Bronze Age 3 lron Age JeanFrancois Champollion 7404832 0 Translated the Rosetta Stone ln the late l700s the British sent out archaeologists to uncover the ancient world Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie 8534442 0 Borrowed idea of stratigraphy from geology I r 7 I y 239 3 Ff lace gqp39q ian 5 39 v 1 4 m f Wk39tmi line x K 39 quotI f y I irv s 39 3 5 Earli rv obr ggtg o 39 5 August 31 2015 EGYPT o Nile flows backwards south to north 0 Goes from Upper gt lower Egypt 0 Civilization starts in Egypt 8 Mesopotamia the same time 0 0 Red land soil along the Nile Black land desert largely uninhabitable 0 Upper and lower Egypt was unified around 3000 BC 0 Narmor palate shows unification of upper lower Egypt pictured to the right O 0000 Shows Narmor smiting someone Bird is his animal representation Menaz unified the country MenazNarmor is probably the same person Basically a commemorative plate you get at political rallies and such There s Mesopotamian markings on the palate I Means they did trading What you need to start a civilization Written language Ruling class Form of government Technology 3000 BC began the bronze age 0 O 0 Their invention was bronze mostly came from Cyprus Bronze 40 copper l0 Tin or Arsenic lol Tin comes from Badakhshan Afghanistan I Lapus Lazuli also comes to Badakhshan Rosetta Stone Napoleon s army found it in I744 in Egypt in the city of Rosetta Written in 3 languages 0 O 0 Greek Domatic llieroglyphics l823 Champollion was able to decipher hieroglyphics from this 0 O 0 He looked for patterns which were mostly names I Cleopatra 8 Ptolemby were most commonly mentioned Animals can either be a letter the actual animal or a sound The direction the animal is in tells you how to read it September 2 2015 September 2 2015 Cheat sheet to get into Heaven Going forth by Day aka Book of the Dead 0 Was placed in your tomb to answer the questions that are asked in the afterworld Weighing of the lt3 ceremony they put your heart on I scale feather on another o If they weigh the same it shows you were morally just and didn t die with a heavy heart WHY HOW DlD THEY MUMMIFY Ba your body which had to be kept intact They thought if your body disintegrated your spirit would leave the after world this is why they mummified Ka your spirit Matron desiccating salt they place the body in for 70 days This takes out the moisture from the body so it s ready to mummify Canopic Jars your body parts are removed and placed into 4 jars to protect them None for heart 0 Egyptians believed the heart was the seat of intelligence 0 Rich people s brains were pulled out thru nose with a coat hangertype tool 0 Poor people s brain was melted with llydrochloric acid Mastaba bench in Arabic Placed over caskets so sandstorms wouldn t expose bodies STEP PYRAMID OF DJOSER 0 King Djoser wanted to be protected af 0 He asked lmhotep his doctor to come up with something to help him out 0 Dr lmhotep designed the first pyramid by stacking Mastabas slightly smaller each layer 0 Around the pyramid was a court to hold celebrations in memory of the king September 2 2015 GREAT PYRAMID Made for 3 generations of kings and their queens 23 Indion blocks are in the pyramids Took 2030 years to build when the kings were born construction started They started rotting from within in the 40s bc of humans breath eroding it so Zahi bought an AC from Philly and put it on reverse it stopped the damage SPlllNX Built by KhafreCephren Was an entrance to the middle pyramid The face is of Pharaoh Cephren September 9 2015 Lecture 3 KING TUT 0 Egyptian kings were buried in isolated mtns Valley of the Kings ancient phebes luxor to avoid tomb raiders 0 Howard Carter discovered the tomb of King Tut I 0 Earl of Carnarvan British lord that hired a search team to find King Tut Kilo 1423 was the excavation period 0 When it was opened it had already been ransacked twice Tomb raiders are punished death by impalement I The journalists that were invited to report on the opening of the tomb and created rumors of cursed tombs bc they were bored waiting I it took him to empty the tomb I Tut is the only king 977 in the valley I Tut was covered in tar in his tomb so he wouldn t fall apart get out 0 Carter melted it like a huge fondue pot to get Tut out I 80 of stuff in his tomb was made for somebody else o it would ve probably been for Queen llatshepsut o Tut died l8 years old 0 Had 2 stillborn daughters 0 Akhenaten Tut s alleged dad I Tut reversed a lot of things his dad did 0 Tut allowed all the gods goddesses back in 0 Changed his name from Tutakhenaten gt Tutakhenamen o Curse Myths Carnarvan died shortly after the tomb opened so people jumped to the conclusion that it was the mummy s curse 0 He actually died by blood poisoning cut a bug bite open w a straight edge razor 0 Carter lived until he was 45 o Facial Reconstruction the French Egyptian 8 Americans each did virtual facial reconstruction to see what Tut would have looked like 0 French one looks like Barbara Streisand 39 K p o Tut probably had many diseases 39 I Disabled clubfoot f I Marfan s syndrome I all product of incest mm l 0 New Theories Nick Reeves thinks there is another Tut tomb Nefertiti behind the plaster 8 paint 7371 mm rm p m 139 139 39 lililllll ill September 16 2015 Lecture 4 Pompeii discovered by accident in I544 0 But they didn t start digging for a whole century 0 Some jewelry silver etc was excavated bc it was covered by ash and couldn t get looted o Resin poured on top of bodies let us see bones jewelry etc Mt Vesuvius erupted on August 24 AD 74 Preserved by ash Pliny the Elder commander in the navy based across Vesuvius Pliny the Younger stayed behind and recorded an eyewitness account Pompeii 8 llerculaneum were on either side of Mt Vesuvius 0 They were connected by suburbs Paintings are preserved too 0 Villa of the Mysteries a painting depicting the initiation of the cult ruled by the sex drugs rock n roll god Dionysus llerculaneum erupted but mud oozed in a 30 ft tall mud covered everything preserving it for the future Ancient 8 modern day llerculaneum are indistinguishable from each other llouses shrines temples 8 bathhouses are intact 300 people were found on the shore and died instantly 0 They were on the way to escaping the beach with rescue boats like Pliny the Elder s Carbonized scrolls preserved in ash carbon 0 New technology could potentially tell carbon parts from ink 9 what the scrolls say Agatha Cristie 8 Max Mallowan visited site of Ur Ur temples were built around the same time as the Giza Pyramids 25002600 36 Ziggarauts restored by Saddam Hussein Royal Death Pit of Ur circa 2550 BC The royals took their servants slaves concubines dead or alive with them 0 Royals believed they could serve them in the afterlife too They were ritualistically killed by poison o Wooley thought they went willingly nonviolently o Scans show that a spike 8 hammer were driven into the brain People were probably drugged and unconscious while it went through the head This practice doesn t last for more than a century o if all your servantsattendants are dead how can your living son run the kingdom Queen Puabi 0ut lived her husband and probably continued to rule 0 She wasn t placed in his grave so she probably had power after he died Sir Henry Rawlinson Deciphered Kunaeform inscription in Persia Austen Henry Layard Excavated material for British museums from o Khorsabad o Nimrud o Nineveh fr 4 IV V I 4 September 16 2015 September 24 2015 Archeology Discussion Analogies and comparisons o Helps you date artifacts with ones from similar time periods 0 We can t understand what an object is without comparing it to ones we already found 0 Comparing what we already know helps us figure out new puzzle pieces 0 ldentifies regularities 8 uniqueness in human societies Artifact interpretation 0 Public restrooms ex used to be holes in the ground no walls I Now there s walls more cleanliness Archaeological data first step in analyzing o Artifact I lluman made modified objects I Clothes I Pottery o Ecofact I Natural material associated with human activity that haven t yet been modified I Food I Stones 0 Feature I lluman made structures I Building I Walls I Ditches c I I l I I E gt Both use objects gt Deductive Using theories lenses to understand the past Archeologists use this gt lnductive Using something to understand the big picture Analytical scale Micro level Specific subject of study 0 Ex Craft production of one house September 24 2015 Meso level general area subject of study 0 Ex Japanese home production Macro level around the world 0 Ex llome productions around the world Contextualization Recording of matrix where did it come from provenances and association with other objects Everything we can know about the object 0 Social cultural 8 historical stuff ltems with context tell you about what it was for etc ltems wo context doesn t tell us importance we just have to speculate Primary v Secondary Context Primary 0 Original context in situ o Reps the original use 0 Gave drawings Secondary 0 Taken away from primary contexts o Pyramid blocks were taken 8 used for making homes 0 Garbage chutes I The objects thrown in weren t meant to be trash by the people who made them I They re not in their original context anymore Synchronic vs Diachronic Time depth Synchronic shorter time span 0 X axis 0 Ex cell phones over time I Comparing 2000 models with 20l5 ones Diachronic larger time span 0 Y axis 0 Finding a shirt in your closet is primary Secondary is finding it used as a cleaning tool September 21 2015 Lecture 5 TroyTrojan War 0 33 cities in America are named Troy 0 Historicalltoy in Northwest Turkey Anatolia Asia Minor 0 Homer wrote the story of the Trojan war l250 BC 500 years after it happened I Oral tradition was how it passed down I 500 year game of telephone By the time it got to Homer it probably got distorted and changed 0 Paris came through Sparta and meets llelen They hit it off and Menelaus llelen s husband leaves for a journey When he comes back Helen is gone with Paris She was kidnapped to Troy 0 Her disappearance marked the beginning of a lo year war Mycenaean v Trojans I Menelaus sent l000 ships lee fte face that lameted 1000 stjos o Mycenaean s captured the city using the ItojatLHotse I probably not accurate it was a metaphor for an earthquake battering ramp or siege tower 0 Homer wrote Creek legends the lliad Odyssey which inspired lleinrich Schliemann to begin excavating in l870s 0 Was llomer a manwomanentityprofession I We don t know 0 lleinrich Schliemann one of the earliest archaeologists l870s I llisliark site of Troy owned by Frank Calvert a British LS rep 0 Calvert told Schliemann about it said if he had he could excavate there 0 Scammed the miners public bc he copied news postings and inserted himself into major news claimed he talked to Prez Millard Fillmore right before the inauguration I Found Priam s palace but didn t think much of it and ordered workers to dismantle it o Schliemann thought Troy 2 was the lliad one bc he found Priam s treasure amp o Schliemann 8 his wife Sophie gathered the treasure smuggled it out of Turkey gt Greece gt Berlin in exchange for a degree dissertation Stayed in Berlin til WW2 and finally in Russia as war reparations I LOTS of holes in his story 0 He found Early Bronze Age treasure not Priam s 0 Troy 2 is l000 years too early 0 Wilhelm Dorpfeld uncovers holes in Schliemann s analysis and takes over excavations in Troy 6 paid by Sophie Schliemann s wife 0 Carl Blegen famous Bronze Age archaeologist I Said Troy wasn t destroyed by humans it was an earthquake I Believed Priam s Troy was Troy 7A quot80 BC September 21 2015 o This is a city under siege aka this city fits llomer s description 0 City was destroyed by humans 0 Bodies in the streets 0 Arrowheads in the walls 0 No inscriptions in city calling it Troy 0 ls there a Troy ls this the right site I Debatable 0 Alfred Korfman 40s 0 Used remote sensing to see if there used to be buildings a city I expanded the region of the city greatly I Schliemann Dorpfield only looked at the 2 highest levels 0 Found late Bronze Age k 0 Found 2 layers of the city I l0l5000 people estimated lived there I Earlier archaeologists found the citadellroyal parts only 0 The lower city was where people s houses etc were I Luwian seals were found from Turkey I Lower city found evidence of o Arrowheads o Unburied bodies I No time difference btw OH 8 7A 0 But 7A isn t as pretty as llomer described it 0 Then again he wrote it 500 years later based on oral traditions 0 Maybe llomer used the Trojan Horse as a metaphor for the Earthquake I Poseidon is the link lle s god of Earthquakes animal form is a horse 0 Frank Kolb didn t believe Korfmann s theory o it culminated in a 2 day debate I The result Korfmann was correct that Troy 6 was llomer s Troy September 28 2015 Lecture 6 How to find sites 0 Know what s in the book lectures 8 discussion lf you were ClineTA s what would you ask Bring a PEN to write with Study group Slides on screen wo text Cline will ask I Who I What I Where I When I Why I KNOW PlCS OF PEOPLE lloward carter etc the big guys I Iconic images 0 Dog from Pompeii 0 Fill in the blanks I and found king tut in I Carter and Carnarvan found in quZ I deciphered hieroglyphics in the Rosetta Stone 0 Matching I King tut carter I Matching column A to B 0 Mini Essay Question I 525 points I Picture of stratigraphy you explain I Question about excavating at discussion behind Anthro building o How would you excavate o What did you find I Troys what s wrongright with each archaeologists conclusion 0 Dorpfield Troy 6 o Destroyed by earthquake leaning walls are evidence 0 Korfman Troy 7 o Destroyed by humans arrowheads found in walls 0 Schliemann Troy 2 0 Too early based on pottery 0 Know each guy September 28 2015 I What s wrong with pouring plaster in the hollows at Pompeii 0 You can t see what s inside 0 Resin is too expensive 0 Term ideas I lnstead of pictures just text slide Rosetta Stone WllO WllAT WllEN WHERE o EX ANSWER found in Rosetta Egypt deciphered by Jean Francois Champollion Archeological Sites places where you find traces of past human activity Finding sites 0 Ground reconnaissance finding sites on the ground level 0 Air reconnaissance finding sites from up in the air space Methods 0 CORONA satellite imaging to find central mounds in Syria 0 Space Archeology Sarah Parcak uses digital globe imaging GlS satellite photos and ground truthing to find new sites I She found lOOs of new sites in Egypt I confirming that what you see in satellite pics are real 0 Back in the day aerial photography was the shit I Taking pics at an angle 81 while the sun sets shows where sites are clearly I Lines of fortification walls bumps etc 0 Crop marks 3 Need to do ground truthing l I tr I y H In 1391 yl l I i Hill I 139 l l I l Rings that you see from an aerial view 5 mean it used to be fortification walls 3 quotj3939ffi I Dips usually mean there used to be a wall building there I Some crop marks only show up in certain times of year 0 When grain is stubbly aka been harvested it is easier to see from aerial photos gt N o Lidar 3 5 I I Light emitting radar I Bounces pulses lasers off the ground 0 You can see thru jungle trees 0 l00000s of data points makes it accurate I You can map a site in a matter of hours Before it took months or years 0 Drones used to maptake photos of sites September 28 2015 I The new way to take aerial photos Va 7 37 o Magnetometer Measures the magnetic force Used successfully Ca Troy to find 8 map detailed street views 0 GroundPenetrating Radar 6 Radar goes down thru the ground lf it hits a wall it bounces back up 0 Electronic Resistivity Put 2 poles in the ground and you run an electric current btw them lf something resists there s probably something there You can map this Survey Lineup gt Before you start digging you survey the site gt Reconnaissance Survey initial survey of the area to identify potential sites 0 You have 25 sq km around Pylos and you need to figure out what s there gt lntensive survey systematic detailed survey of an entire area 0 You think there s something there so you go check 0 Reinvestigating possible sites Team comes with you this time gt Mlkingsumey 0 Team walks and looks at the ground for pottery within arms width Click every time they find one 0 When they record it numbers look like fl 5 500000 25 5 the one with the most points is where the site is located SAMPLING TYPES gt When your area is too big to walk over ie an entire island you sample 0 Simple random 0 Stratified random 0 Systematic o Stratified unaligned o Hopefully the one you choose is representative gt Periscope if you think there are tombs use this September 30 2015 Lecture 7 Excavation 8 Review Exam Cline lt3 Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie l840sl420s expect him on exam 0 Kathleen Kenyon British archeologist who dug in Jerusalem MC Questions will be on archeological 0 Sites 0 Method 0 Theory lsrael Finkelstein one of most famous lsraeli archeologists dug in Megiddo o Carved out the balk with a pick axe Tel Anafa North lsrael o Cline s first dig I480 o his most prized item he found was a brass piece of a llellenistic wooden chair o it went to an exhibit at the National museum Jerusalem How to Dig You need a research design question site money to start digging 0 Money comes from I Nat Geo I Private ppl I Brandeis University I GWU research funds I Participants Excavation 0 Actual digging gives you the most reliable evidence for what archeologists are interested in I Patternsevolution in human activity 0 Director has many hats I Be an accountant I Stacks on stacks of documentation I Politician btw townspeople resolve team conflicts 0 Working in close quarters waking up early makes you hate or love teammates I Doctor 0 Scorpion bee stings o Ppl might swing the axe the wrong way into their knee I Mechanic 0 Fixing cars you travel in I Personnel manager 0 Dealing with strikes complaints of being overworked o Excavation staff I Site supervisors I Recording experts 0 Data entry I Recording events September 30 2015 I Lab staff 0 Organic residue stuff I Foremen I CRN staff 0 if you re digging under a highway or something 0 Multidisciplinary Teams I Conservationists o Gluetape pottery back together I Artists 0 Draw everything to see what items regions would ve looked like in its lifetime I Architects 0 Good for drafting mapping regions I Anthropologists o Analyze skeletons teeth I Archeozoologists o Residue analysis 0 Look mice remains o Radiocarbon I Charcoal analysis 0 Petrographic Analysis I Soil analysis under a microscope I Tells you where you re clay came from Types of Digs Total Excavation selective Excavation 0 Rare 0 Common o if you dig everything up you can t be double 0 Choosing a specific region of the total region checked Vertical Excavation Selective Digging o Probing deep narrow trench like holes 0 Shows levels quot39 stratigraphy 0 Test pits aka sondages French for phone booths 0 Maya Cermonial center Found using test pits ilorizantal Excavation 0 Used to expose a lot of area but you don t want to go deep 0 One period sites 0 Colonial Williamsburg gt Excavation by Visible Layers o Removes every visible layer in the site separately 0 if there s any kind of change color texture you change buckets to organize your findings September 30 2015 0 Slow approach 0 Common for I cave sites have complex stratigraphy I open sites bison plains in North America 0 Cline s stratigraphy Balk a Tell Maskhuta Egypt Kabri Athens g u I l 39 39 Excavation by Arbitrary Levels gt Outdated method used by Germans way back when gt Soil is removed meter by meter gt Today this is used for testing layers where stratigraphy is hard to make out Techniques for Excavating 0 Using a pick properly 0 Hold it like a golf club 0 Using a water spritzer brings out colors in soil Ma szlmn agf Archeology ed 0 llandpick patiche o Trowel o Dustpan o Brushes 0 Measuring tape 0 Laptopipad o Compass 8 map for surveying 0 Dental tools for digging skeletons o Recreated final moments for a woman who was killed by falling rocks in the 363 Earthquake Cline found pieces of pottery that led to a tomb 3 feet under The locals found incense pottery among other things Only locals are allowed to dig in Egypt
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