Comm 1113 Notes Week 4 and Reading Notes Bundle
Comm 1113 Notes Week 4 and Reading Notes Bundle COMM 1113-001
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Rodney Wines on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COMM 1113-001 at University of Oklahoma taught by John Banas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Principles of Communication in Business at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Communication 1 113 My Reading Notes Chapter 1 Communication First Look 11Why we communicate 1 Why we communicate We communicate for relationships order and most in uence A Communication The process of exchanging info with signs symbols and behaviors 11 Communication meets relational needs A Rational needs Essential elements we look for in a relationship with others 1 Marriages Happy marriages come with a happy job status education whole on the other hand bad ones lead to major depression 111 Communication lls identity needs The way we communicate with others shapes who we are A Comparing Forming identities by comparing to others If people treat you a certain was the person will believe that they are that way IV Communication with spiritual A Spirituality Includes principals of the value of life It also includes someone s morals and meanings of life 12The Nature and types of communication 1 Models a formal description of a process A three different action interaction and transaction B Action Models Has receiver of message 1 Noise anything that interferes with the message aThree types i Physical Noise background or environment ii Psychological Noise other concerns iii Physiological Noise Fatigue Hunger CInteraction Model takes up where action stops 1 Difference Interaction sees communication in two different ways 2 Adds two elements feedback context D Communication as Transaction model does not include role of source and receiver 1 Communication is owing in both directions at the same time II Many Characteristics of Communication A Multiple Channels 1 Rich context environmental channels all at once Ex Face to face interaction B Filter Communication based on biases and beliefs C Communication Meaning We give sounds writing meaning 1 Symbol Representation of an idea Ex The word robot means a machine that mimics humans while in South Africa it s a traf c light D Message intentionalunintentional 1 Intentionalsetting up a job interview 2 Unintentional falling asleep in class III Five types of Commutation Intrapersonal Small audience thoughts to yourself selfreminders Interpersonal occurs between two people in the context of relationship Common Form Small Group small sports teams groups about 3 to 20 Public speaking to a larger small group or writing Masstransmitted by such media large audiences 91500 IV Communication Myths Everyone is a communication expert 91 of Americans believe they are experts in communicating Communication will solve any problem Wrong many relationships like on Dr Phil need less Communication can breakdown Communication isn t a carcomputer it s more of a process Communication is inherently good Communication for positive purposes can be good More Communication is better when there are genuine disagreements more talk doesn t always help Most likely to lead to anger 91500 V Competent Communicators are empathic Empathy the ability to be other oriented understand others thoughts and feeling A Cognitive Complexity ability to consider a variety of explanations and understanding a given situation in multiple ways B Communicators and Ethics Guide the judging wither something is morally wrong to them or not Chapter 2 Communication and Culture IA Triumph of Cultural Unity A Culture unity An example is when people work together in the event of natural disasters B Understanding Cultures and Cocultures 1 What is Culture The totality of learned shared symbols language values and norms that distinguishes one group of people from another a Property not of ethnicities of economy from the people 2 Societies Group of people who share the same symbols languages and values a One or many people can belong to many different societies 3 IngroupOutgroup a Ingroup People we identify with b Outgroup people we see as different c Facebook Social media friends are ingroup nonfriends or unfriended and others are out group I Outgroup Challenges many people who immigrate to an new land experience high stress their first year ii ImmigrationMany countries have strengthen their immigration policy due to the inout group problem 4Acquirening Culture A Ethnicity protection of natural heritage B Nationality status of a citizen of a country C Enculturation the process of which we gain culture 1How By learning traditions values and language 5 What is CoCulture Groups of people who share values customs and norms related to mutual interest even citizenship A Bases of CoCulture Usually shared activities or beliefs B Identifying CoCultures associating with cultures with different beliefs C Concepts of cultures and Cocultures 1 Melting Pot it includes multiple co cultures 2 Common Differences Cultures can be similar to each other 3 Cultures vary in their symbol different symbols stand for different things in other countries 4 Cultures vary in languages Different symbols stand for different things in other countries 5 Cultures vary in values Standards used to judge how good or beautiful something is has 10 common values Power Prestige social status controls resources Achievement acquiring personal success through eXperience Hedonism eXpressing fun and pleasure Stimulation having challenges in life SelfDirection independent thought or action Universalism caring for others and nature Benevolenceenhancing welfare of others Traditionrespecting customs of your culturereligion Security having safe and stable relationships 5 c3010 WP 999 6 Customs vary in norms Rules or expectations that guide people s behaviors 7 Distinctive features of coculture Cocultures have symbols languages or norms to distinguish them from others a CoCultures evolve by people sharing the same values II How Culture affects Communication A Six Cultural Differences 1 Emphasis placed on individuals vs groups 2 Communicative context 3 Power distance 4 Views about masculinity and femininity and rolls 5 Orientation towards time 6 Uncertainty avoidance B Individualistic vs Collective cultures 1 Individualistic Culture people who believe they come rst a They value selfreliance and that people should pull themselves 2 Collectivistic Cultures focus on taking care of the group need rather than themselves 3 Differences between both a way things are resolves b Public speaking C Low Context vs High context cultures 1 Low Context cultures people are to be direct to what they say 2 High Context cultures taught to speak in a less direct way 3 Misunderstandings The potential for misunderstandings is higher when one meets the other D LowerPower Distance vs High Power Distance 1 LowerPower Distance All menwomen were created equal 2 HigherPower Distance power is distributed less evenly E Masculine vs Feminine 1 Masculine cultures People tend to cherish masculine values 2 Feminine culturesValue Nurturing behavior quality of life and service to others F Monochromic vs Polychromic 1Monochromic Time is a commodity Ex People save spend fill invest and waste time 2 Polychromic time is holistic and less structured G Uncertainty Avoidance people trying to avoid situations that are uncertain or unclear 1 Highly Uncertain Avoidance people that are drawn to people who are familiar 2 Uncertainty Accepting open up to new situations and ideas III Communicating with cultural differences A Being OpenMinded about cultural differences 1 Be mindful Aware of how their behaviors and ways of thinking will be different than our own a Similarity Assumption we presume that people think we do b Caste System People are held in higher esteem than others 2 Avoid Ethnocentrism tendency to judge other cultures practices as inferior to your own B Knowledge about different commutation codes 1 Communication Codes verbal and nonverbal behaviors whose meanings are often understood only by people in the same cultures a Different Idioms phrase meaning figurative b Different J argon Language whose technical meanings understood by the people in a certain group c Different Gestures movements usually used to eXpress ideas C Be Flexible and Respectful Be aware of differences 1 Expect Ambiguity Being uncertain of a new culture 2 Appreciate differences in access to communicate 3 Adapt to others Change your view of culture and do other things Chapter 3 Perceiving ourselvesothers I How we perceive others A Perception Process of making meaning from what we eXperience in the world around us 1 Interpersonal perception making meaning about people from own and others behaviors 2 Perception is a process selection organization interpretation a Selection process which mind and body help isolate certain stimuli to pay attention i Unusual or uneXpected stimulus that stands out more ii Intensity strongweak stimulus iii Repetition frequently eXposed to stimulus b Organization Classification of information i Perceptual Schema Mental framework for organizing into constructs or categories ii 4 Types of Schema 1 Physical Constructs Noticing height weight 2 Role Constructs Peoples social and professional position 3 Interaction Constructs noticing if someone is aggressive shy or outgoing 4 Physical Constructs Peoples thoughts and feelings c Interpretation guring out the meaning for yourself i Personal Experience helps to assign meaning from the past ii Knowledge of the person or behavior iii Closeness of your relationship how close you and the person are d Circular Nature of Perception all over lap 3 Misperceive others communication behaviors A Cultures and Cocultures In uence perception In uenced by cocultures and cultures B Stereotypes In uence Perception 1 Stereotype generalization about a group or category of people that can have a powerful in uence on how we see others 2 Three Steps a We decide the group they t into b recall generalization recalled abut it c Apply generalization to the person 3 Can lead to inaccurate of offensive perception 4 Selective memory bias to remember information that supports stereotypes C Primacy and Regency Effects In uence Perception 1 Primacy Effect First impressions are critical set the tone for future interactions 2 Regency Effect most recent impression is the most powerful then the earlier ones II How we eXplain our perceptions The ability to eXplain social behaviors including our own is important to perceiving the outside world A We eXplain behavior through Attributions 1 Attributions an explanation to answer a why question 2 Locus Refers to where behavior is located a Internal Loci Caused by ourselves b External Loci Caused by something outside ourselves 3 Stability Behavior that is stable or unstable permeate semipermeate or not easily changed 4 Controllability Controllable attribution for someone s behavior was under control of that person B Avoiding Two Common Attribution Errors 1 Two Types of Errors a Selfserving Bias related to how we explain our own behaviors out tendency to attribute our successes to stable b Fundamental attribution Errors Attribute to others behaviors to internal rather than external causes II How we perceive ourselves A SelfConcept De ned Composed of those stable ideas about who you are 1 Identity Understanding of who you are 2 SelfConcept is Multifaced selfconcept is made up of different parts each description taps into one or more of those parts a Johari Window A visual representation of the selfconcept in four separate parts i Open Area Known to self and to others ii Hidden Area that you know about yourself but others don t see iii Blind characteristics we don t see but others do vi Unknown Unknown to yourself and to others 3 SelfConcept is objective based on impersonations B Awareness and management of selfconcept 1 Selfmonitoring awareness to how you look and sound and the behavior around you C Selfful lling Prophecy a situation in which a prediction causes people to act and communicate in ways that make predictions come true D Valuing the self Self Esteem 1 SelfEsteem Subjective evaluation of your value and worth as a person IV Managing Our Image A Image Personface we want others to see B Communication Image Management 1 Image Management To project a desired image 2 Image management is Collaborative a Life Story A way of presenting ourselves to others that is based on our selfconcept but in uenced by people 3 Image Management is Complex 4 Managing multiple Images C Communication and Face needs 1 Face and Face Needs a Face Desired public image b Face Work Describes the behaviors we used to project that image c Face Needs Components of our desired public image d Fellowship Face Needed for acceptance e Autonomy Face Needed to avoid being imposed on by others Chapter 11 Choosing Developing and Researching I Choosing Developing and Researching a Topic A Know why you are speaking 1 We speak with many different goals in mind to inform persuade to entertain to introduce 2 We speak to Inform to inform the listeners something they don t already know 3 We speak to Persuade a Persuasion the process of guiding people to adopt a specific attitude or enact a particular behavior 4 We speak to Entertain Used to persuade our audience to adopt certain attitudes and behaviors 5 We speak to Introduce Introduce others or ourselves 6 We speak to Give Honor a Eulogy A speech made to honor the memory of people after their deaths b Toast a short speech of tribute to the person or people being celebrated B Choosing an Appropriate Topic 1 Four steps to identify topics a BrainstormTo identify potential topics b Identify topics that are right for you c Identify topics that are right for your audience d Identify topics that are right for the occasion 2 Brainstorm for topics a two questions 1 What topics do you care about a Consider what interests you 2 What topics are in the news Local National and International News 3 Identify topics that are right for you a Ask 4 Main Questions 1 What do I already know about this topic 2 What do I need to know about the topic 3 How much do I care for the topic 4 How valuable is the topic 4 Identify Topics that are right for the classroom 1 Why am I speaking Decide a goal for the speech 2 What is the emotional tone of the event Is it Joyous or Celebratory II Analyze your Audience A Consider who your listeners are 1 Audience Analysis Carefully thinking about characteristics of listeners so they can address their audience in an effective way a Demographic Characteristics Age SeX Culture Etc i Age Can determine the form of presentation style ii SexSexual Orientation women in contrast are often more interested in issues such as health care education social justice and personal relationships iii Culture Must take into account the culture make up of their audience and spent a culturally sensitive ways iv Economic Status Wealthy vs middle vs poor v Physical and Mental Capabilities vi Political Orientation 2 Consider the situation of your listeners a Always consider the composition of the audience also context i Purpose Maximize your effectiveness as a speaker Why does the audience come together to hear you ii Size Second factor largermore formal iii Time Beware of how long the presentation should last iv Competing Demands Other factors with the presentation ie hunger Sleep b Poor Knowledge of topic i Talking down telling people what they already know as if they don t know it ii Talking Over Assuming they have information or an understanding but they actually don III Know where to nd information A Internet Research Informant at your fingertips 1 General Engine Search website that allows us to search for other websites 2 Research Engine 3 Library Research 4 Personal Observations Chapter 4 How we use Language 1 The Nature of Language A Language A structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning 1 Words The building blocks of language and verbal communication B Language is Symbolic Each word represents a particular objector or idea but it does not constitute the object idea 1 New Words Regularly added to our language C Language is usually Arbitrary Words mean whatever we the users of language chooses for them Mostly words are symbolic D Language is Governed by Rules Language has set rules to effectively convey meaning 1 Four Rules a Phonological Correction of pronunciation b Syntactic Order of words within phrasesclauses c Semantic Meaning of an individual s words d Pragmatic Implications or interpretations of statements E Language has layers of Meaning 1 Denotative meaning Literal meaning the way the dictionary de nes it 2 Connotative meaning Ideas of concepts the word suggests 3 Semantic Triangle Developed by Charles Ogden Ivor Richards a Purpose Portrays three necessary elements for identifying the meaning in language i Symbol Word being communicated ii Reference Connotative meaning iii Referent Denotative Meaning b Shows This shows how people can hear the same word with different perception 4 Loaded Language Words with positive and negative connotations used to evoke emotions F Language Varies in Clarity 1 Ambiguous Language Making a statement that we can interpret to have more than one meaning G Language is bound by content and culture 1 SapirWhorf Hypothesis Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf proposed this theory 2 Linguistic Determinism Suggest that the structure of language determines how we think 3 Linguistic Relativity Language determines our perceptions of reality II Appreciating the Power of Words A Language Expresses who we are We identify in language by the way we communicate 1 Names define and differentiate us Names identify ourselves or who we are a Identify Race Sex Other characteristics 2 Language Enhances or determines Creditability a Creditability Extent to which others perceive us to being trustworthy i Clich s Words or Phrases that are good at one point but have now lost their effect due to overuse ii Dialects Enhance or diminishes our creditability iii Equivocation Form of language that in uences a speakers creditability Strategic Ambiguity iv Weasel Words Term or phrase intended to mislead listeners when making claims or implying something they don t say v Allness Statements Statement implying a claim is true without exception B Language Connects us to others By providing support affection and share social information 1 Language Expresses Affection By nonverbalverbal communication 2 Language Provides Comfort Confiding in someone to talk to 3 Language Controls Social Interaction a Gossip Informal judgmental talk about people who are not present during the conversation i Used To spread usually negative things about people C Language separates us from others 1 Criticisms Passing judgement on someone or something a Destructive Criticism When we feel that someone is criticizing us to put us down or destroy ourself con dence b Constructive criticism used to help others improve themselves 2 Threats a declaration of the intention to harm someone if they didn t do what the sender asked D Language Motivates action 1 Persuasion the process of convincing people that they should act of think in a certain way 2 Anchor and Contrast Persuasion technique by which one precedes a desired request with a request 3 Norm of Reciprocity Expectation that favors are reciprocated 4 Social Validation People will comply with requests if they believe others are also complying III Ways we Abuse Language Use Language A Humor What s so funny Most perceive it s a violation of our expectations 1 How it s used To Release tension inside jokes B Euphemisms Sugarcoating Vague mild expression that symbolizes and substitutes for something that is blunter or harsher C Slang the use of unconventional words that are often understood only by others in the group D Defamation Harmful words Language that harms a person s reputation or gives people a negative vibe 1 Two Forms a Libel Defamation statements made in print b Slander Statements made out loud E Profanity Offensive language Consider to be vulgar rude or abusive F Hate Speech Profanity with a hateful Purpose Meant to degrade intimidate or dehumanize people based on their seX natural origin etc IV Improving your language A Separate opinions from factual claims B Speak that the appropriate level Don t talk down to people or talk above their heads C Own your thoughts and feelings Communication Notes Week 4 Class Notes from Dates Sept 141617 Discussion Section 5 Tips 1 Words really have consequences Think before you talk you are one sentence away from ending your career or opportunity 2 Look a little more formal a little better that other people Leaders are recognizable in a room 3 Replace But with and 4 Become a story teller 5 Energy Matters Lecture Section Language 1 Nature of Language A Is Symbolic B Is Arbitrary C Governed by Rules Many rules are to better communicate D Has layers of meaning open to interpretation E Varies in Clarity Can be taken different ways and meanings F Bound by context and Culture 11 In uence A How does language shape thought 1 With the power of lables B Language uses Identity to persuade 1 People will act in different ways when you use identity in a certain way III Slang A Informal and unconventional words often understood With in a particular group 1 Examples Whip Hanging Out etc B J argon Technical meanings that are understood in a group C Why Separates the ingroups and the outgroups and expresses personalities IV Profanity A Commonly Used B Used for Humor C Humans do it all the time D Used for social bonding E Sometimes used for pain relief
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