Chapter 4, 5, 6 Study Notes
Chapter 4, 5, 6 Study Notes CHM 2045
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Jorden Irby on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CHM 2045 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Zhang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Ionic compounds the compounds formed by the complete transfer of electrons Composed of ionically bonded atoms or molecules in solid phase Examples Limestone Gibbsite Soda Ash Body uid components BonesTeeth Trona lonic compounds are charge Neutral the ives must cancel ives Examples NaCl Na forms 1 carbon Cl forms 1 anion CaCl Ca forms 2 cation Cl forms 1 anion Key points 1 Complete transfer of electron 2 Bond formation bw an electropositive and an electronegative atom 3 Always contain positive and negative ions 4 In a formula the sum of anion charge must be equal to the cation charge lonic compound usually a metal and a nonmetal Metal forming only one type of ion Metal forming 1 or more types of ions Naming containing a metal forming only one cation type Name of cation gt Base name of anion ide In a series if there are more 0 atoms the one with more 0 atoms has the ending ate and the one with fewer O atoms is ite CIO hypochlorite C02 chlorite CO3 Chlorate CIO4 perchlorate Systematic 1 Molecular compound or not 2 1St nonmetal is more metal like 3 Write name of elementnonmetal rst 4 Pre xes given to each element Gas Laws Gas pressure result of the constant movement of the gas molecules and their collisions with the surfaces around them The pressure of a gas depends on Number of gas particles in a given volume Volume of container Avg speed of the gas molecules The higher the concentration the greater the pressure The fewer the gas particles the lower the force per unit area and the lower the pressure A low density of gas particles results in low pressure A high density in gas particles results in high pressure Boyle39s law V is inversely proportional to P pressure Charles39s law V is directly proportional to T temperature Avogadro39s law V is proportional to n number of moles ldeal Gas Law PV nRT R is called the gas constant The value of R depends on the units of P and V R 008206 L x atm mol x K The volume occupied by one mole of a substance is its molar volume at STP Density molar mass molar volume The mass of 1 mole molar mass The volume of 1 mole at STP 224L Density of gas is generally given in g L Density is the ratio of mass to volume Density of a gas is de ned as D m V The moles of a gas is n m MW M mass of the gas MW molecular weight ldeal Gas equation becomes d P MW R x T Partial pressure the pressure of a single gas in a molecule of gases We can calculate partial pressure if We know what fraction of the mixture it composes and the total pressure Or we know the number of moles of the gas in a container of known volume and temperature Total pressure the sum of the partial pressures of all the gases in the mixture IdeaIGas Kinetic molecular theory a gas is modeled as a collection of particles either molecules or atoms depending on the gas in constant motion The collision of one particle with another is completely elastic The attraction bw particles is negligible Pressure total force area Kinetic energy 12 mv2 Gases in same container have same temperature so save avg KE To have the same avg KE heavier molecules must have a slower avg speed As the temperature increases the velocity shifts toward higher velocity Mean free path The avg distance a molecule travels bw coisions Decreases as pressure increases Diffusion the process of a collection of molecules spreading out from high concentration to low concentration Effusion the process by which a collection of molecules escapes through a small hole into a vacuum Rather of diffusion and effusion of a gas are both related to its rms average velocity Thermochemistry Energy anything that has the capacity to do work Work force acting over a distance 0 Energy work force x distance Heat flow of energy caused by a difference in temperature Energy can be exchanged bw objects through contact Heat and Work D ways an object can exchange heat Kinetic energy energy of motion of energy that is being transferred Thermal energy energy associated with temperature 0 Thermal energy id a form of Kinetic energy Energy Kinetic energy due to motion 0 Thermal energy associated with temperature Potential energy due to position or composition 0 Chemical energy associated with position of electrons and nuclei Electrical energy KE associated with ow of electrical charge Heat Thermal energy KE associated with molecular motion Light Radiant energy KE associated with energy transitions in an atom Nuclear energy PE in the nucleus of atoms Chemical energy PE due to the structure of the atom the attachment bw atoms the atoms39 positions relative to each other in the molecule or the molecules relative positions in the structure Law of conservation of energy energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another System material or process within which we are studying the energy changes within Surroundings everything else with which the system can exchange energy Isolated system no interaction with the surroundings energy is constant Calorie amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree Celsius 1 calorie 4184 joules Thermodynamics study of energy and its interconversions 1St Law of Thermodynamics Law of Conservation of Energy Total amount of energy in the universe is constant Sum of the energy changes in the system and the surroundings must be zero Internal energy sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all the particles that compose the system If the reactants have a lower internal energy than the products the change in energy will be positive If the reactants have a higher internal energy than the products the change in energy will be negative When energy ows out of a system it must all ow into the surroundings When energy ows out of a system energy of the system is negative When energy ows into the surroundings energy of the surroundings is positive Therefore change is energy in system change in energy of surroundings Q heat thermal energy W work energy Q and W are NOT state functions39 their value depends on the process Change in energy Q W Q system gains thermal energy 0 system oses thermal energy W work done on the system W work done by the system E energy ows into the system E energy ows out of the system 1 antm 1013 Section 68 H E Pv Total heat context Extensive property I quantity of reactants State function A I D ADBDCDD Rules for Calculating Aern 1 If an equation is multiplied by a factor its AH value is also multiplied by the same factor Ex A2BC AH150 2A2B DC 2AH150 2 If a chemical equation is reversed then sign of enthalpy also changes Ex A 2B I C AHl positive C I A 2B AHl negative 3 If a chemical equation can be expressed as a series of steps then AH reaction for overall equation is the sum of the heat of reaction of each step Ex A I D AHl 70kJ ADBDCDDAH170kJ Ex Cs H20g I COg H2g Aern Cs O2g CO2g AH2 3925kJ 2COg O2g n 2CO2 AH 5660KJ 2H2g O2g n 2H20g AH 4856kJ
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