PSYC 316 Book Chapter 2 Notes
PSYC 316 Book Chapter 2 Notes PSYC 316
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Sara Karikomi on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by Simon Jencius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro-Psycpathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
PSYC 316 Week 2 Book Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Models of Abnormality I The Biological Model a In order to understand what goes on inside someone else s mind we need to include an understanding of that person on a biological basis b Treatments will be biologically based B How Do Bioloeical Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior a Abnormal behaviors are illnesses due to biological malfunctions 2 Brain Anatomv and Abnormal Behavior Speci c areas of the brain are responsible for part of the body s functions There is a relationship between some psychological disorders and damageproblems to certain brain areas 3 Brain Chemistrv and Abnormal Behavior a Communication between neurons can be responsible for psychological disorders Some neurons indicate inhibitory messages that tell receiving neurons to cease activity while others do the opposite telling other neurons to re more rapidly b Mental disorders are also linked to abnormal hormone levels The secretion of hormones from the glands into the bloodstream can be dysfunctional 4 Sources of Bioloqical Abnormalities a Genetics 1 Since genes determine physical characteristics of a person including their likelihood of developing physical illnesses they can also predict a person s likelihood of developing a mental disorder b Evolution 1 Genes that contribute to mental disorders can be mutations of an otherwise healthy gene 2 Some theorists believe that normal evolutionary principles are responsible for the genes that cause abnormal functioning 3 Evolutionary Theorists Genes responsible for someone s reactions have survived through time for a reason they helped us adapt and survive in our environment a The experience of fear is adaptive Somewhere along the line humans had to learn that some animals ones with sharp teeth and a tendency to chase or eat us should be feared and avoided b Unfortunately these genes that helped our ancestors survive could be the very same ones that make us more vulnerable to psychological disorders such as anxiety c Viral Infections 1 Exposure to certain viruses before birth or during childhood have been found to cause certain psychological disorders Viruses may damage brain areas leaving them more vulnerable C Biological Treatments Biological practitioners have a better chance of choosing the best biological treatment after determining the physical source of the problem Three kinds of biological treatments are as follows 1 Drug Therapy a Psychotropic Medications affect thought processes and emotions I Antianxiety a minor tranquilizers b anxiolytics 2 Antidepressants 3 Andibipolar a mood stabilizers 4 Antipsychotics a Problem these drugs are overused not effective or not helpful to everyone It is not a onesizefitsall solution 2 Electroconvulsive Therapy a Electric currents are passed through the brain causing the brain to experience seizures for up to a few minutes After seven to nine sessions many patients report feeling better 3 Psvchosurgerv a brain surgery for mental disorders Surgeon cuts connections between the frontal lobes D Assessing the Biological Model 1 m The biological model is very respected Biological research keeps this model up to date with current information Biological treatments have been known to be very successful when other nonbiological treatments have failed 2 m The biological model suggests that biological terms can explain all aspects of human behavior and that all mental disorders can be treated with biological treatments This model restricts our understanding of abnormal mental processes and keeps us from looking outside the box for another kind of explanation II The Psychodynamic Model A How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning 1 Id Ego and Superego Three forces that Freud believes shape the personality and operate at the unconscious level 2 Developmental Stages According to Freud we go through different stages of development we are challenged to adjust our id ego and superego which if done successfully leads to personal growth If we fail to adjust we become xated a Fixation stuck in an earlier stage of development id ego and superego have stopped developing thus delaying our maturity B How Do Other Psychodynamic Explanations Differ from Freud s 1 Freud and his colleagues had differing opinions Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were among those who developed new theories that held to some of the same beliefs dynamic psychological forces shape human functioning 2 Psychodynamic Theories a All theories derived from Freud s and including Freud s are considered Psychodynamic Theories Three in uential psychodynamic theories are 1 Ego Theory the role of the ego is more important more powerful and more independent than Freud had believed 2 Self Theory the main human drive is to strengthen one s self 3 Object Relations Theory the main human drive is the need to have relationships with others C Psychodynamic Therapies D 111 Free Association technique that helps the therapist interpret the patient s associations in the hopes of uncovering something important hidden in the patient s unconscious mind Therapist Interpretation as the patient speaks the therapist focuses on possible clues possible conclusions and sharing their interpretations of the patient s thoughts when they believe the patient is prepared to hear it a Resistance unconscious refusal to participate in therapy b Transference the patient redirects the feelings associated to important gures in their lives to their therapist c Dream Interpretation a path straight to and from the unconscious mind l Manifest Content the dream as the patient remembers it 2 Latent Content the symbolic meaning behind the dream Catharsis reliving past experiences necessary for moving past their issues Working Through one instance of catharsis is not enough to change the person in order to come to a true sense of clarity and improvement the sessions need to continue this may take years Current Trends Not everyone has the time for traditional therapy methods More ef cient shorter length psychodynamic therapies have been created a ShortTerm Psychodynamic Therapy patients choose one issue to focus on b Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy therapists are key gures in a patient s life to establish a better relationship with the patient the therapist should also share things about their own lives Assessing the Psychodynamic Model Thankfully Freud and his colleagues came up with a way to look for explanations for abnormal functioning that is not within the limiting box of biological theory Freud and friends were the rst to show that biological methods are not the only ways to treat abnormal functioning Psychological methods were proven to be quite effective Unfortunately research is dif cult to conduct because the three driving forces are so abstract It is impossible to test things that operate at an unconscious level therefore there is no evidence that they are responsible for abnormal functioning The Behavioral Model a Our reactions behaviors and responses to our environment affect our feelings and thoughts b Learning plays a huge role in our functioning types of conditioning can produce abnormal behavior B How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning l C 1 Several forms of conditioning can produce abnormal and normal behavior a Operant Conditioning b Classical Conditioning c Modeling Behavioral Therapies Svstematic Desensitization clients learn to react calmly to the object of their phobia D Assessing the Behavioral Model 1 Behavioral Model Pros Testable in a lab unlike psychodynamic theories The basic concepts of behavioral theory are measurable stimulus response reward Behavioral treatments are known to be useful in patients with compulsive behavior and phobias Behavioral Model Cons While researchers have been able to produce symptoms in study participants it is not clear if the development of the symptoms could have been achieved naturally otherwise Behavioral therapy also has limits progress made in therapy may not translate outside the office Behavioral theory also fails to account for behavior s complexity IV The Cognitive Model a Psychological issues stem from thought processes B How Do C02nitive Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning l A person s thoughts are responsible for their behavior one might make an assumption and develop a disturbing and inaccurate attitude Illogical Thinking Process distortions of the thought process Overgeneralization broad and negative conclusions based on one insignificant event C Cognitive Therapies 1 Cognitive Theranv with the help of a therapist a patient works to recognize and mend their dysfunctional thought processes D Assessing the Cognitive Model 1 C02nitive Model Pros a Popular because the Cognitive Model focuses on the process of human thought b This Model considers thought to be the primary cause of normalabnormal behavior c There is a lot of research revolving around cognitive theory 2 Coqnitive Model Cons a The role of dysfunctional cognitive process in abnormality is not yet determined b While cognitive therapies have been successful they do not help everyone c Although the human thought process is inherently unique it is only one aspect of human functions there is more than thought that makes up human functioning and those factors should be considered 3 New Wave of Coqnitive Therapies a Acceptance and Commitment Therapy gACT helping clients to engage in mindfulness and acceptance rather than judgment of their troubling thoughts b Through recognizing their thoughts as they exist clients will hopefully be able to learn how to live with them without dwelling on them V The HumanisticExistential Model 1 Humanists humans are naturally good striving towards Self Actualization which leads to a healthy regard for others and to behave in a generally good way a SelfActualization realizationful llment of one s potentials 2 Existentialists humans are aware of themselves and live meaningful lives for the sake of psychological wellbeing Unlike humanists existentialists hold rm to the belief that we are born free to choose to live up to our potential or to run from it a ClientCentered Therapy Rogers B Rogers Humanistic Theory and Therapy We need to experience Positive Regard from those important to our lives Unconditional SelfRegard develops if we received Unconditional Positive Regard early in our lives If a child feels unworthy of positive regard they acquire Conditions of Worth you are only acceptable good ifwhen you do X 1 Therapy must have three important qualities a Unconditional Positive Regard complete acceptance of the client b Accurate Empathy attentive listening and restatements c Genuineness honest communication between therapist and client 2 Patients feel accepted by their therapists are able to accept themselves and motivated to appreciate themselves leading to selfactualization 3 Unfortunately Rogers ClientCentered Therapy has not held up well in research many studies show that this therapy is unsuccessful C Gestalt Theory and Therapy 1 Clients are guided towards SelfRecognition and SelfAcceptance Unlike Client Centered therapies the methods of Gestalt Therapy involve challenging and frustrating their clients a Skillful Frustration refusal of the therapist to meet the expectations of the client in the hopes of helping the client to understand how often they try to manipulate others for their own bene t b RolePlaying clients are instructed to act out various roles with full emotion as if the situations were real to lead the patient to accept the feelings they once thought of as unacceptable c Language Patients are to use I rather than it when in session avoiding passive voice that may distance the patient from the troubling events or emotions D Spiritual Views and Interventions 1 There is a link between spirituality and psychological health a Those who view God in a positive loving way have been found to have a better outlook on life more optimistic b Better coping skills in the face of negative life events c CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION optimism not religion leads to better mental health E istential Theories and TheraDV 1 SelfDeception running from one s responsibilities causes psychological dysfunction 2 Existential Therapy client is encouraged to accept responsibility for their lives and problems recognize their ability to change the course of their life for the better a Existential Therapists believe that research dehumanizes individuals not people or qualities but only numbers and measurements F Assessing the HumanisticExistential Model 1 HumanisticExistential Model Pros a The HumanisticExistential Model takes into consideration the unique challenges of human life b Includes humanistic and existential philosophies that are not present in other models c Generally optimistic model with an emphasis on overall health values self acceptance values and free will 2 HumanisticExistential Model Cons a There is not a lot of controlled research on the effectiveness of this model b This model focuses on abstract issues that are difficult to research research is not a big part of humanistexistentialist models VI The Sociocultural Model FamilySocial and Multicultural Perspectives a Abnormal behavior can be explained or at least understood When the individual s social surroundings are examined B How Do FamilySocial Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning 1 Focus on three factors a Social Labels amp Roles strain resulting from labels a society assigns to the individual individual learns to accept the role given to them fitting into the label 1 Labeling Theory being labeled as a deviant leads the labeled person to participate in deviant behavior b Social Networks 1 An individual s social and professional relationships are considered a How does the individual communicate b Is the individual communicating effectively and ef ciently 2 Socially isolated individuals are more at risk for depression 3 Facebook People with more Facebook friends were found to be more social in the real world than those with fewer Facebook friends c Familv Structure and Communication 1 Family Systems Theory family members are like parts of a machine pieces interact with each other consistently and under established rules that are different for each family The structure and communication patterns that are normal to one family may be seen as abnormal to others a Enmeshed family members too involved in all aspects of each other s lives b Disengaged walls between family members uninvolved isolated C FamilvSocial Treatments 1 Group Theranv group of people with a common issue meet with a therapist to discuss the problems within the group to build communication skills offer feedback and increase selfworth within all participants a SelfHelp Group people with similar issues alcoholism come together to offer support and understanding without professional intervention 2 Familv Theranv Therapist points out the faults in interactions and behaviors to help all members improve the family dynamics a Structural Family Therapy while each family has their own set of rules these therapists switch roles and relationships of the family members thus changing the structure of power b Conjoint Family Therapy members are encouraged to acknowledge and modify unhealthy communication 3 Couples Theranv focuses on communication within the relationship a CognitiveBehavioral Couples Therapy changing behaviors by emphasizing improved communication and problemsolving b Integrative Couples Therapy accepting unchangeable behaviors and the relationship as it is 4 Communitv Treatment a Prevention reaching out to clients before a problem arises 1 Primary Prevention improving attitudes and policies within a community to prevent psychological disorders that may result from the con ict and turmoil within the community 2 Secondary Prevention determination and treatment of the psychological disorders before they become too serious 3 Tertiary Prevention providing treatment to moderate disorders to prevent them from becoming a chronic issue D How Do Multicultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning l Multicultural Psvcholoqists examine how race gender ethnicity and culture affect thought and behavior and how certain groups differ from others if at all The behavior of an individual can be better understood When their race gender ethnicity and culture are taken into consideration Preiudice and Discrimination affect normalabnormal functioning E Multicultural Treatments 1 F l CultureSensitive Therapies addressing the issues faced by cultural minorities a Gender SensitiveFeminist Therapies Elements of CultureSensitive Therapies include a focus on culture throughout the therapist s grad school training awareness of various cultural values types of stress prejudices and stereotypes eXperienced by minority groups the struggles endured by the children of immigrants helping clients understand a healthy balance in biculturalism etc Assessing the Sociocultural Model Sociocultural Model Pros a added sociocultural aspects to the study of abnormal behavior Sociocultural Model Cons a sociocultural findings are difficult to report b there are relationships between familysocialcultural factors and disorders but correlation does not mean causation c abnormality is unpredictable in certain individuals only some people are more vulnerable than others Biological Model In order to understand What goes on inside someone else s mind we need to include an understanding of that person s biological basis Terms to Remember ModelParadigm a set of beliefs concepts and assumptions that scientists use to explain and interpret their observations Neuron nerve cell Synapse the small gap between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another Neurotransmitter chemical that crosses the synaptic space after being released by one neuron and is received at the receptors on the neighboring neuron s dendrites Receptor site on a neuron that is designated to receive the neurotransmitter
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