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PSYC 316 Book Chapter 4 Notes

by: Sara Karikomi

PSYC 316 Book Chapter 4 Notes PSYC 316

Marketplace > Northern Illinois University > Psychlogy > PSYC 316 > PSYC 316 Book Chapter 4 Notes
Sara Karikomi
Simon Jencius

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About this Document

Chapter 4 book notes with extra examples.
Simon Jencius
75 ?




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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Sara Karikomi on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by Simon Jencius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro-Psycpathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
Chapter 4 Anxiety ObsessiveCompulsive and Related Disorders Fear a vital physiological response to physical and emotional danger Anxiety a physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of danger dwelling and worrying about encountering various situations I Generalized Anxiety Disorder A Generalized Anxiety Experiencing unprovoked chronic worry and tension 1 FreeFloating Anxiety restless or on edge dif culty paying attention having trouble sleeping muscle tension B The Sociocultural Perspective Societal and Multicultural Factors 1 At Risk individuals exposed to a continuous threatening societal situations a Poverty one of the most in uential forms of societal stress 1 Impoverished communities with high crime rates fewer institutional support lowlevel education fewer job opportunities poor quality of healthcare C The Psychodynamic Perspective a Realistic Anxiety reaction to facing actual danger b Neurotic Anxiety experienced when parents or situations prevent the child from expressing their id impulses c Moral Anxiety experienced when punished or threatened for expressing their id impulses 2 Psychodynamic Explanations When Childhood Anxiety Goes Unresolved a Children and Anxiety 1 Freud believed that a child would be more vulnerable to developing Generalized Anxiety Disorder when the child experiences neurotic or moral anxiety 2 Since a child has weak defense mechanisms they may not know how to cope with the stress as well as older individuals with more developed ego defense mechanisms 3 3 a b C d D a b 1 E l a b 2 a 1 2 3 Freud and Friends While not everyone agreed with everything Freud said they all seem to agree that Generalized Anxiety Disorder can be traced back to dysfunctional childparent relationships Psvchodvnamic Therapies Free Association again Patients are encouraged to accept their id impulses and learn how to deal with them appropriately Object Relations Therapists use tools such as free association to help patients come to terms with the childhood events their current anxieties come from ShortTerm Psychodynamic Therapy unlike the other psychodynamic treatments that have been found to help patients only a little this form of therapy has demonstrated its ability to signi cantly improve the status of anxiety sufferers The Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers children who do not receive unconditional positive regard develop selfcritical tendencies and poor conditions of worth ClientCentered Theranv therapist provides unconditional positive regard empathy and understanding to encourage the patient to be more comfortable honest and open Unfortunately this method is not supported well in controlled studies The Cognitive Perspective Maladaptive Assumptions a problematic way of thinking Basic Irrational Assumptions inaccurate beliefs or assumptions httpwwwsimplypsychologyorgcognitivetherapyhtml NewWave Cognitive Explanations Explanations that stem from Ellis and Beck emphasis on danger Metacognitive Theory Wells individuals with Generalized Anxiety Disorder believe that worry is useful in anticipating danger but also that since everyone else tells them that worrying is bad they believe that their constant worrying is damaging their wellbeing causing more anxiety Intolerance of Uncertainty Theory inability to tolerate knowing that although an event has a small chance of occurring it may still occur Avoidance Theory individuals suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder have more sensitive bodily responses to various stimuli than others and worrying reduces the arousal by serving as a distraction from problematic sensations of arousal 3 Coqnitive Therapies a Changing Maladaptive Assumptions 1 RationalEmotive Therapy Therapist makes client aware of their irrational assumptions poses a more appropriate assumption Client is instructed to practice applying new strategies in place of their old assumptions 2 Breaking Down Wogying Client is educated about how their disorder works with worry and how their body reacts to different situations moving the client towards understanding their worries and failed efforts to control them a MindfulnessBased Cognitive Therapy Hayes stemmed from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to help clients acknowledge their thought process worries and teaching acceptance of such thoughts for what they are just thoughts F The Biological Perspective 1 Bioloqical Explanations GABA Inactivitv 2 Bioloqical Treatments a Antianxiety Drug Therapy b SedativeHypnotic Drugs c Relaxation Training d Biofeedback II Phobias A Specific Phobias B Agoraphobia C What Causes Phobias l Behavioral Explanations How Are Fears Learned 2 How Have Behavioral Explanations Fared in Research 3 A BehavioralEvolutionarv Explanation a Preparedness D How Are Phobias Treated 1 Treatment for Specific Phobia a Exposure Treatments b Systematic Desensitization c Flooding 2 Treatment for Agoraphobia 111 Social Anxiety Disorder A What Causes Social Anxiety Disorder B Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder 1 How Can Social Fears Be Reduced 2 How Can Social Skills Be Improved IV Panic Disorder 1 Panic Attacks 2 Panic Disorder B The Bioloeical Persnective 1 What Biological Factors Contribute to Panic Disorder a Epinephrine b Locus Ceruleus 2 Drug Therapies C The Coenitive Persnective l The Coqnitive Exnlmtion Misinterpreting Bodily Sensations a Biological Challenge Tests b Anxiety Sensitivity 2 Cognitive Therapy V ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 1 Obsessions 2 Compulsions 50 What Are the Features of Obsession and Compulsions 0 The Psvchodvnamic Persnective D The Behavioral Perspective 1 Exposure and Resnonse Exposure and Ritual Prevention E The Cognitive Perspective The Bioloeical Persnective TU Serotonin Orbitofrontal Cortex 3 Caudate Nuclei G ObsessiveCompulsiveRelated Disorders Finding a Diagnostic Home 1 Body Dysmorphic Disorder VI VII VIII IX


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