Ch. 1+2 CHE 107LLR
SIM-UB (University at Buffalo-The State University of New York)
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Biljana Martic on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CHE 107LLR at SIM-UB (University at Buffalo-The State University of New York) taught by Keister, J B in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see Gen Chem 1 in Chemistry at SIM-UB (University at Buffalo-The State University of New York).
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Chemistry 107 Notes Weeks 1 2 amp 3 Chapter 1 a science that deals with composition structure properties and transformation of matter Atoms In the nucleus are protons positively charged and neutrons neutrally charged The electrons negatively charged orbit around the nucleus in multiple orbits in the electron cloud Pure Substances Ex Oxygen 02 Water H20 Table Salt NaCI Glucose C6H1206 T They are always in the same proportions Compounds combination of different elements pure substances can also be considered compounds At room temp and pressure there are 7 diatomic molecules H2 N2 02 F2 Cl2 Br2 l2 Periodic Table Columns vertical called Groups those labeled 1A 8A are the Main groups or Representative Transition metals are labeled lB SB and altogether there are 18 because SB consists of three columns also elements in a given group have similar chemical properties There are actually 32 but the lanthanides and actinides are not included because they are lnner Transition or Rare Earth metals Rows horizontal lt gt called Periods are numbered 1 7 Alkali Metals are in Group 1A excluding Hydrogen they are soft and silvery and react rapidly with water because they have only 1 valence electron These elements are never found in nature in a pure state only in combinations with other elements because they are so reactive Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2A lustrous silvery harder and less reactive than Alkali metals because they have 2 valence electrons These are also never found in their pure state Halogens Group 7A are colorful corrosive and nonmetallic they have 7 valence electrons and are only found in nature in compounds they react with the Alkali metals to form salts Noble Gases Group 8A are inert colorless gases and have very low reactivity because they have all 8 valence electrons lled in Helium and neon don t react with any other elements but argon krypton and xenon do with some Physical Properties characteristics that occur without changing the chemical makeup of the object Ex malleability bendiness freezing and boiling points Chemical Properties does change chemical makeup Ex Flammability chemical reaction with 02 Oxidizing ability to rust Reactivity SI Units Flashcards Mega M 106 Kilo k 103 Deci d 10391 Centi c 10392 Milli m 10393 Micro pa 10396 Nano n 109 Pico p 1039 Femto f 1039 T Moving decimal to the left gives a negative exponent to the right gives a positive exponent SI Base Units Flashcards Mass Kilogram kg Length Meter m Time Second sa Electric Current Ampere A Temperature Kelvin K Luminous Candela cd Intensity Amount of Moe Moe Substance Kelvin Celsius Absolute Zero O K 27315 C Convert K C 27315 Fahrenheit not generally used wonder why 0c 59 F32 F95 C 32 Units of Measurement Intensive properties values are individual of amount of matter present Ex Temp Melting Point Density Hardness a small diamond has the same hardness of a large diamond doesn t matter how much is there the property doesn t change Extensive properties values are proportional to the amount of matter present Ex Volume Mass the small diamond will not weigh the same amount as the big diamond it will change Density MassVolume lt the ratio of massvolume will stay the same for the same material Accuracy is when the numbers are close to the quotcorrectquot number Precision is when you get similar answers each calculation Signi cant Figures Multiplying and Dividing always use the smallest amount of sig gs in a number 127 x 39 4953 lt Correct number of sig gs round up the 9 because of the 5 Tsmallest amount is 2 signi cant gures Adding and Subtracting always use the smallest amount of numbers after the decimal place 1378392 11223 1490622 Tsmallest amount is 2 places after the decimal point All numbers 19 are signi cant 789 Zeros are signi cant if they are between numbers 6098502 Zeros at the end of a number and after the decimal point are always sig gs 2360 Zeros at the end of a number and before the decimal may or may not be sig gs Zeros before rst nonzero number are not signi cant 00245 The unit you want to get should be the numerator because the denominator is used to cancel out the units you are starting with Ex Convert 24 inches to feet A 24 inehes x 1 foot12 inehes 2 feet The inches cancel out because the inches are being divided by themselves the leftover units are feet Chapter 2 are on the left side of the periodic table they are and all are solid are room temperature except mercury They are malleable bendy not brittle and are good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals on the right side of the periodic table most of the nonmetallic elements are liquid at room temp they are brightly colored brittle they break easy and are poor conductors of heat and electricity Semimetals there are only nine along the zigzag line from boron to astatine they have mix of the characteristics of and nonmetals They are in appearance by tend to be brittle and poor conductors of heat and electricity Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions Elements have they have the same number of protons but different neutrons The charge stays the same but because neutrons have more mass than electrons it causes an increase in mass Atomic number Z number of protons in the nucleus Mass Number A number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Isotopes have different A s Element X AzX Atomic mass unit amu exactly 112th the mass of an atom of 12C Isotopic Mass mass of an atom in atomic mass units Average Atomic Mass the average masses of isotopes of an element is the mass shown on the periodic table The percentage of how often each isotope is naturally found is multiplied by the mass number of that isotope Heterogeneous Mixture it isn t a uniform mixture Ex Sand and Sugar they are going to have the same parts of sand and sugar in individual samples taken Homogeneous Mixture a uniform mixture Ex Cool Aid and Water the cool aid dissolves in the water and is evenly distributed you don t have cool aid with spots of dark red it s all one even color atoms are the same but are rearranged differently Ex Carbon can appear as Graphite or Diamonds Chemical Formulas Molecular Formulas give the actual number of atoms in a molecule EX GIUCOSE C5H1205 C6 06 Empirical Formulas give the lowest number of ratios of the number of atoms in a molecule Ex Divide them by 6 CH20 Ratio Cl H2 Ol Chemical Bonds Covalent Bonds atoms share electron pairs bond between nonmetallic atoms The strongest type of bond ionic onds electrons are gained by one atom and lost by another causes ions of different charges bonds are between nonmetallic and atoms Weakest bond Bonds sharing of electrons between two metal atoms Cations positively charged ion happens when the atom loses an electron Anions negatively charged ion happens when the atom gains an electron tend to form cations because it s easier for them to lose a small amount of electrons than to gain a large amount Nonmetals form anions because it s easier for them to gain a small amount of electrons than lose a large amount lnorganic Compounds Common Polyatomic lons Ammonium NH4 Acetate CH3C0239 Cyanide CN39 Hypochlorite CIO39 Chlorite CIOZ39 Chlorate CIO339 Perchlorate CIO439 Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO439 Hydrogen carbonate HCO339 Hydrogen sulfate HSO439 Hydroxide OH39 Permanganate MnO439 Nitrite N0239 Nitrate NO339 Carbonate CO3239 Chromate Cr04239 Dichromate Cr207239 Peroxide 022 Hydrogen phosphate HP042 Sul te 5032 Sulfate SO42 Thiosulfate 52032 Phosphate P043
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