Psy 101 Class Notes(A)
Psy 101 Class Notes(A) PSYC 101 008
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PSYC 101 008
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Erik Polanco on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 101 008 at University at Buffalo taught by Whitney Fosco in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
PSY Class Notes July 271 Psychologists Types 0 School assist kids with problem Developmental help determine how people progress and develop Forensic determine criminals psychological mentality 0 10 help determine how to make a business work best REVIEWTop Hat usvestiyyaqrax PsychologyThe scientific study of the brain and behavior What differentiates it from astrology intuition etc 0 Psychological processes are not independent 0 People differ so finding and research may not be compatible with everyone Science is a way of knowing that protects against our biases and misperceptions Process a way of seeing the world Pseudoscience Things that appear to be scientific but isn t FAKE For example DrOz effect weight lose pills fake diet ads Most vitamin pills 0 No independent studies done Scientifically shown to work 0 Scientificallv proven to work Ml Science will never Drove anything to be true only research to support Most important thing learned today Pseudoscience is Completely Fake Science For example products that are in no way proven to work 100 by science July 282 History of psychology Structure amp function Gestalt Psychoanalytic Behavioral Cognitive Father of psychology 0 Objective introspection Structuralism 39 0 Focused on the basic elements of the mind breaking down experience Functionalism 0 How do behaviorsmental processes help us adapt Gestalt 0 Sensation perception optical illusion 0 Wholegtsum of the parts 0 Observes the whole thing rather than each part PSY Class Notes PsychoanalyticFreud 0 Focus on unconscious 0 Important early childhood experience Behaviorism 0 Focus on observable measurable Classical conditioning Little Albert everything is learned Modern behaviorism Animal learning Consequences reinforcement amppunishment Biopyschosocial Biology Social factors Most important thing learned The study of psychology and its method and way of understanding and going about it has changed over time Research reports Link httppsychologybuffaloeduresea rchrequirementsfor psylOl studentsz Find Article Within 2015 httpedsbebscohostcomgatelibbuffaloeduehostsearchadvancedsida8bc9287 d6a04a7ebd75bc86b63e758840sessionmgr1 14ampvid0amphid1 14 Thinking scienti cally 0 Rule out alternative explanations Falsifiability 0 Cannot be fully tested Replicability 0 To re due study to take out the aws Extraordinary Claims Occam s razor 0 Simpler is better Research Design 0 Naturalistic observation just watch observe normal behavior Limit our ability to make causal inferences because of all the factors 0 Case Studies Rare phenomena In depth analysis of one person no statistic just try to understand the person 0 Survey research The choice of participants are crucial 0 Test Evaluation Reliability and validity Reliability is consistent Validity measures What it says it does Repeatability vs accuracy 0 Correlational designs Correlationtells us things are related but don t imply causation Important notes PSY Class Notes Test evaluation is a reliable and valid analysis with many studies and test preformed Correlation either positive or negative can be related to a broad range of things ex Ice cream sales and crimes are compatible July 293 Reliablesame answer each time must not change Separate reliability and validity Validity must prove correct what is being tested Experimental Design 0 Causeeffect 0 Two components to an experiment 1 Random assignment of groups 2 Manipulation of an independent variable Random assignment Randomorg 0 Randomly pick groups 0 What s the advantage Eliminates all preexisting differences between groups Independent variableWe manipulate Dependent variableWe measure Third VariableEnvironment Unpredictable Operationa1 definition Beware of confounds Only independent viable should be the only differences between groups Beliefs are powerful 0 Placebo effect Fake product eXsugar pill 0 Nocebo effect you know your not getting anything So you feel even worse negative mind set So a double blind study is created so no one would know if they a placebo or the real product Statistics 0 Area of mathematics focused on describing and analyzing data Descriptive vs inferential Central tendency Mean what is the average Medianmiddle score Modefrequent score July 304 Negative skewNegative Direction Positive skewPositive direction Normal curveno skewperfectly symmetrical PSY Class Notes Rangedifference between highest and lowest scores Standard deviation A measure of variability Used by seeing how far the data is from the mean How much variability is there in the data Importance of stats Biological Psychology Ch3 History 0 Trephiningdrilled a hole in your head to release evil demon and spirits 0 They believed that madness and mental illness was possession and demonic Stimulating case studies production comprehension Origin of brainBehavior relationships 0 Phineas Gage accident where iron rod went through his head he didn t die and was fine but he developed behavior changes Pual Broca Case His patient tan couldn t speak but was aware of language and understood He suffered brain damage they found that the area of the brain BROCA was damaged that controls speech Carl Wernicke Case His patent could speak fine but what he would say make no sense WERNICKE area damaged Randomness in his sentences Conclusion These studies show that some aspects of behavior are related to specific brain areas All areas are connected so if one area is damaged more than likely another will be too Human body SuperiorTop aka Head InferiorBottom half aka legs amp feet Dorsal posterior Back Ventral AnteriorFront Brain is organized contralateral Left right side of the brain Right Left side of the brain Division of the Nervous System Psychology Focuses on the Central Nervous system PSY Class Notes Central Nervous system 0 Brain 0 Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous system is everything else 0 Somatic Muscle movement 0 Autonomic Automatic body does on its own don t think about it For example Breathing heartbeat Branches of the ANS 0 Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Dual reciprocal innervation 0 Fight or ight Sympathetic 0 Rest or repair Parasympathetic Sympatheticincreases your heart rate and active the body and mind Your body takes energy and functions form other part of your body to help support others for example you stomach stop working so that your hand and feet get more energy to fight or run Parasympatheticrelaxes the body decreases the heart rate and body and mind Brain S arfaceCortex 0 Layered grey matter Covers the brain basically neurons 0 Sulciindents Gyribendsfolds amp fissures 0 Lobes 0 Frontal Planning Thinking through responsibility 0 Temporal Hearing 0 Parietal Sensation 0 Occipital Vision July 315 Brain internal structure 0 Midbrain Memory 0 Forebrain 0 Hindbrain Cerebellum 0 Motor movement that requires no thought Muscle memory PSY Class Notes Hippocampus 0 Memory center Amygdala 0 Emotion center mostly fear HypothalamusEndocrine system Pituitary 5 F s Feeding Fighting Fleeing Fucking Medulla Autonomic Nervous system Brain amp behavior Human work 0 Electroencephalogram EEG 0 Functional imagining O Positron emission tomography PET 0 Functional magnetic resonance imagining FMRI Important Note When parts of the brain are damaged or not connected Building blocks 0 Gila O Usung hero s 0 Neurons Neural Communication 0 Myelin O A fatty sheath speeds communication Action Potentials all or none 0 An excitation that travels along tan axon at constant strength Synapse 0 Presynaptic neuron 0 Postsynaptic neuron Neurotransmitters Postsynaptic potentials PSPs 0 Excitatory PSPs APSPs Yes 0 Inhibitory PSPs No 0 Summationadditive PSY Class Notes Major neurotransmitters Acetylcholine movement memory Alzheimer s disease Norepinephrine sleep learning mood depression Serotonin mood appetite aggression depression Dopamine movement reward Parkinson s disease schizophrenia GABA movement Huntington s disease epilepsy Glutamate Memory Neuron loss after stroke Endorphins Modulation of pain No established disorder Aug 36 Sensation amp Perception Sensation is first but don t mean anything until u perception understands it Sensation 0 Activation of receptors in sensory organs detections of energy by sense organs 0 Energy from environment gt pattern of responses in the NS 0 Transduction convert environment into neural impulse 0 Absolute threshold intensity needed for us to detect by stimulus 50 of the time 0 Just noticeable Differencesmallest change necessary for us to detect Signal detection theory 0 How we categorize and detect stimuli 0 Diagnosis 0 Fire alarms O TSA Agents Reported signal YES NO YES HIT MISS Signal NO False Correct Alarm Rejection Sensory adaptation 0 Don t notice repetitive unchanging stimuli think functionally We tune out stimuli that don t change Eye structure RetinaContains photoreceptor cells Back FoveaCentral area of retina greatest density of photoreceptors Optic nervesend Visual information to the brain Vision Rob amp Cones PSY Class Notes Rods Cones 9095 of retina 510 of retina Animals that are active at night birds primates Periphery of retina fovea center of retina Best in dim light color vision Monochromatic detects detail Can t detect detail light adaptation few secs Dark adaptations 30min Vision Theory Trichromatic 0 Young amp Helholtz Color vision 0 Cannot explain why we see after images 0 Color is perceived in terms of a system of paired opposites Trichromaticwhat happens with light wavelengths 0 3 Cones 0 PNS Sensory receptors Opponentprocessafterimages amp perceptions 0 Opposite pairs CNS bipolar and gingilis cells Sound 0 Vibrations usually in air 0 Frequencypitch 0 Amplitudeloudness the bigger the louder Cochlea 0 Vibrations are converted into neural activity Pain 0 Pain receptors are bare nerves 0 Release substance P Gate control theory 0 Gate in spinal cord pain signal must pass through before going to CNS 0 Nonpain signal can close the gate Perceptionhow sensations are put into meaning comprehend the sensation Feature detectors Specialized neurons that respond to specific simple featurese g lines edges orientation Bottom up Processing imitated by sensory input Feature detectors PSY Class Notes Hang man no information yet must guess your mind fills in the blank CT aka CAT or a puzzle of an animal you start to guess what it is after a while Topdown Processing guided by knowledge expectations belief Gestalt you get the whole think like when u get all the parts like items and instructions Aug 047 Consciousness ChS Altered states of consciousness Sleep Consciousnessawareness of own existence Sleep 0 Circadian about a day 0 Mammoth cave study 0 No environment cues sunlight 0 Still maintained sleepwake cycle Meaning we have an internal clock Stages of sleep 0 NonREM 0 Slow wave 0 Physical recovery 0 Sleepwalking night terrors 0 REMrapid eye movement 0 High frequency waves 0 More active 0 REM paralysis 0 Its importantREM rebound Insomnia less coffee soda alcohol Difficult falling asleep staying asleep or just generally not feeling wellrested Cognitivebehavioral TXgtAmbien Only sleep in your beddon t lay there for watching tv only sleep Exercise early no napping sleep proceduresroutine Drugs amp their effects 0 Drugschemical substances that affect the CNS and alter thinking perception amp memory Stimulis PSY Class Notes 0 Speed nervous system 0 Mood fatigue appetite 0 Anxiety insomnia irritability psychotic behavior 0 Amphetamines synthetic 0 Crystal meth Nicotine and smoking Smoking is costly and dangerous Nicotine alone improves mood enhances concentration decreases fatigue Substance use and abuse 0 Maladaptive pattern of substance use Physical dependence tolerancedrug become less effective With repeated usemost take more and more to get the effect Withdrawaleffect of reducing or stopping drug use Psychological dependencecraving intense desire Aug 58 Ch6 Learning Nonassociative learning 0 Habituation 0 Sensitization Associative learning 0 Operant conditioning 0 Observational conditioning Operant Conditioninglearning voluntary bx through consequences Old Consequences in uence behavior Law of effect Behaviorljpleasurable consequencesbX repeated Behaviorunpleasant consequencesbX not repeated Modern BF Skinner Coined term operant conditioninglearning 0 BX is governed by consequences 0 Voluntary 0 Active 0 Process Behaviorleonsequences Types of consequences 0 Reinforcementconsequences that increases the future probability of a bx PSY Class Notes 0 Punishmentconsequences that decreases the future probability of a bx 0 Defined by how it affects behavior Reinforcement 0 Any consequence that increases the future probability of the responses to strengthen Reinforcerevent or object used as the consequence 0 Primarymeet basic biological needs no learning needed 0 Secondaryonly becoming reinforcing after being paired with a primary Reinforcer Complex behaviors 0 Shapinga technique for establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations 0 ampThen raising the bar 0 E g training pets 0 Chainingprocedure for developing a sequence of behavior in which the reinforcement for one response is the opportunity to engage in the next response often works backwards O E g getting a child ready for school 0 Stimulus generalizationtendency to engage in bx that is similar to bx that has been reinforced O Eg child seeking attn 0 Discriminative stimulusindicates on which occasions a bx will be followed by a consequence 0 Extinctiondecrease in responding once behavior is not reinforced Behaviorleonsequence extinction 0 Extinction burstsudden and temporary increase in responding following removal of the consequence 0 Timingpatterns or schedules of reinforcement affect how quickly we learn and the strength of learning 0 Continuous Ra vs intermittent 0 Continuousconsequence after every instance of bx 0 Intermittentconsequence after some but not every instance of bx Ratio vs interval 0 Ratio of responses required before R 0 Intervalcertain amount of time must pass before R Fixed vs Variable 0 Fixedspecific of responses ratio or time interval required before R CONSISITENT 0 Variable of responses or time change 0 Acquisition vs resistance to extinction Punishment 0 Consequences that decrease the future probability of a behavior PSY Class Notes 0 Problems with punishment 0 Not as effective as reinforcement 0 Physical punishment models aggressive bxamp parent is reinforced for it relation to child abuse 0 If not punishment how to stop an undesirable bx 0 Tips for using punishment 0 P should come immediately after the bx O P should be consistent 0 P should be paired with R for correct bx 0 Positive vs negative R and P O Positivesomething being added 0 Negativesomething being taken away Behavior modificationUse of operant conditioning to bring about desired changes in behavior 0 Behavioral plans 1 Choose target behavior 2 Choose reinforcer 3 Put the plan into action provide reinforcement Token economydesired bx is reinforced with points or tokens that are exchanged for goods Observational learning 0 Classical amp operant conditioning can t explain all our bx 0 Observational learninglearning new behavior through watching the action of a model lLeamingperformance distinctionwe can learn without actually performing the learned behavior IConsequences of the model s bx important too Recap 0 Consequences to modify behavior RP inc Classical Conditioning 0 Ivan Pavlov 0 Russian physiologist interested in digestion 0 Process form association between two paired stimuli 0 One already evokes re exive response 0 One was neutral 0 Pavlovian conditioning 0 Unconditioned stimulus UCSU S O Consistentlyautomatically elicits unconditioned response 0 Unconditioned response UCR 0 Action UCS automatically elicits 0 Conditioned stimulus CS PSY Class Notes 0 Stimulus repeatedly paired With US 0 Conditioned response CR 0 Responses CS begins to elicit as a result of pairings 0 Strong conditioning takes time and timing 0 Timetrials 0 Timing O Contiguity 0 Good prediction 0 Stimulus generalization or discrimination O GeneralizationExtension of the CR to stimuli to CS 0 DiscriminationChange of stimuli but still occurs 0 Stimulus generalization 0 Extinction O Presents the CS Wo US 0 CRR diminishes 0 PhobiasConditioned emotional responses Operant Conditioning is When you have control over the response you learned the response on your own from association between response and reinforcement Aug 7 Memory 0 System and encoding storing and retrieving information 1 Encodingprocess of converting sensory info into a form that brain put in its storage system 2 Storageholding the information Retrievingconverting info from storage into a form that can be used 0 Sensoryall information lost Within a second or so 0 Shorttermunrehearsed information is lost about 15 to 30 seconds 0 Important memory makes it to the STM 0 Working memoryactive system processes info in STM 0 Central executive guides attn organized info boss 0 Long termsome information is retained indefinitely some is lost With the passage of time 0 Capacity Unlimited 39 We primarily store meaningful information 0 Elaborative rehearsalway to transfer info from STM to LTM by making the info meaningful I Deeper level of processing I Focus on the meaning not the sounds or physical properties 0 Sensory memoryfirst stage point at Which info enters the CND through the sensory systems PSY Class Notes 0 Iconic O Echoic 0 Capacity 0 Originally thought to be 59actually about 35 I 0 There are ways to make that higherchunking I Combining info into meaningful units 0 Lasts1020 sec 0 Maintenance rehearsalrepeating info over and over in your head to keep it in STM I Decay information fades over time I Interferenceinformation is lost due to competing information I Proactive vs retroactive ChunkingOrganizing info into meaningful groups Maintenance rehearsalrepeating info over and over 0 LTM 0 Doing vs knowing procedural memory implicit 0 Procedural LTMmemories for skills habits I Muscle memory 0 Explicit LTMcontains info that is conscious and known explicit hippocampus Pulls I info from LTM to STM 0 Semantic memory I General knowledge I Learned in school 0 Episodic memory I Personal info I Daily life I Special events 0 Retrieval O Recallfew external cues O Recognitionmatching info presented to what is already in memory I Encoding specificityconditions during encoding should match condition during retrieval I State dependent learningphysiologicalpsychological states should match 0 Memories are continuously revised and altered 0 Memories are never accurate 0 I Retrieval is reconstruction not just retrieval 0 Partly what was stored O Partly what is reasonable or expected Eye witness testimony ID and testimony I Misinformation effectmisleading info presented after an even alters the memory of the event PSY Class Notes 0 False memoryBelieved to be a memory but does not correspond to real events often resulting from the suggestion of other 0 Recovered memoryreports of longlost memories prompted by clinical techniques Thinking and reasoning 0 Algorithm vs heuristicshort cuts 0 A set of steps that if followed methodically will guarantee the solution to a problem I Timeconsuming I Not always applicable 0 A strategy that does not guarantee the correct answer to a problem but offers a likely shortcut to it 0 Base rate fallacyfailing to take into account the base rate or frequency of a characteristic or behavior 0 Availability heuristic we estimate the likelihood of something happening based how easily it comes to mind 0 Framing effect the way a question is worded can in uence people s decisions 0 Potential loss more powerful than potential gain Act of focusing on particular information I Selective choose divided drive and talk sustained CPT 0 Limited capacity central processor 0 Flashlight Sustained Attention I Sustainedvigilance Aug 10 Ch9 Intelligence Think of someone you consider intelligent How would describe them 0 Intelligencethe ability to solve problems well and understand and learn complex material Intelligence re ected by physical measures 0 Sensorymotor processes 0 Heredity eugenics selective breeding First intelligence testAlfred Binet I Needed a way to decide which children needed remedial help 0 Focus on superior mental functions not school history 0 Classified kids as I Moron I Imbecile I Idiot Intelligence test WW1 IQ test Stanford Binet PSY Class Notes IQ mental age X100 Chronological age Wechsler More verbal and perceptional testing Standardization 0 Process of est rules for admininterpretation Norms 0 Test on large stratified representative sample 0 Set mean and SD 0 M100 SD15 Theories 0 Fluid vs crystalized 0 How much do we know Nature and nurture 0 Heritability 47 O Increases from childhood 0 Low in low SES Some genetic might be partly environment 0 In utero adoptive households microenvironment What about school 0 Years in school correlates with IQ Children s IQ s drop in the summertime 0 Dropping out of school ILower IQ 0 Early interventions boost IQ Aug 11 Ch 11 Emotion amp Reasoning Feelings Consciousness 0 Physiological Arousal behavior Subjective awareness Common sense theory Emotions is after body reaction We simultaneously has body reaction and emotion Cognitive appraisal thinkingBody reaction then emotion is after Paul Ekman 0 7 universal emotions 0 Anger fear disgust happiness surprise sadness contempt Display RulesCultural rules of how when and how intensely we display emotion 0 Not just emotionBehavior O Behaviorlemotion Facial Feedback hypothesis Theory of emotion 0 All start with a stimulus PSY Class Notes 0 Role and placement of physiological arousal cognitive I 3 types of lie detection 1 Relevantirrelevant O Assumes liar has gt reactively to R 2 Control question technique 0 Control Qs emotionally provocative but unrelated to event I False alarms 3 Guilty Knowledge test ID recognition of info that only guilty party would know MC questions related to the crime while monitoring brain activity Motivation 0 Psychological drives that propel us in a specific direction 0 Goalsdirected O Varies with context internal vs external 0 Motivation as a drive 0 Tension or arousal when there is an unfulfilled need physio 0 Motivation to reduce that tensiondiscomfort 0 Drive primary vs secondary O Homoeostasis as a drive I E g temperature I Drive results from imbalance 0 The problem I Sometimes we seek disequilibrium 0 Motivation as a need for stimulation 0 Yerkesdodson law 0 Individual differences in required levels of arousal ISensation seeker Theories 0 External motivationincentives 0 Things that entice people to action sound familiar 0 Back to learning theory 0 Incentive theories 0 Internal external homeostasis incentive 0 Usually a combination 0 Motivation is goaldirected and varies context Ch 12 Stress and health I Stressdiscomfort or physical symptoms that arise when a stressor strains out ability to cope 0 Stress as stimuli or events PSY Class Notes 0 Job loss divorce marriage trauma 0 Stress as a response 0 Psychological and a physiological responses 0 Eg cortisol 0 Stress as a transaction Event Iljperson s interpretation and coping response a stressor is subjective Primary Appraisal 0 Potentially harmful I biological reactionSecondary appraisalemotional reaction 0 Harmless or a challenge Ino stress Secondary Appraisal 0 Inadequate resourcesstressnew resourcesremaining stress 0 Adequate resourcesuse existing coping resources Stressorsevents that cause stress 0 Vary in duration acute vs chronic 0 Vary in intensity severity 0 Accumulation effects Hassels 0 The little everyday annoyances 0 Physical and psychological difficulties gtmajor life events Pressureoccurs When there are urgent demands or expectations comes form outside source 0 Eg Time Uncontrollability and unpredictability 0 More stressful Adapting to stress Coping 0 Meditation 0 Mental exercises to achieve trancelike state of consciousness 0 Mindfulness O Focusing on the present 5 sense exercise 0 Religion 0 Social support acceptance of faults volunteeringservice meaning and purpose to life s stressors cognitive appraisal 0 Exercise 0 Progressive muscle relaxation 0 Immune systembodily system that responds to attacks from diseases infections and injuries 0 Psychoneuroimmunologystudies immune system and CNS relationship Aug 13 Ch13 Social Psychology Fundamental attribution error PSY Class Notes 0 Other peopleinternal 0 Ourselvesexternal 0 We overestimate the impact of dispositional in uences on other s behavior Conformity 0 Maintainingchanging behavior to match others or follow norms 0 Norms 0 Rules that implicitly or explicitly govern a group Shared enforced beliefs Asch Experiment 1951 0 Conforming 0 Questioning yourself because if you wanting to be different and not follow the rest 0 75 conformed on at least one trail What affects conformity 0 Uniformity of agreement 0 Any kind of disagreement 0 Size of group Obedience 0 Behavior change following demand authority Application getting help 0 Bystander effect 0 Kitty Genovese O 2009 gang rape 0 Darley amp Latane 0 Pluralistic ignorance O Diffusion of responsibility Alonegt group 90 of time Humans have enormous potential Stereotypesbelief or set of beliefs about people in a particular category Prejudicean attitude generally negative toward members of group Discrimination unjust or prejudicial treatment Aug 14 Ch14 Personality Intro to personality 0 Set of behavioral emotion and cognitive tendencies 0 People display Consistently over time or across situations 0 Distinguishes individuals from each other Psychodynamic 0 Beh results from con icting intrapsychic forces including unconscious ones 0 SFreud 18561939 Idpleasure principle I want it now PSY Class Notes SuperegoMoralprinciple Nice people don t do that EgoBehaviorreality maybe I can find a compromise Abraham Maslow 0 Hierarchy of needs 0 Self actualization 0 Most to achieve higest emotional and intellectual pontential I Historical case studies to ID descriptive charateristics 0 Realistic yet creative independent yet tolerant problemfocused yet enjoy life humor oneness Premisestable characteristics Traits and Types The big five 0 Neuroticismexperience neg emotion 9 0 Extroversionseek stim amp enjoy company of others 0 Agreeablenesstrusting compassionate compliant 0 Conscientiousnessdutiful strive for ach self disc 0 Opennessenjoy new experiences ideas How to not measure personality 0 Barnum e ect 0 Tendency to accept vague description esp from experts O amp Horoscopes fortune cookies 0 Extensively researched 0 Standardize reliable 0 Valid 0 Disguising monitoring pathology 0 Research 0 Profiles 0 Relatively little interpretive bias Premises ambiguous stimuli will illustrate personality Rorschach Inkblot test 0 Newer codingreliable O Predict therapy response identify schizophrenia 0 Thematic Apperception Test 0 Test a story Innate biologically based inclinations to engage in a certain style of behavior Focus on shynessinhibition Kagan 0 Biology 0 And parenting PSY Class Notes Behavioral inhibition system 0 Sensitivity to punishment and nonreward 0 Neuroticism 0 Withdrawal anxiety Behavioral activation system 0 Sensitivity to reward and nonpunishment O Extraversion positive emotion 0 Approach happinessrelief Neurotransmitters EEG Learning Aug 7 CH 15 Psychological disorder Defining abnormality Statistical deviance 0 Good and bad Distress andor impairment 0 Antisocial or narcissistic PDs Socially undesirable 0 Culturebased 0 Homosexuality Origins Until recently mental illness perceived as unnatural 0 1400s supernatural 0 1500s behavior governed by lunar phases D lunatic Remnants still stigma a mark of disgrace Late 1800s early 1900s 0 Emergence of psychological model 0 Freud psychoanalytic theory role of early life experience 0 Skinner Watson behaviorist Bio psychosocial model 0 B10 0 PYSCHO 0 SOCIAL O Diathesisstress model I Underlying vulnerability or predisposition freq Bio Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder DSM 0 List of psychological 0 Descriptive atheoretical 0 Increasingly researchbased associated with or 66A Classification DSM PSY Class Notes 0 Lifetime prevalence 0 Sex differences Understanding Comorbidity 0 Internalizing O Anxiousmisery 0 Fear I Externalizing Alcohol drug antisocial dependence Anxiety disorder 0 Very common 13 lifetime prevalence 0 General features 0 Avoid or endure With intense discomfort O Inferencedistress O Recognized as excessiveunreasonable 0 Etiology diathesisstress 0 Genes and environment Development Classical conditioning and maintained in operate conditioning Maintenance Operant conditioning avoidanceescape Treatment Exposure therapy Exposure hierarchy Social phobia 0 Common 0 Treatment cognitivebehavior therapy meds exposure therapy Panic disorder Panic attack 0 Brief intense fear 0 Multiple symptoms physio control crazy die akin to fight ight but no stimulus Nonclinical panic is common 0 Recurrent unexpected panic attack 0 Worry about future attacks 0 May have agoraphobia refuse to go to certain places Obsessive Compulsive disorder OCDobsessions andor compulsions O recurrent intrusive thoughtsimages that cause marked anxiety C behavior or mental acts driven to perform to reduce anxiety 2 of US Oneset childhood adolescence Treatment expose and response prevention Generalized anxiety disorder PSY Class Notes Difficult to control of things Restlesskeyed up fatigued conc tense irritable sleep 0 34 of US Treatment CBT worry exposure meds Mood disorder Depression Bipolar Suicide Depression For atleast two weeks mood or loss of interest pleasure Plus 5 or more Weight sleep Psychomotorfatigueenergy Feel mirthless guilty Concentration O Suicidedeath thoughts Number amp severity of st varies O O O O 10 of US 2x more likely in women Onset stress vulnerabilities throughout life Treatment CTCBT interpersonal therapy meds ECT BehavioralLearning processes 0 Lack of positive reinforcement andor exposure to punishment 0 Perceived control over reinforcement and punishment environment is key Cognitive process how we think Socialinterpersonal processes too Cognitive distortions including attributions Cognitive behavioral and CBT Bipolar disorder Mania Mood Manic Episode 3 or more Selfesteem grandiosity need for sleep Flight of ideasracing thoughts pressured speech Distractibility Goaldirected activity socially work school sex Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities with high potential for painful consequences 51 of US Onset by age 30 Treatment Lithium and other meds Family system therapy Suicide PSY Class Notes 0 Depression and beyond 0 Also bipolar depressive phase 0 Schizophrenia Suicide facts NIMH 3007 0 10th leading cause of death almost 35000 details 0 3rd among 1524 yo 0 Gender Attempt 31 succeed 14 0 Firearms 56 V 3 What can you do 0 Believe 0 Listen nonjudgmentally 0 Urge them to seek help 0 Crisis service 8343131 0 Sometimes not enough hindsight bias Schizophrenia Psychosisaltered thought perceptionconsciousness 0 Not split personality 0 Prev 1 0 Paranoid disorganized catatonic undiff Positive symptoms 0 Thought disorder Hallucinations auditoryperception WO ext Cause DelusionUnfounded beliefs incorr Inferences Positive symptoms things that are added that are there Negative symptoms 0 Poverty of speech avolition affective blunting anhedonia attentional impartment 39 Suggest poor prognosis 0 Pay attention to symptoms 0 Positive 0 Negative 0 Disorganized 1 of US Onset teens to 20s slow Treatment medication BT Strong genetic component Schizophrenia casual factors 0 Family dynamics 0 Family dysfunction can interact With genetic vulnerability 0 Also family dynamics important for understanding relapse 0 Expressed emotion EE PSY Class Notes Mental DO 0 Plus lots more 0 Serious but common 0 Comorbidity 0 Often undiagnoseduntreated 0 However increasingly wellunderstood and mostly treatable CH16 Psychological Therapies Early treatment 0 Early people thought that disorders where possessions 0 Trephining The first asylum 0 Ice baths 0 Beatings 0 Induced vomiting 0 Lobotomy Biomedical Therapy 0 Hypothesis behavior problem behavior results from brain dydfunction 0 Structure 0 Neurotransmission to much or too little 0 Sotreat with mods to correct 0 But we don t always know why or how meds work 0 If there s a problem in the brain do we treat the brain 0 No Psychotherapy changes brain functioning Pharmacotherapy 0 Antipsychoticreduce dopamine 0 Typical vs atypical Seroquel abilify Risperdal 0 Antianxiety enhances effects of GABA O Xanax valium 0 Antidepressants Increases dopamine serotonin NE 0 Maoi s tricyclic SSRIs Zoloft Prozac Lexapro Paxil SSRISSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Biomedical Treatments Beyond drugs 0 Modern Electroconvulsive Therapy Psychotherapy 0 400 types of psychotherapy 0 Insight therapies O Psychoanalysisback to freud PSY Class Notes 0 Interpersonal psychotherapy depression focuses on relationships between individual and others 0 Humanistic therapy Roger s personcentered therapy 0 Action therapies 0 Behavior therapy 0 Cognitive and cognitive behavioral therapies 0 Efficacy and effectiveness Before therapy begins 0 Ethics 0 Informed consent 0 Confidentiality 0 Dual relationship Psychoanalysis Unconscious con ict I maladjustment 0 Begin in childhood so go back to childhood 0 Find cause of the dysfunction Techniques Dream interpretation Free association Resistance Transference 0 Modern psychodynamic therapy 0 Shorter more directive face client Person Centered therapy 0 Realidea self mismatch I Maladjustment 0 Nondirective 0 Key elements in therapy 1 Re ection 2 Unconditional positive regard 3 Empathy 4 Authenticity Treated clients With more respect Variants of Rogerian therapy still used effectively today 0 Not well researched 0 Required some cognitive sophistication on part of client Behavior Therapies 0 Back to learning once again 0 Actionoriented present focused short term 0 Problem behavior is the problem 0 Rely on principles of classical and operant Behavior I Emotionmood amp thoughts PSY Class Notes Exposure One of the most if not the most effective therapies we have 0 Shortterm 0 Effective 0 Aversive client dropout a problem Aversion therapy Undesirable bx aversive stimulus CS US E g rapid I nicotine poisoning BX TX Operant conditioning 0 Most often used in tx children 0 Behavior medication 0 Token economies Focusing on thoughts cognitive therapy Thoughts behavior amp Emotionmood 0 Think rationally not just positively Cognitive behavioral therapy 0 Focus behavior as well as thoughts 0 EG exposure restructuring 0 Active homework presetfocused collaborative therapist as coachteacher 0 Goal is to give the client tools Therapy vs meds 0 Depends with the disorder Schizophrenia MgtT Bipolar disorder MgtT Depression MT MTgtM or T Anxiety MT MT gtM or T I037
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