Popular in Sex and Gender of Primates
Popular in ANTH
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Notes April 17th Mothers and sex ratio Breastfeeding factors duration when does weaning occur intensity child s expected contribution to household economy allocate access supplemental foods dairy grains for cooking fruits soft foods high in protein and fats socioeconomic status sex of infant Trivards amp Willard low socioeconomic status mother s breastfeed daughters more high socioeconomic status mother s breastfeeding sons more gt wealthy man greater reproductive success than lower status male healthy daughter better reproductive success than lower status male Proving to be true currently in the Chagga NOT the only one Chagga ethnic group in Kiliminjaro Kenya 280 children all have access to free health clinic and the health clinic suggests two years of BF Variables Sex of baby birth order birth rate cattle holding SES house material SES grandparents in house and if mother employed outside home Life history tradeoff investment of mothers by age young mother s would breastfeed less because intensive BF would mean a longer birth interval older mother s would BF more intensively because of less time to have more children gt care for the one s you already have instead of the future children you may not have This is true in the Chagga NOT the only one How do these things impact our preferences for our children s sex Variables reproductive potential one sex inherits family name and property employment opportunities help with family economy business farm etc childcare providers social statuspolitical power in the community one sex can become religious figures help with family prestige child quality at infancy sons are more vulnerable to disease Investment education breastfeeding socialization play and freetime health care spent on them clothes toys etc Training v education food amount India specifically northwest Feticide abortion Neonaticide 1St 24 hours killing Infanticide unweaned child not treating child neglect Child homicide 1870 British bans infanticide Neglect if not able to commit cide Passive abuse not giving necessary survival 1994 Indian government outlaws sex determination of fetuses prenatal diagnostic technique act amniocentesis ultrasounds blood drawing Attempt to prevent sexspecific abortions These things don t seem to be working because the sex ratio is still skewed definite human intervention present If 1st child is a daughter 866 1000 boys If 2 girls already 3rd child is daughter 178 1000 boys So wtf India Long term consequences limited mates higher crime rates Selfcorrecting males pretty much kill themselves off through risky activity females become the wanted commodity but that is not likely to happen any time soon April 20 Notes Choosing a Mate Dowry Child s or Parent s decision Same interests Sons can marry kin Father s brother s daughter Mother s brother s daughter reciprocity and could be good for matrilineal kin selection Father s sister s daughter or Mother s sister s daughter almost never seen because not many human societies are matrilineal mother s sister has already married out of the family anyway Advantages Similar interest due to kin selection Depends on dispersal patterns and if matpatrilineal Dowry gifts given by the parents of a bride to the family of the groom or the groom in exchange for them taking their daughter into their family Typically seen in monogamous stratified societies that man has one shot so you want your daughter to win over the rest of the women of choice India social evil Gendercide through killing daughters bride burning collect dowry then the bride dies accidentally sex selection manipulation Or is it actually a form of investment Daughters inherit family wealth at marriage sons inherit family wealth at time of father s death Hypothesis Dowry is a form of parental investment andor mating effort with the goal of increasing investment in the children of daughters in patrilocal stratified societies So if dowry is good for daughters a mate of higher status would be seen thus long life of protection and resources monetary not necessarily educationwise Predictions attract higher quality mate amount of dowry is related to hypergyny marrying up dowry will function to help produce higher quality offspring both sons and daughters Dowries may be means of increasing longterm fitness more grandchildren Quantitative survey of 403 married men and women Qualitative 19 interviews attended 40 weddings and marriage related events Bride Price Family of the groom pays the bride s family happens when there are more men than women 100 women to 117 men in Beijing April 6 Notes Aggression a behavior which is done to another individual with the goal of physical injury or to make it move away Generally avoided because aggression implies intent and feelings Displacement from a resource Reasons why to be aggressive food mates protecting an infant killing an infant Agonism behaviors that occur during con ict or competitive situations between members of the same sex or opposite sex Ultimate causes of agonism increase fitness long term reason Proximate immediate cause individuals are too close together competition for limited resources such as food or resources Functions maintain social order increase access to resources Killing is rare mild forms of agonism common in some species males and females mat both engage in agonism Reasons to kill taking over the alpha position taking over the territory More likely for males to engage in more aggressive behaviors than females reproduction rights Dominance special forms of power established through con ict Rank an individual s ability to win con icts relative to other members of its group alpha beta gamma In females it is almost always about food How to TEST for dominance Watching interactions during feeding foraging mating season Threatened or be threatened approach or retreat groomed or be groomed mount of be mounted present their bums timing of copulations Chacma baboons Papio cyncephalus ursinus MM MF female philopatry Male dominance hierarchy and Females have a dominance hierarchy Priority of access model mating is monopolized by the highest ranking male Female sex swellings D day is peak of tumescence male interest is highest 4 days through 1 day before D day D 4 D 1 Interest declines after D day D 1 etc D 2 or D3 are most likely points of ovulation Article access observation gt if a male mates with a female during ovulation they have higher or highest rank Female reproductive success varies by rank as well high rank females with high rank males because of more successful genes Protection consorts Males and females spend D day in close proximity to ensure other males do not get access to her Alpha males care about rank BUT if estrus is varied male will mate with all females regardless of rank and age equal consorts males are not being particularly picky Are males able to truly monopolize mating Yes time of copulation with conception and without conception gt alpha will sire much more than nonalpha males copulating with females outside of ovulation Six months mean alpha time So what do males do after they are not alpha Care for your own offspring coalition of other low ranking males and possibility for infanticide BUT may end up killed because of the new alphas Male strategies try to be alpha young healthy males that are new to group form coalitions with other low rank males possible through homosexual behavior or males form friendships with females may not be successful at this the alpha male may force the male away from friend during ovulation time Female strategies go with alpha try to choose your own mate through friendships although the alpha may force himself upon her during ovulation friend will be pushed aside or attempt to mate with a male that seems to be the next alpha If a female doesn t mate with an alpha male they may abort the pregnancy How to measure reproductive success in males copulation rights paternity tests to determine how many offspring he has sired infant mortality rates sire a bunch then care for them when surrendering alpha status How to measure reproductive success in females Infant survival rates copulation with higher ranking males or lower interbirth intervals Basics of HBE Assumes humans are adaptive just that they are not HOW Ultimately for reproductive success Proximate and ultimate deeper meaning Evolutionary Psychology Attempts to nd the evolved psychological mechanisms that represent universal human nature Human brains are adapted to solve problems that their ancestors faced as huntergatherers in the Pleistocene 18 MYA 10000 YA Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness EEA quotStoneaged mindquot Potential human quotinstinctsquot Jealousy mate protection Fear Disgust ability to taste poisontaste preference Mate preference Capacity for learning Sensitivity to cheating Ability to learn complex language Human Female Choice Health Low uctuating asymmetry symmetry could indicate better health better developmental tendencies better genes Resources of cattle size of home car job Status political tall Strategies to Acquire Preferred Mate Compete with other women through Aggression stronger aggression with age Beauty weight makeup fashion Sexual delity more attractive if more loyal and less promiscuous Sexual promiscuity strategy to attract mates Dowry a quotpayoffquot or a quotpackage dealquot to attract a mate Female choice impacts male selection young women not interested in older men Males can choose the grandfather strategy Adjusted age homogamy 25 year old male With 2322 year old female maturity difference as opposed to just wanting to marry younger females Females select high status males Re ection of current economic inequality Socio economic homogamy the females choosing based on similar expectations habits etc College students choosing college students or higher marry up Females may not choose Whom they are married to Sexual coercion Altmann reading on maternal behaviors using baboons Parental care any investment by the parent of an individual offspring that increases its chance of survival Preparation of nests durable safe warm etc Production of gametes females eating high quality foods Production of zygotes male insects sacrifice themselves to be eaten to secure nutrition to the female carrying its offspring providing the nutrition to the female defend resources Humans Decreased stress an energy output levels Care of eggs guarding the nests males can carry the egg around instead of leaving them in the nest Placental mammals mothers invest the most the advantage is more nutrition gt better growth and development of the offspring than external egg Afterbirthhatching provide nutrition through breast feeding mammals or feeding your offspring food eggs birds making dinner Ward off predators through physical fighting carrying offspring or concealment of offspring in a nest or burrow Learning and teaching teaching is active learning is inactive gain of knowledge Maternal instinct Ner There must be a learning component Harry Harlow motherless mother experiment the motherless mother s don t know how to be mothers when they are impregnated and give birth Unless you have been mothered yourself properly you do not know how to be a good mother In the least observing maternal behavior adds to being a good mother Lactation huge energy investment in lactating thus more food and higher quality is a necessity Great Apes 24 years OWM 1 year NWM 69 months Lemurs and prosimians 26 months In addition to lactation transport means more energy as well Motherinfant con icts Weaning is a huge con ict Continuation of this on Wednesday March 18th Menopause why do human females have a long postreproductive period Grandmothering Hypothesis menopause is an adaptation reason Looking at the Hadza peoples grandmothers are helping provide resources for already weaned children This allows mothers to put more energy into their nonweaned children Why stop weaning early Because there will be familial inclusive allocare done by grandmother Instead of attempting to reproduce more help your genes succeed through providing resources to your kin Evidence What if there is no grandmother present There will still be menopause everywhere else This may be an exception instead of the rule Varies by culture may not by universal The Good Mother Hypothesis physiological reasoning Cease reproducing around 10 years before likely to die to be able to raise that last child Putting more effort into the children you have for better quality children as opposed to having a lot of children with less care available and saying eh let s see how this one turns out Direct fitness promotion Tradeoff between high reproduction early in life and none later in life Reproductive prime is midtwenties 2326 If you take advantage of this you ll run out of good eggs early and not able to reproduce later in life Advantage overlapping kids childcare Grandmother Hypothesis can be linked into this hypothesis and vice versa Artifact of Modern Life Hypothesis Humans used to die around the age of menopause not our lives are extended passed that time of previous death aging So then why haven t we extended the age of menopause Physiologically just the aging process in general energy to keeping yourself healthy is a lot anyway adding a child to that would require more energy to be used Selection for stopping early gives way for more reproductive success kind of like the Good Mother Hypothesis People seem to always have had some postreproductive years Disadvantage to having overlapping kids competing for the same resources with your own kin How close can you have children without having them too close together So which one has more validity Utah Mormons 1860 1895 21684 couples Moms with 13 kids had the highest fitness for the late 1800s this isn t a lot of children 12 kids had the worst fitness Indication Have less children you and your children will have better fitness success Mother s mortality rates got lower the more children she had moms with more kids lives shorter lives Women die more often in childbirth the older they are Young mothers had complications as well Soooo finding the not too youngnot too old age would be ideal Supported by the Good Mother Hypothesis and by the Artifact of Modern Life tradeoff Hypothesis
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