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Date Created: 09/09/14
Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Outline 1 Chemistry of Life a Chemical elements b Electrolytes c Water properties d pH e four groups of carbon compounds The Chemical Elements 0 element simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties 0 atomic number of an element based on number of protons in nucleus 0 periodic table 118 known elements 0 24 elements have biological role in humans I 6 elements 985 of body Weight 0 Oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen calcium phosphorus I Trace elements only need a small amount of element 0 Minerals inorganic elements that are extracted from the soil by plants and passed up the food chain to humans and other organisms 0 Ca P Cl Mg K Na Fe Zn S o Constitute about 4 of body Weight I Structure I Enzymes 0 Contribute significantly to body structure 0 Also enable enzymes and other organic molecules to function Ions Electrolytes and Free Radicals 0 Ions charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons o Anion particle that gains electrons to acquire a negative charge 0 Cation loses electrons and acquires a positive charge 0 Electrolytes are the salts that ionize in Water and form solutions capable of conducting electricity 0 Any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive NaCl 9 Na Cl 0 Muscles and neurons are activated by electrolyte activity 0 Serious electrolyte disturbances dehydration overhydration imbalance in salt concentration lead to cardiac and neurological complications 0 Free radicals are chemical particles with an odd number of electrons o Produced by metabolic reactions of the body radiation and chemicals 0 Combine quickly with molecules to destroy them cancer loss of heart tissue etc 0 Antioxidants are chemicals that neutralize free radicals Isotopes and Radioactivity 0 Isotope variant of chemical element vary in number of neutrons and therefore mass 0 Radioisotopes unstable isotopes that give off radiation 0 Radioactivity the process of decay o Ionizing radiation 0 Highenergy radiation ejects electrons from atoms converting atoms to ions 0 Destroys molecules and produces dangerous free radicals amp ions in human tissue I Sources include UV light Xrays nuclear decay I Alpha particles 2 protons 2 neutrons too large to penetrate the skin I Beta particles free electron can penetrate only a few millimeters I Gamma rays penetrating very dangerous gamma rays Radiation and Madame Curie 0 First Woman to receive Nobel Prize 1903 0 First Woman in World to receive a PhD 0 Discovered radioactivity of polonium and radium coined radioactivity 0 Died of radiation poisoning at 67 Physical vs Biological Half Life 0 Physical halflife of radioisotopes 0 time needed for 50 to decay into a stable state 0 biological halflife of radioisotopes o the length of time required for 12 of a radioactive substance to be eliminated from the body 0 tritium 3H has a fairly long physical halflife but clears from the body quickly Water and Mixtures 0 Water is 50 to 75 of body Weight 0 Depends on age sex fat content etc 0 Polar covalent bonds and Vshaped molecule 0 Solvency the ability to dissolve other chemicals I Hydrophilic substances that dissolve in Water 0 Molecules must be polarized or charged I Hydrophobic substances that do not dissolve in Water Cohesion the tendency of molecules of the same substance to cling to each other Adhesion the tendency of one substance to cling to another Chemical reactivity the ability to participate in chemical reactions Thermal stability helps to stabilize the internal temperature of the body I High heat capacity takes a lot of heat to change temperature OOOO Acids Bases and pH 0 Acids any proton donor or molecule that releases a proton in Water 0 Bases a proton acceptor or substances that release hydroxide ions 0 Our body uses buffers to resist changes in pH 0 pH is a measurement of molarity of H 0 pH scale invented by Soren Sorensen in 1909 to measure acidity of beer 0 pH logH 0 a change of one number on the pH scale represents a 10fold change in H concentration Metabolism 0 metabolism all the chemical reactions of the body 0 catabolism I energyreleasing exergonic decomposition reactions I produce smaller molecules from larger ones 0 anabolism I energystoring endergonic synthesis reactions I require an energy input driven by the energy released by catabolism o catabolism and anabolism are inseparably linked Carbon Compounds and Functional Groups 0 organic chemistry the study of compounds containing carbon 0 four categories of carbon compounds 0 carbohydrates 0 lipids fats 0 proteins 0 nucleic acids composed of nucleotides Carbohydrates 0 hydrophilic organic molecule attracted to Water 0 general formula 0 CH2On n number of carbon atoms 0 Names of carbohydrates often built from root sacchar suffix ose 0 Three most important monosaccharides simple sugars o Glucose galactose and fructose 0 Same molecular formula C6H12O6 0 Disaccharide sugar molecule composed of two monosaccharides o Sucrose glucose fructose I Produced by sugarcane and sugar beets used as table sugar 0 Lactose glucose galactose I Milk sugar 0 Maltose glucose glucose I Product of starch digestion 0 Three polysaccharides of interest to humans 0 Glycogen storage form of glucose in humans 0 Starch storage form of glucose in plants 0 Cellulose structural polysaccharide found in stems of plants 0 Carbohydrates are a source of energy that can be quickly mobilized o Often covalently bound to proteins and lipids Li ids 0 Hydrophobic organic molecule do not dissolve in Water 0 Usually composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen high ratio of hydrogen 0 Primary function energy storage insulation and shock absorption adipose tissue 0 Five primary types in humans 0 Fatty acids o Triglycerides 0 Phospholipids 0 Eicosanoids o Steroids 0 Fatty acids classified as 0 Saturated I All carbons are saturated with hydrogen I Tend to be J at room temperature butter 0 Unsaturated I At least one double bond between carbons I Tend to be liguid at room temperature oils 0 Essential fatty acids I Cannot make them acquire them from diet 0 Trans fatty acids 0 Bonds around double bond go opposite ways 0 Aren t good for us stack very well 0 Cisfatty acids 0 Bonds around double bond go same direction 0 Little bit better for us don t stack as well 0 Triglycerides neutral fats 0 Molecule consisting of three fatty acids covalently bonded to 3carbon alcohol 0 Phospholipids 0 Similar to neutral fats except a phosphate group is in place of one fatty acid 0 Amphiphilic two fatty acid tails are hydrophobic but phosphate head is hydrophilic 0 Serve as the structural foundation of cell membranes 0 Eicosanoids o 20carbon compounds derived from a fatty acid called arachidonic acid I Function primarily as hormonelike chemical signals between cells 0 Includes prostaglandins produced in all tissues alert us to pain I Aspirins stop production of prostaglandins 0 Steroid a lipid with 17 of its carbon atoms in four rings 0 Cholesterol the parent steroid from which the other steroids are synthesized o Cortisol progesterone estrogens testosterone and bile acids 0 HDL highdensity lipoprotein good cholesterol low ratio of lipidprotein 0 LDL lowdensity lipoprotein bad cholesterol high ratio of lipidprotein Proteins 0 Greek word meaning of first importance 0 A polymer of amino acids central carbon with three attachments 0 Amino group NH2 carboxvl group COOH and radical group R group 0 peptide any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds 0 Dehydration synthesis 0 Monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule 0 Complex coiled and folded structures that are critically important to the roles they play Primary sequence of amino acids Secondary does it form beta sheets or alpha helix sheets Tertiary how does it fold Quarternary is it composed of subunits Nucleic Acids Polymers of nucleotides Three components of nucleotides 0 Nitrogenous base single or double carbon nitrogen ring 0 Sugar monosaccharide 0 One or more phosphate groups o Adenine nitrogenous base 0 Ribose sugar 0 Phosphate groups 3 Monomers Polymers of nucleosides DNA deoxyribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid three types needed for protein synthesis 0 mRNA rRNA tRNA
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