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Wiley Video Notes

by: Allie Goss

Wiley Video Notes IST 205

Marketplace > Kansas > Information technology > IST 205 > Wiley Video Notes
Allie Goss

Survey of Information Systems
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Notes form the videos inside the WileyPLUS sections
Survey of Information Systems
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This 26 page Bundle was uploaded by Allie Goss on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to IST 205 at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Survey of Information Systems in Information technology at Kansas.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
IST 205 Notes 08292015 Chapter 1 Video 2 Why Should I study Information Systems Information is important Be an informed user Career opportunities Information Technology is Important 0 Nervous system of the organization 0 Helps organization gain competitive advantage Homo Conexus 0 You are the most connected generation in history 0 You practice continuous computing 0 You are surrounded by a personal movable information network IT Offers Career Opportunities 0 US News and World Report quot100 BestJobs for 2013quot 4 Computer Systems Analyst 6 Database Administrator 7 Software Developer 9 Web Developer 13 Computer Programmer 20 IT Manager Video 3 What Do Information Systems Professionals Do 0 What Do MIS Professionals Do 0 Technical Skillscomputer science majors MIS majors programmer anaysts Managerial Skills MIS majors Business analysts MIS Professionals continued 0 User community communication MIS Department a Business analysts MIS majors Programmeranalysts MIS majors and computer science majors a User Community Sove Business Problems a Business Analysts understand the business problem AND understand the information technology a Programmers Managing information Resources 0 Traditional Functions of MIS Department Example manage data center more technical o Consultative Functions of MIS Department Example support all functional areas create business alliances more managerial Video 4 Overview of ComputerBased Information Systems 0 Data Information Knowledge 0 Data raw data items Information attach the name to the data Knowledge apply experience to the information ComputerBased Information Systems 0 Figure 13 pg 16 0 Information Systems Inside Your Organization 0 Figure 14 pg 16 0 Information Systems Among Organizations 0 Figure 15 pg 18 Video 5 How Does IT Impact Organizations 0 How Does IT Impact Organizations 0 O O 0 Video 6 IT reduces the number of middle managers IT changes the managers job Will IT eliminate jobs IT impacts employees at work Importance of Information Systems to Society 0 IT Affects Our Quality of Life 0 O 0 How do you get away from technology Worklife balance Vacations 0 Robot Revolution is Here Now 0 Telepresence robot Check out quottelepresence robot in actionquot on YouTube 0 Autonomous cars Check out quotSelfDriving Car Test Steven Mahanquot on YouTube 0 Drones See IT s About Business 13 I09 25 Improvements in Healthcare 0 Check out quotthe pill camquot on YouTube 0 Check out the quotdaVinci Surgical Robotquot on YouTube Chapter 2 Video 1 Business Processes Business Process collection of related activities that create a product or service CrossFunctional Business Process cross multiple functional areas in an organization 3 elements inputs resources outputs Evaluating Processes 0 Organizations use two metrics Efficiency Effectiveness Information Systems and Business Processes 0 Information systems Help in executing business processes Capture and store process data Monitor process performance Video 2 Business Process Improvement Business Process Reengineering and Process Management Business Process Reengineering examine process from quotclean sheetquot perspective Business Process Improvement focuses on reducing variations in process output 0 Less risky 0 Less Costly 0 Less time overall 0 consume fewer organizational resources Business Process Management sustains BPI initiatives over time Business Activity Monitoring realtime approach to managing business processes Video 3 Business Pressures Organizational Responses and Information Technology Support Business Pressures 0 Market Pressures 0 Technology Pressures o Societal Pressures 0 Political changes Market Pressures o The Global Economy and strong Competition 0 The Changing Nature of the Workforce 0 Powerful Customers The Stages of Globalization from Thomas Friedman in The World is Flat 0 Globalization 10 from 1492 to 1800 Muscle horsepower steam power 0 Globalization 20 from 1800 to 2000 First half falling transportayion costs Second half falling communications costs 0 Globalization 30 from 2000 to the present Friedman s atteners Technology Pressures 0 Technology Innovation and Obsolescence 0 Information Overload SocietalPoliticalLegal Pressures 0 Social Responsibility 0 Government Regulation and Deregulation 0 Protection Against Terrorist Attacks 0 Ethical Issues Organizational Responses 0 Strategic Systems O O 0 Customer Focus MaketoOrder and mass customization See Bodymetrics video on YouTube Ebusiness and Ecommerce Video 4 Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems 0 Competitive Advantage O O 0 Information systems help organizations respond to business pressures Any information system can be strategic meaning that it can provide a competitive advantage Competitive advantage any assets that provide an organization with an edge against competitors in measures such as cost quality or speed Porter s Competitive Forces Model 0 O O O O O O O Threat of entry of new competitors is high when it is easy to enter a market and low when signi cant barriers to entry exist A barrier to entry is a product or service feature that customers expect from organizations in a certain industry For most organizations the internet increases the threat that new competitors will enter a market The bargaining power of suppliers is high when buyers have few choices and low when buyers have many choices lnternet impact is mixed Buyers can nd alternative suppliers and compare prices more easily reducing power of suppliers On the other hand as companies use the Internet to integrate their supply chains suppliers can lock in customers The bargaining power of buyers is high when buyers have many choices and low when byers have few choices lnternet increases buyers access to information increasing buyer power lnternet reduces switching costs which are the costs in money and time to buy elsewhere Lower switching costs increases buyer power The threat of substitute products or services is high when there are many subsitiutes for an organization s products or services and low where there are few substitutes o Informationbased industries are in the greatest danger from this threat eg music books software The internet can convey digital information quickly and ef ciently o The rivalry among rms in an industry is high when there is fierce competition and low when there is not Video 42 Part 2 0 Primary Activities 0 Primary Activities manufacturing company Inbound logistic Operations manufacturing and testing Outbound logistics storage and distribution Marketing and sales Services 0 Support Activities Accounting nance management Product and technology development RampD Procurement Video 43 Part 3 0 Strategies for Competitive Advantage 0 Cost Leadership WalMart o Differentiation Southwest Airlines 0 Operational Effectiveness Norfolk Southern o Customerorientation Amazon Video 5 Business Information Technology Alignment o The tight integration of the IT function with the organization s strategy mission and goals 0 Business managers and IT managers have different objectives 0 Business and IT departments re ignorant of the other group s expertise o A lack of communication Introduction to Hardware Video 1 Introduction to Hardware 0 Hardware is the physical equipment used for the input processing output and storage activities of the computerbased information system 0 Hardware decisions focus on Appropriateness for the task Speed Cost 0 Overall Trends in Hardware 0 Smaller Faster Cheaper More powerful COO 0 These trends are so rapid that it is dif cult to know when to purchase or upgrade hardware 0 Hardware Components 0 Central processing unit 0 Primary storage 0 Secondary storage 0 Input technologies 0 Communication technologies 0 Strategic Hardware Issues 0 How to keep up with rapid price reduction and performance advancements in hardware 0 How should organization determine need for new hardware Video 2 Computer Memory 0 Two Basic Categories of Computer Memory 0 Primary storage main memory stores small amounts of data that CPU will use immediately 0 Secondary storage stores much larger amounts of data for extended periods of time 0 Memory Capacity 0 Kilobyte about 1000 bytes Megabyte about 1 Million bytes Gigabyte about 1 billion bytes Terabyte about 1 trillion bytes Petabyte about 1000 terabytes OOOO o Exabyte about 1000 Petabytes o Zettabyte about 1000 exabytes Primary Storage 0 Registers part of CPU least capacity store limited amounts of instructions and data only immediately before and after processing 0 Cache memory highspeed memory to temporarily store blocks of oftenused data 0 Random access memory RAM part of primary storage that holds a software program and small amounts of data for processing is volatile o Readonly memory place where critical instructions are safeguarded Secondary Storage 0 Magnetic tape cheapest storage medium sequential access 0 Magnetic disk hard drive highspeed storage on rotating disks 0 Solid state drives same purpose as hard drives but store data on chips no moving parts use less power generate less heat are more expensive 0 Optical storage devices do not store data via magnetism but use a laser that reads the surface of a re ective plastic platter Compact disk readonly memory CDROM Digital video disk DVD 0 Flash memory devices memory cards nonvolatile electronic storage devices contain no moving parts thumb drives Video 3 Computer Hierarchy Supercomputers o Fastest computers available at a given time 0 Used by organizations for computationally demanding tasks Mainframes 0 Used for extensive computing applications that are accessed by thousands of users at one time Midrange computers 0 Relatively small inexpensive computers that perform the main functions of mainframes but to a more limited extent Microcomputers o Smallest least expensive general purpose computers 0 Desktop personal computers Thinclient systems a Do not have locally installed software w Access applications over the network Fatclient systems I Have locally installed software a Run applications directly 0 Laptop and notebook computers 0 Netbooks 0 Tablets Wearable computers 0 Miniature computers that people wear under with or on top of their clothing Constant interaction between computer and users Users can multitask a Sony SmartWatch a Google Glass Augmented Reality 0 A live direct or indirect view of a physical realworld environment whose elements are enhanced by computer generated sensory input such as sound video graphics or GPS data Video 4 Input and Output Technologies 0 Input Technologies 0 Two Main Types Human DataEntry Keyboard mouse etc Source DataAutomation bar code readers a Increased speed a Reduce errors a Gather data at the source of a transaction 0 Gesturebased input technologies that enable computers to interpret human gestures Nintendo Wii Microsoft Kinect Leap Motion Controller 0 Output Technologies enable computers to provide information to us 0 Screens 0 Microphones 0 Printers 0 Multimedia Technology 0 Multimedia technology computerbased integration of text sound still images animation and digitized full motion video A collection of input and output technologies Video 5 The Central Processing Unit 0 The central processing unit CPU preforms the actual computation inside any computer 0 CPU is also called the microprocessor CPU Components 0 O O 0 Control Unit sequentially accesses program instructions decodes them and controls data ow to and from the ALU Arithmeticlogic unit performs the mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons Registers highspeed storage areas that store very small amounts of data and instructions for short periods of time Primary storage highspeed storage that stores data to be processed by the CPU instructions telling CPU how to process data and operating system programs 0 Advances in Microprocessor Design 0 OO Moore s Law microprocessor complexity doubles approximately every 2 years Increasingly miniaturized transistors Multiple processors CPUs on one chip multicore chips Threedimensional chips Software Video 1 Introduction to Software 0 Key Terms 0 Software computer programs sequences of instructions that enable the hardware to process data 0 Programming the process of writing or coding computer programs 0 Documentation written description of a computer program s funcUons Software Trends 0 Increasingly complex 0 Increasingly expensive Today software is a much larger percentage of the total cost of computerbased information systems than hardware 0 Increased potential for errors bugs 0 Systems Software and Application Software 0 Systems software set of computer instructions that serves primarily as an intermediary between computer hardware and application programs 0 Application software set of computer instructions that provide speci c functionality to a user Application software cannot run on a computer hardware without systems software Video 2 Software Issues 0 Software Defects 0 quotGoodquot software usable reliable defect free cost effective maintainable Unfortunately on average professional programmers make between 100 and 150 errors in every 1000 lines of code they write 0 Software Licensing 0 Copying proprietary software without permission is illegal called piracy o Difficult to keep track of compliance with software copyrights external companies will perform copyright audits 0 Open Systems 0 Open Systems group of computing products that work together OpenSource Software 0 Proprietary software purchased software that has restrictions on its use copying and modi cation 0 OpenSource Software source code available at no cost to both developers and users 0 Opensource software advantages Produces highquality reliable exible lowcost software Bugs discovered and xed early and quickly Technical support education and training often available from vendors providing the software 0 OpenSource software disadvantages Companies using opensource software depend on good will of volunteers for enhancements Companies that do not have inhouse technical expertise must purchase maintenance contracts User training issues Compatibility with existing organizational information systems Video 3 Systems Software and Application Software 0 The Operating System 0 Provided by systems software 0 Supervises overall operation of your computer system 0 Provides the interface between the user and the hardware Graphical user interface GUI allows users to directly control the hardware by manipulating visible objects icons that replace complex commands 0 Application Software 0 What organizations and individuals use 0 Package or software suite group of programs with integrated functions that has been developed by a vendor and is available for purchase in a packaged form Microsoft Office Spreadsheets Word processing Desktop publishing Data management Presentation Graphics Communications and collaboration 0 Chapter 3 Video 1 Ethical Issues 0 Ethical Frameworks o Utilitarian approach Provides the most good or does the least harm 0 Rights approach Best protects the moral rights of the affected parties 0 Fairness approach Treat all humans equally or if unequally then fairly based on some defensible standard 0 Common good approach Respect and compassion for others is basis for ethical acUons General Framework for Ethics 0 Recognize an ethical issue 0 Get the facts 0 Evaluate alternative actions 0 Make a decision and test it 0 Act and re ect on the outcome of your decision Ethics in the Corporate Environment 0 Code of Ethics collection of principles intended to guide decision making by members of the organization 0 Fundamental tenets of ethics Responsibility you accept consequences of your actions Accountability determining who is responsible for actions that were taken Liability legal concept that gives individuals the right to recover damages done to them Unethical vs lllegal o What is unethical is not necessarily illegal take a look ahead at the opening case of Chapter 4 Debate the ethics and legality of Megaupload s actions Ethics and Information Technology 0 Four categories of ethical issues involving IT applications Pdvacylssues Accuracy lssues Property Issues Accessibility Issues Video 2 Privacy Issues 0 Court decisions have followed two rules 0 The right of privacy is not absolute Your privacy must be balanced against the needs of society 0 The public s right to know is superior to the individual s right of privacy 0 Threats to Privacy 0 Data aggregators digital dossiers and pro ling 0 Electronic Surveillance 0 Personal Information in Databases Banks Utility companies Government agencies Credit reporting agencies a Equifax Experian TransUnion 0 Information on Internet Bulletin Boards Newsgroups and Social Networking Sites Anyone can post derogatory information about you anonymously You can also hurt yourself regarding personal information that you post online 0 What Can You Do O 0 First be careful what information you post on social networking sites Second check out Reputationcom a company that says it can remove derogatory information about you from the Web 0 Protecting Privacy 0 Privacy Codes and Policies Optout Model you have to speci cally opt out youre in until you say youre not Optin Model youre out until you say youre in stricter Chapter 4 Video 1 Introduction to Information Security Threats can come from anywhere See quotSuki the hackerquot on YouTube 0 Key Information Security Terms 0 O O 0 Information security procedures to protect information assets from unauthorized access use disclosure disruption modi cation or destruction Threat any danger to which information assets may be exposed Exposure harm loss or damage that can result to an information asset if a threat compromises that resource Vulnerability possibility that an information asset will be harmed by a threat 0 Five Factors Increasing the Vulnerability of Information Resources 0 OO Todays interconnected interdependent wirelesslynetworked business environment Smaller faster cheaper computers and storage devices Decreasing skills necessary to be a hacker Organized crime taking over cybercrime Video 2 0 Lack of management support Unintentional Threats to Information Systems Human Errors 0 Carelessness with laptops and portable computing devices 0 Opening questionable emails o Careless internet sur ng 0 Poor password selection and use 0 And more Regular Employees more dangerous than others 0 MIS have access to everything 0 HR have access to your personal records Other Employees 0 Janitors 0 Consultants 0 Security guards Social Engineering 0 Two examples Tailgating a Security Door swipe card both hands full and someone comes in behind you Shoulder sur ng someone looks over your shoulder when you are on your computer and picks up valuable information Video 3 Deliberate Threats to Information Systems Espionage or trespass Unauthorized individual attempts to gain illegal access to information assets note competitive intelligence is legal Information extortion Sabotage or vandalism Theft of equipment or information Identity theft deliberate assumption of another persons identity Compromises to intellectual property 0 Trade secret intellectual work that is not available to the public 0 Patent grants holder exclusive rights on an invention for speci ed period of time 0 Copyright provides creators of intellectual property with ownership for designated period Alien software clandestine software installed on your computer through duplicitous methods 0 Adware 0 Spyware keyloggers screen scrapers o Spamware 0 Tracking cookies Video 4 Deliberate Threats to Information Systems Part 2 Deliberate Threats Software Attacks 0 Remote Attacks Requiring User Action Virus Worm Phishing Attack use deception to acquire sensitive information by masquerading as official emails Spear Phishing Attack 0 Remote Attacks Needing No User Action DenialofService Attack Distributed DenialofService Attack zombies bots botnets o Attacks by a Programmer Developing a System Trojan Horse hide in other programs and reveal designed behavior only when activated Back Door allows access to computer system without having to go through security procedures Logic Bomb embedded in existing programs and designed to activate and perform destructive action at a certain date and time Video 5 Deliberate Threats to Information Systems Part 3 Deliberate Threats o Supervisory control and data acquisition SCADA attacks A SCADA system is a largescale distributed measurement and control system Link between electronic and physical world 0 Cyberwarfare and Cyberterrorism For an example of cyberwar see this video on YouTube quotCyber Attacks on Estonia on April 2007quot I Also see lT s About Business 43 Video 6 What Organizations are Doing to Protect Information Resources 0 Why is information Security So Difficult 0 Numerous threats Computing resources located many places Internal networks linked to external networks People violate security when it is inconvenient Preventative costs are often very high 0 Key Terms Risk probability that a threat will impact an information asset Risk Management reduce risk to acceptable levels Risk Analysis ensure that security programs are cost effective Risk Mitigation organization takes actions against risks Risk acceptance Risk limitation Risk transference buying insurance 0 O O O 0000 Video 7 Information Security Controls 0 Types of Controls 0 Physical controls prevent unauthorized individuals from gaining access to a company s facilities Locks guards dogs sensors etc 0 Access controls Restrict unauthorized individuals from using information resources Authentication con rms identity I Something the user is biometrics n Something the user has ID card token n Something the user does signature voice a Something the user knows password passphrase Authorization determines the privileges n Principle of least privilege 0 Communications controls Video 8 Communications Controls 0 Communications controls secure the movement of data across a network 0 Types of Communications Controls 0 Firewalls Prevent unauthorized users from accessing intranet o Antimalware systems Also called antivirus systems Attempt to identify malicious software malware n Examples Norton AntiVirus McAfee VirusScan Trend Micro PCCillin o Whitelisting and blacklisting Whitelisting process where company identi es software that it will allow to run on its systems Blacklisting process where company identi es software that it will not allow to run on its systems Which one is more restrictive n Whitelisting Video 9 Communications Controls Part 2 0 Types of Communications Controls 0 Encryption Figure 44 How publickey encryption works 0 Virtual private networking 0 Secure socket layer Secure Socket layer now called transport layer security and encryption standard used for secure transactions such as credit card purchases and online baking a Look for https instead of http in the URL a URL may be colored green I May see small locked padlock 0 Employee monitoring systems Systems that monitor employees computers email activities and Internet sur ng activities Video 10 Business Continuity Planning 0 Business continuity the chain of events linking planning to protection to recovery 0 Objective restore organization to normal operations as quickly as possible 0 Strategies for Business Continuity 0 Hot site fully con gured computer facility with services applications communications and physical operations Reduce risk to the greatest extent but are the most expensive option 0 Warm site similar to hot site but without the applications 0 Cold site provides only rudimentary services and facilities Reduce the risk the least but are the least expensive op on Video 11 Information Systems Auditing o Auditing around the computer check for known outputs using speci c inputs Auditing through the computer check inputs outputs and processing Auditing with the computer use live data to examine processing


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