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Class Notes from 08/24-09/16

by: Zaji-Kali Boyer

Class Notes from 08/24-09/16 BIO 1331

Marketplace > Texas State University > Biology > BIO 1331 > Class Notes from 08 24 09 16
Zaji-Kali Boyer
Texas State
GPA 3.14
Caitlin Gabor

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About this Document

This is a compilation of all the notes from 08/24 til 09/16. I am missing one day of notes because I was sick but everything else is there!
Caitlin Gabor
75 ?





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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Zaji-Kali Boyer on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIO 1331 at Texas State University taught by Caitlin Gabor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see ORGANISMAL BIOLOGY in Biology at Texas State University.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
BIO 1331 92015 607 PM Wha r does rhe scien riFic me rhod en rails There a problem rhen a hypo rhesis come up wi rh res rable variables make an experimen r re res r your resul rs For accuracy Real process oF Science Tes ring Ideas 0 Explora rion and Discovery I Making observa rions asking ques rions Finding inspira rion exploring rhe li rera rure o Tes ring ideas I Ga rhering da ra U Hypo rhesis U Expec red resul rsobserva rions I Ac rual resul rs observa rions o In rerpre ring da ra I Suppor r or oppose I Inspire revised or new hypo rhesis o Communi ry Analysis and Feedback I Feedback and peer reviews I Publica rion I Replica rion I Coming up wi rh new ideas I Provide da ra For rheory building 0 BeneFi rs and Ou rcomes I Develop rechnology I Build knowledge I InForm policy I Solve everyday problems I Sa risFy curiosi ry Overview oF Semes rer Fac rs are meaningless wi rhou r con rex r Unders rand wha r you39re learning and how if Fi rs in wi rh o rher subjec rs Evolu rion 1 Organisms 2 In rerac rions among organisms 3 Communi ry s rruc rure 4 Ecosys rems biology Evolu rion Scien ris r donquotr believe in evolu rion BelieF sugges r Fai rh bu r evolu rion is empirically proven making i r non rheis ric Does rha r make evolu rion a Fac r or rheory o If is bo rh I r consis r oF observable Fac rs and res rable rheories Fac r an observa rion rha r has been repea redly conFirmed Law a descrip rive generaliza rion abou r how some aspec r oF na rural world behaves under s ra red circums rances Hypo rhesis a res rable s ra remen r abou r na rural world rha r can be used To build more complex inFerences and explana rions Theory a wellsubs ran ria red explana rion oF some aspec r oF na rural world rha r can incorpora re Fac rs laws inFerences and res red hypo rheses A Good Theory 0 Is FalsiFiablefes rable o Is in harmony wi rh o rher hypo rheses in The Field o Is logically simple no ex rra assump rions 0 Should yield deduc rion or have consequences 0 Is parsimonious or simple be r rer rhan complex a dependence on observa rion and measuremen r rha r o rher can veriFy a requiremen r rha r ideas are res rable An in rroduc rion ro Hypo rhesis Tes ring FalsiFica rion oF hypo rhesis No number oF conFirming observa rion can veriFy a universal generaliza rion We can r prove rhings in science Revise rhe hypo rhesis 92015 607 PM Experimen rs Meiosis O Allows researchers ro res r he eFFec r oF a single Fac ror on a par ricular phenomenon Componen rs oF a good experimen r o Con rrol group ro check For o rher Fac rors rha r migh r influence The resul rs o Experimen ral condi rions con rrolled ro elimina re ex rraneous various 0 Tes rs are repea red ro reduce rhe eFFec rs oF random varia rion sample size How we ge r diversi ry Gene 0 Discre re uni r oF inheri rance rha r aFFec rs rhe pheno rype o Locusplacespo r on The chromosome 0 Nucleo ride sequence along a region oF DNA molecule Flow oF inForma rion in rhe Cell 0 Geno rype de rermined by sequence on bases in i rs DNA 0 Pheno rype is a produc r oF pro reins produced I Physical appearance 0 Alleles oF same gene diFFer in rheir DNA sequence 0 Pro reins produced by diFFeren r alleles oF same gene Frequen rly diFFer in rheir amino acid sequence Heri rabili ry o OFFspring acquire genes Form paren rs by inheri ring chromosomes I DNA is replica red and rhe we ge r copies oF genes oF rhe genes Then sperm and egg game res carry paren r39s genes which combine in nucleus ro crea re zygo re Meiosis is a rype oF nuclear division 0 These cells have 12 as many chromosomes as paren r cell I In animals rhis happens prior ro game re produc rion 0 Egg and sperm cell combing which rhen equals The original number oF chromosomes 0 Each cell produced by meiosis receives a diFFeren r combina rion oF chromosomes 0 Varia rion is rhe resul r 0 Genes are passed To all soma ric cells by mi rosis 0 Cells have diFFeren r rypes oF chromosomes I Chromosomes come in pairs I Homologous chromosomes carry same genes bu r each homolog con rains diFFeren r alleles Phases oF Meiosis Early Prophase La re Prophase Me raphase P9P Anaphase 5 Telophase Key DiFFerences be rween mi rosis and meiosis Reduc rions division chromosome number is reduced by 12 in meiosis bu r no r in mi rosis Mi rosis produces 2 daugh rer cells rha r are gene rically iden rical ro paren r and each o rher Sexual reproduc rion and Gene ric Varia rion 3 mechanisms 0 crossing over exchange oF gene ric ma rerial be rween por rions oF nonsis rer chroma rids prophase 1 meiosis I new combina rion oF alleles on same chromosomes diFFeren r From paren rs o independen r assor rmen r random dis rribu rion oF ma rernal and paren ral homologous chromosomes info 2 game res meiosis 1 I only yield ma rernal or pa rernal game res 0 random Fer riliza rion random Fusion oF game res I any sperm can Fuse wi rh any egg I zygo res are composed 0F 1 in 70 rrillion possible combina rions oF chromosomes I and crossing over adds ro rhis varia rion as well Origin oF Gene rics Varia rion o ReshuFFling oF exis ring alleles o Mu ra rions ul rima re source oF all varia rion Why Sex Sex is rypically a binary ca regory Gender is a con rinuous ca regory a person can be more or less Feminine or masculine Sex chromosomes no r generally useFul cri rerion Male and Female are deFines by rela rive size oF rheir game res or Anisogamy 0 Females produce rela rively Few bu r expensive provisioned sex cells 0 Males produce many more bu r cheap sex cells For sex Fo evolve and be main rained beneFi rs mus r be grea rer Fhan rhe cost 0 Recombina rion genes inheri red From diFFeren r paren rs are brough r Foge rher in a single oFFspring by independen r assor rmen r oF genes on diFFeren r chromosomes or by crossing over oF genes on same chromosomes 0 Cour rship and ma ring may be risky Preda rion Sexually rransmi r red disease Compe ri rion AF low popula rion densi ries sexual reproduc rion may be diFFicul r Fo coordina re Par rhenogenesis no males are needed ensures Fha r reproduc rion will be possible a r any Fime or place 0 Wi rh sex you need 2 individuals Fo make one new individual Why is gene ric varia rion advan rageous 0 Red queen Hypo rhesis o Environmen ral varia rion Hypo rhesis 92015 607 PM What is conservation Biology 0 A response to global environment change that s threatening a tremendous portion of world s biological diversity 0 Goals to preserve evolutionary and ecology processes that generate diversity and that sustain diversity over the long term 0 Provide intellectual and technological tools to help anticipate prevent minimize and repair ecological damage Biodiversity The tree of life 0 Three levels of biodiversity 1 Geneticallelic diversity i Number and relative frequency of alleles in a species ii Id a local population becomes extinct ten entire population of that species lost some genetic diversity a Detrimental to overall adaptive prospects 2 Species diversity i Number of species on earth ii Biodiversity crisis centers on species iii Focus of most government groups a Eg US endangered species Act ESA i Endangered vs threatened 3 Ecosystem diversity i Array of biotic communities in a region and abiotic compnents Ssoil water weather etc a Gives rise to certain kinds of plant and animal communities whose needs are met by interacting with all other parts of system ii Local extinction of one species eg keystone speciesgtaffect an entire community Biodiversity is dynamic 0 when biodiversity increases branches and tips are added to trees When extinctions occur tips and perhaps branches are removed Taxonomic diversity important because some lineages on the tree of life are extremely species rich eg ciclids other lineages are extremely species poor 0 How many species are living today o 15 million species have been cataloged only a tiny fraction of number present 0 2 approaches to estimate total number of species surveys of speciesrich groups insects at small sites taxonspecific suveys surveys of all species in a region Great Smokey Mountain alltaxa surveys 0 6th mass extinction in history of life is occurring Threats to Biodiversity o IUCN Destinations of threatened species 13 of birds threatened 25 mammals threatened 41 of amphibians threatened 0 Habitat destruction Fragmented into small patches which leads to loss of biodiversity o Overexploitation Humans harvesting of wild plants or animals at rates exceeding ability of populations of those species to rebound Invasive Species Introduced nonnative or exotic n Species introduced deliberately or accidentally from somewhere else Invasive species a Species that spread subsequent to establishment usually at some cost 0 Why are introduced species successful Escape from natural enemies n Predators parasites disease Increased competitive ability I Outcompete native species Preadapted to disturbed environments 0 Impacts on Native species Can be u Predators n Competitors n Parasites n Diseases n Modify habitat n Promote spread of other invaders n Promote spread of disease Ultimates reduce reproductive success of populations Fish introduction can contribute to global amphibian decHne Biodiversity in the Edwrd s Plateau n Habitats aquifers and Sprints n Many endemic species 0 Plants Invertebrates 0 Fish 0 Sala ma nders Predation n Lethal 0 Death 0 Prey need effective predator recognition or avoidance responses 0 Detection of predatory stimuli Chemical cues Visual cues Tactilevibration cues 0 Identification Association of a predator with a threat Innate recognition 0 No experience required to detect and identify predators o Coevolution of predator and prey Nonnative Predators o Innate predatory recognition Lack of recognition of novel stimuli n Sublethal Time allocation Climate changes Affects 0 Loss of coral reefs due to hightemperature induced bleaching 0 Loss of habitat for species native to artic and alpine tundras Direct link between C02 released by human fossil fuel and increase in atmospheric C02 0 Global warming and global climate change are the same phenomenon but it different emphases How much will climate change 0 Average global temperature increased 74 celcius during 2th century 0 Seconday effects of warming 0 Heat can alter ydrological cycles Melting of ice caps Windiness Storming Effects on Oranisms 0 Changes in phenology Lengthening of growing season in N hemisphere Amphibian breeding seasons advancing Earlier phytoplankton blooms Mean clutch laying earlier by many birds Menzel amp Dose 2005 92015 607 PM Efects on Organisms Changes in phenology 0 Why is it a problem Species interaction and synchrony n Disruption of coordination in timing btw 1 Prey and predators 2 Plants and herbivores 3 Plants and pollinators 4 Etc Range Shift n Antarctic Decline in sea ice extent decline in ice algae decline in krill N Hemispher temperate species 0 Expansion of n boundaries in some bird and butterfly species as well as in dragonflies n Tropical species 0 Changing in wintering range a ELevationaI shifts 0 Bids and butterflies movement up snowpack has moved up too in Rockies n Pest and Disease Shift 0 Moving poleward and upward Disease caring ticks increase Extinctions n Amphibians 67 of harlequin frog species extinct increase in elevation range into area of fungal disease a Tropical coral reefs More extreme weather events as consequence of global change 0 El Nino and bleaching events 0 16 of corals rendering globally extinct Evolutionary Change in Populations El a Changing temp causing allele frequency to changes evolving due to global warming n More alleles that increase fitness in hot habitats o What is the problem with rapid change Populations need novel mutations to respond to selection Need time populations cannot evolve fast enough to outrun extinction Mendelian Gentics Principle of segregation o Separationof homologous chromosomes meiosis I explains why alleles of same gene segregate to different gametes Principle of independent assortment o If genes are located on different chromosomes then the alleles of each gene are transmitted to egg cells and sperm cells independently of each other 0 Mendel 1822884 0 Hypothesis 1 blending hypothesis genetic material contributed by each parent mixes Prediction after many generation a freely mating population should give rise to a uniform population of individuals Not supported because there was lots of variation 0 Hypothesis 2 particulate inheritance Parents pass on discrete heritable units that retain their separate identities in offspring 0 Used pure lines Produce identical offspring when selfed true breeding o Hybrids Mix of 2 pure lines that differ in F1 92015 607 PM Principle of independent assortment the genes for seed shapes and seed color assort independently because they are located on different chromosomes Sex X Linked Inheritance X and Y sex chromosomes 0 Determine sex of offspring o XX female 0 XY male Rarely undergo crossing over not really homologous o X chromosomes has genes for traits unrelated to sex 0 X is larger than Y which means more X link traits X linked inheritance is that a gene is on the X chromosomes so if its male then it will sometimes not show up especially if its recessive Sexlinked genesexed linked inheritance o If a question asks of female carriers then look only at females Males are more likely to inherit sex linked recessive disorders than females One dose 0 Females are unlikely to inherit double does of mutant allele Important clarification 0 Terms linkage and sexlinkage differ in meaning 0 If a single gene is sexlinked means that it make sup part of a sex chromosomes 0 If 2 or more genes are linked that means they are located on the same chromosome 0 Each chromosomes has 1005 or 10005 of genes Recombination Recombination can occur between any 2 genes on a chromosome 0 Amount of crossing over depends on how close genes are to each other on the chromosomes Crossing over rarely occurs in genes that are close together Linked genes are inherited together 0 Notice that recombinant frequency are not always additive 0 Multiple crossing over event 0 Second crossing over cancels out lst and reduced observed number of recombinant offspring Dihybrid test cross 1111 is expected of gametes Genetic Mapping 0 You can construct a genetic map using centimorgans What is the most likely gene order 0 Establish distance of farthest genes 0 Determine order of 1 and 3 genes Incomplete dominance in flower color Alleles of a gene re not always clearly dominant or recessive Phenotypic ratio of 121 Mixing almost Codominance Heterozygous organism has phenotype of both alleles of single gene dominance relationships have nothing to do with fitness 0 dominant alleles do not always increase fitness 0 dominant alleles are not always more common than recessive alleles Multiple Allelism 0 Some genes have more than 2 alleles ie ABO blood type Pleiotropic genes Affect more than one phenotypic character GeneGene interactions 0 A genetic model based on genebygene interactions can explain the results Dashes in genotype mean that either allele can be present 0 Two genes interact to produce comb phenotype Epistasis 0 Gene at one locus alters phenotypic expression of gene at 2nd locus o 2 genes are involved in a given pathway functional products from both are required for expression one recessive allelic pair at either locus results in mutant phenotype GenebyEnvironment Phenylketonuria PKU genebyenvironment interaction 0 Untreated Phenylalanine accumulates in the body Results in neurocognitive problems Individuals placed on a lowphenylalanine diet develop normally 92015 607 PM Quan ri ra rive frai rsproduced by ac rions of many genes Polygenic inheri ranceeach gene adds Epigene rics Non sequence dependen r inheri rance Some changes in gene expression fha r are in fac r heri rable DNA Me rhyla rion and His rone Modifica rions form fhe Epigene ric code Au rosomal Recessive rrai r ie Sickle Cell Disease Females and males are equally likely fo be affec red Affec red offspring of ren have unaffec red paren rs Unaffec red paren rs of affec red offspring are he rerozygous carriers Affec red offspring are homozygous If bo rh paren rs are he rerozygous abou r 12 of rhe offspring will be affec red Trai r of ren skips genera rions Au rosomal Dominan r Trai rs Males and females are equally likely fo be affec red Affec red offspring have a r leas r one affec red paren r XLinked recessive redgreen color blindness Males are affec red more frequen rly fhan females Trai r is never passed from fa rher fo son Affec red sons are usually born ro carrier mo rhers Abou r 12 of rhe sons will be affec red All daugh rer od affec red males and unaffec red non carrier females are carriers Trai r of ren skips genera rions Xlinked dominan r hypophospha remia Males and females are equally likely fo be affec red All daugh rer of an affec red fa rher are affec red bu r no sons 0 Affec red sons always have affec red mo rher Abou r 12 of offspring of an affec red mo rher will be affec red Affec red daugh rers can have an affec red mo rher or fa rher Trai r does no r skip genera rions Pre19fh cen rury dogma Separa re crea rion of all crea rures o Organized info a hierarchy chain of being wi rh Man occupying mos r eleva red rank benea rh God 6000 year limi r on age oF plane r Evolu rion Theory oF evolu rion by na rural selec rion For sever reasons 0 Over rurned idea rha r Species Evidence For change rhrough rime Ex rinc rion O 0 Fossil rraces oF organism rha r live in pas r Those rha r have been Found and described are called rhe Fossil record Many Fossil provide evidence For ex rinc r species unlike any know living organisms Ex rinc r species succeeded in The same region by similar species Ex rinc r Forms are ances ror oF modern Forms Species change over rime


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