Test 1 Notes!
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Lana Rose Betts
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 4930 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Wen Li in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Affective Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
8252015 0 Emotion is an adaptive response it is part of our decision making and reasoning processes 0 It is the highest level of bioregulation o Contributes largely to homeostasis o It is critical to learning and memory 0 Emotion is expressed through posture facial expression heart rate and blood pressure All bodily responses are fed back to the brain 0 Most of the responses are unconscious o The amygdala is responsible for fear and the responses are mainly unconscious o The frontal lobe also controls emotion through logical reasoning and considering the outcome and consequences 0 Several distinctions must be made 0 Consciousness and cognition o Emotion and cognition o Implicit vs eXplicit memory 0 Nature and nurture o The amagylda controls fear 0 It responds to stimuli unconsciously o It reacts Without thinking processing through cortex 0 The amygdala inputs to the corteX but the corteX does not input to the amygdala o Emotions can occur and the corteX Will not know What is going on o Emotions are very compleX and diverse 8272015 0 Emotions involve conscious and unconscious reactions 0 both cognitive and physiological 0 they have hedonic value 000000 0 they have a particular internal bodily response and a particular motor outcomes they trigger action and cognitive responses emotions do not last long but moods due they can act as motivation they can be pleasant or unpleasant it is eXplicit and implicit implicit processes in uence re exive behaviors and automatic coding eXplicit processes voluntary behavior and cognitive appraisal 0 Functions of emotions include 0 000000 0 Source of information Making decisions Help us communicate With others Social behavior Create cognitive bias and maintain selfesteem A useful indicator of the nature of the situation Implicit hunch knowledge Hedonic experience 0 There are classes of emotions O Q We look at these to understand affective states There are basic and social emotions 0 Basic Emotions O 0000 O Anger Attack Aggressionconfrontation Fear can be a dominant emotion threat or danger fight ightfreeze Sadness loss seeking comfortWithdraw Disgust bodymoral violation rejection Surprise Alertness inquisition Joy reward gain attachment 0 Nonbasic emotions O O emotions blends emotional cognitivesituational blends social emotions o Are emotions biological or conscious experience o Somatic Theory of Emotion jameslange theory 0 The body informs the mind body changes are accompanied by different emotions different emotions are reactions of different physiological arousal Distinct patterns of ANS for each emotions OOOO facialfeedback hypothesis facial expressions 0 There are two other theories of emotion 0 Cognitive Theory of emotion 0 We recognize emotion because we evaluate our current situation 0 Twofactor theory of emotion I Situational factors determine emotion I Autonomic arousal is responsible for the intensity of the emotions I Cognitive attribution evaluating emotion o Behaviorism learning theories 0 Classical Conditioning 912015 0 The simplest ways to learn about feelings are 0 Study the affective eXperience across different cultures 0 Study animals emotional behavior 0 Analyze the brain circuit from which feelings arise 0 Issues with affective neuroscience o What are the underlying brain circuits 0 How emotions emerge from interacting brain circuits 0 Basic Premises o Emotions are instinctive c As emotions mature we learn to make effective behavioral choices 0 Different emotional tendencies emerge at different times in your life 0 Historical aspects 0 Psychoanalysis I Feelings and thoughts are everything I Biology doesn39t matter I Conceptual not scienti cally o Behaviorism I Thoughts and feelings do not matter I Our behaviors are a learn set of responses 0 There are many different theories for the order of events that occurs when we experience an emotional trigger 0 Timeline in powerpoint shows the discoveries we made and how our understanding of the brain and emotion advanced over time I Major ones are circled in red and on second slide 0 Somatic Marker Hypothesis 0 A key role for bodily feedback in emotion implicating the PFC where codes are stored for bodily feedback of emotion o Somatic markers physiological reactions previous emotional events 0 Emotion as information feelings as monitors 0 Somatic markers allow decisions to be made in situations where analysis is not significant 0 Valenceasymmetry hypothesis 0 Promotes adaptive goals by linking the choices to emotional consequences 0 Leftsided PCF Approach related goals 0 Rightsided PCF Withdrawal related goals 0 Emotion Systems 0 Singlesystem A particular region is responsible for a particular emotion o Multiplesystem A large set of regions are responsible for an emotion 0 Big Questions in Affective Neuroscience 0 Freewill Are we really free I Fsu free will and science project 0 Is pleasure simply a sensation like sweetness I No because of cognition 932015 Is the hedonic og sweetness and other sensory pleasures somehow added to pure sensation signal I Yes additional hedonic impact circuits are involved ls human pleasure similar to or different from other animals I The brain circuits are similar but human cognition enriches our experiences Is pleasure simply getting what you want I No it is meeting something that bene ts you Are liking and wanting two words for the same pleasure process I No liking is a hedonic experience wanting is a drive or incentive Can pleasure be objectively observed I Yes basic core liking Are pleasure and pain on a continuum I Essentially yes because when we feel less pain we experience more pleasure Does pleasure have an evolutionary function I Yes pleasure is motivation What brain substrates actually cause pleasure I There is no single one it seems that there is a pattern distributed among various areas and regions of the brain 0 Levels of Affective Neuroscience 0 CellularMolecular Linking emotions of action potentials local field potentials and neurotransmitters 0 Cognitive Linking cognitive theory of emotion to large scale brain substrates 0 Representation in the Head 0 Mental Representation is abstraction related to things in the external world 0 Cognitive processes Perception Attention memory learning interpretation 0 Neural Representation The way in which properties in the external world manifest themselves in neural transmissions 0 Cognitive neuroscience aims to provide a brainbased account of cognitive processes Thinking Perceiving Remembering 0 Historical Foundations 0 Do mental eXperiences arise in the heart or brain 0 How can a physical substance give rise to mental substrates I MindBody Problem I Dualism Mind and body are separate I Dual Aspect Theory They are two levels of eXplaining the same thing I Reductionism Mind will eventually be eXplained solely in biological terms 0 Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience I Temporal Resolution I Spatial Resolution I Invasiveness 0 Early atomists believed the ventricles were important 0 CorteX was usually misrepresented o Phrenology 0 Different parts of the corteX use different functions This idea still stands 0 Differences in personality traits manifest in different cortical size and bumps on the skull this was discredited c There is some level of specialization but does not assume each region has a specific function There is some degree of specialization in certain regions 0 Broca s region Specialized for language faculty I Two language faculties in the brain one for comprehension the other for production 0 Minds without Brains 0 There was a lot of observations of behavior without observation of the brain 0 These models don t make a direct reference to the brain 0 Connectionist models are mathematical but do not involve serial processing or discrete routines 0 Cognitive Neuroscience 0 Returned with imaging methods that enable precise images of brains and brain lesions 0 Level of oxygen in the brain is measured as a cognitive function 0 Challenges to Cognitive Neuroscience 0 Is it possible to study the mind without the brain I Mind software Brain hardware I Cognitive theories don t make predictions about the brain I Brain provides causal constraints on the nature of cognition I It39s hard to give a purely cognitive response but easy to eXplain in neural processing 0 Imaging tells us where cognition occurs but not how I It is a theory that eXplains the how 0 Cognitive neuroscience is a new form of phrenology I Considers computational processes rather than simple localization Also consider how brain systems interact 982015 0 Central Nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord 0 Spinal cord brain stem cerebellum cerebrum 0 We are not born with a full set of neurons 0 The Peripheral Nervous system is everything else 0 This includes the 12 facialcranial nerves 0 It is divided into I Somatic Nervous System Nerves that interact with the outside world The send the brain info from senses This enables us to interact with our outside world I Autonomic Nervous System Regulating internal vital functions 0 Sympathetic Activates the ght or ight reactions and responds to stressors o Parasympathetic The goal is to slow down bodily functions and conserve energy 0 Structure of the brain 0 Grey matter Neuronal cell bodies 0 White matter Axons myelin and glial cells 0 Corpus callosum White matter tract connecting the two hemispheres O Neuron The fundamental working unit of the nervous system I Sensory Motor Interneurons I Glia cells supports neurons 0 astrocytes olgiadenrites microglia I Afferent Receive signals I Efferent Gives signals I Types of Neurons 0 Motor Neurons multipolar O Sensory neurons unipolar o lnterneuron multipolar o Synapse is Where the neurons communicate through Comes from presynaptic neuron 0 Circuit pruning and strengthening in the developing nervous systems 0 connections can be made and lost depending on Whether or not us use the connection often 0 Through these circuits our brain can carry out our everyday needs 0 Divisions of Nervous System 0 Slide 14 of powerpoint 3A 0 Slide 15 learn anatomy 0 Four lobes of the brain I Frontal Lobe I Temporal Lobe I Parietal Lobe I Occipital Lobe o Views of the brain I Transverse plane 0 dorsal o Postral I Sagittal plane 0 Ventral O Caudal I Horizontal plane I CoronalAxial o The Cerebral Cortex 2 hemispheres Lateral Surface made up of four lobes Each lobe has a characteristic set of gyri and sulci Different regions de ned by layered composition of cells OOOOO Brain regions are intricately connected via dense White matter neural fibers 0 Fasciculus o Slf superior longitudinal fasciculus Ilf inferior longitudinal fasciculus Sfo superior frontooccipital fasciculus Ifo inferior frontooccipital fasciculus OOOO Unu uncinate fasciculus o The Human Connectome 9102015 0 CorteX vs Subcortex o Cortex Sheet of tissue that makes up the outer layer of the brain I 36 layers 26 mm thick I Allocortex o Archicortex 3 layers least developed 0 Paleocortex 45 layers o Periallocortext transitional I Neocortex 0 Many bumps gyrus and grooves sulci O Subcortex Beneath the cortex Clusters of nonlayered neurons 0 Cerebral cortex functions Voluntary movement language reasoning perception attention regulation 0 Corpus callosum bundle of axons connecting two hemispheres I Cingulate cortex wraps around corpus callosum involved in many associations 0 Functional Categories of the cerebral cortex 0 Primary Sensory Area Receives signal from sensory nerves 0 Primary Motor Areas Sends axons down to motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord 0 Association Areas The remaining areas of the cortex I Receives sensory input but are responsible for much more complex processes such as perception I Wernicke39s area is responsible for word association 0 Insula Disgust introception integration conscious awareness O Subcortex Area 0 The basal ganglia I Modulating both action and thought by reciprocal interaction I Part of dopamine system I Parkinson39s disease I Deep brain stimulation subthalamic nucleus gt substantia nigra gt dopamine release 0 The Limbic System I Relating the organism to its environment based on current needs and the present situation based on previous experiences I lmplicated in emotion learning and memory I Defense system 0 The Diencephalon I The thalamus is a processing stage between all the sensory organs except smell and the cortex I Hypothalamus is concerned with regulating bodily functionsneeds such as temperature eatingdrinking sexual activity and regulation of endocrine functions 0 In uences ANS controlling release of hormones in uences drives I Midbrain inferior and superior colliculi which form part of subcortical routes from hearing and gaze orientating I Hindbrain pons and medulla oblongata involved in certain vital functions and arousalwakefulness O Cerebellum is attached to hindbrain 0 Motor commands and sensory feedback to create smooth movement and dexterity 0 Structural Connections Slide 16 0 Functional Connectivity Resting State Slide 17 0 Developing Brain 0 O 0000 Proliferation rapid growth of brain matter and new brain connections Pruning Cutting away unused or unimportant connections Myelination Insulating brain bers to make them faster and more stable By age six the brain is 95 of it39s max size Max size for girls is reached at 11 while boys are at 14 Boys brains are larger but girls are more folded Grey matter develops quickly during childhood and slows during adulthood It peaks at 11 in girls and at 13 in boys than begins to decline Pruning is like the maturation of brain matter new pathways grow and others are pruned It is in uenced by experience Adolescent brain is more versatile and it is easier to learn new skills Frontal and temporal lobes are the last to mature White matter makes up myelin which insulates axons and speeds up the communication between neuronsIt continutes to grow over the whole life span 0 Phylogenetic Development O 0 9152015 Human brain is most developed all have limbic system Humans have the most connections in brain A Key Regions in Emotional Processing 0 O Orbitofrontal Cortex OFC Affective evaluation decoding punishment and reward Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex VMPFC Affective modulation Inhibitory control Insula Represents the body s internal state interoception Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex DLPFC Attention modulation Anterior Cingulate Cortex ACC Con ict detection topdown modulation Amygdala Threat detection emotional memory Vigilance for emotionally salient events Hippocampus Declarative memory Spatial navigation contextual fear Insula and ACC Integration of sensory affective cognitive and autonomic processing Limbic System 0 O 0 Between neocortex and subcortical structures Hippocampus amygdala septal nuclei cingulate cortex hypothalamus entorhinal cortex perirhinal cortex parahippocampal cortex Slides 510 identify these structures and circuits The Amygdala O 0000 Center for emotions emotional behavior and motivation Dense Widespread connections Emotion detection Emotion expression KluverBucy Syndrome Bilateral ablation of anterior temporal lobes including the amygdala I Docility I Hypersexulatiy I Hyperphagia I Visual agnosia 0 Slide 13 Model of emotional processing 0 Slide 15amp16 Fear conditioning circuit 0 Insula Disgust OFC amp Current Reward Values 0 PET of eating chocolate I At first it is wanted and pleasant so it activates medial OFC I After excessive consumption it is unpleasant and activity transitions to lateral 0 Patients with OFC lesions lose this exibility and act on impulse Ventral Striatum and Rewards o Ventral Striatum Nucleus accumbens and ventral putamen 0 Increased dopamine release when presented with secondary reinforcers paired with food or money 9172015 A Emotions and physiological states 0 Homeostatic emotions pain hunger thirst fatigue temperature itch Classical emotions joy fear anger disgust Alliesthesia Affective eXperience depends on internal states Homeostasis maintaining internal conditions for optimal function OOOO Introception Sense that continuously monitors and provides cns with information on the state of the body 0 Interoceptive system Nerve pathways detecting homeostasis signals 0 Sensory affectemotion I Warm cool sweet bitter I Associated with homeostasis serving the role of physiological equilibrium I Food nausea gt food is avoided gt disgust 0 Adaptive Value of Emotion I Emotion motivates the organism to achieve homeostasis I Emotionrelated actions can be instinctive or acquired 0 Integrated neural map is required for detecting physiological inequilibrium triggering corrective responses and executing corrective responses and related emotionsfeelings Neural Substrates o Macroscopic The systems level which is composed of brain regions I Brainstem I Subcortical gray I Cerebral CorteX 0 Microscopic Neurons synapses glial and molecular components Emotions in humans involves multiple systems centered around but not limited to the survival circuit 0 Emotion Hypothalamus and homeostasis o Hypothalamus Mediating autonomic emotional endocrine and somatic functions I Functions slide 11 o Limbic circuits 0 Sensory brainstem autonomic circuits I Circuit on slide 12 is important Functions 0 Thermoregulation neuroendocrine control feeding and satiety Biological timing and rhythms Release of some hormones from the pituitary gland Temperature regulation of the body Intake of food and water Addiction Microscopic levels The process of body signals largely relies on 000000 unmyelinated structures 0 Ephaptic transmission Sideways interneuronal communication that is mediated by extracellular current ow 0 Minor changes in Visceral function would trigger membrane ionic exchanges in a small number of local interoceptive bers A Functions of emotional expressions 0 Social cognition of emotion Neural basis of theory of mind 0 We can infer What others are thinking 0 Temporal poles semantic schemas that specify social rules
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