Chapter 4-6 Outlines
Chapter 4-6 Outlines COMS 2060
Popular in Communication in Interpersonal Relationships
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Date Created: 09/20/15
COMS 2060 Interpersonal Communication Chapter 4 Outline Perception I The Process of Perception Interpersonal Perception 0 Process of making meaning from the people and the relationships we encounter Process of Perception Includes 0 Selecting stimuli for attention We select certain information for attention 0 Organizing them into relevant categories We categorize each piece of relevant information to determine how it is similar to and different from other pieces of information o Interpreting their meaning We assign meaning to each piece of information Meanings are in people 0 The Accuracy of our perception is in uenced by 0 Physiological states and traits o Cultures o Cocultures 0 Social roles Fundamental Forces in Interpersonal Perception Stereotyping 0 Process of applying generalizations about a group to a person we perceive to belong to that group Primacy Effect 0 Our rst impressions are more powerful than any other or later impressions Recency Effect 0 The effect that our most recent impression we have formed will overshadow the impressions that came before it Perpetual Set 0 Causes us to perceive only what we want or expect to perceive Egocentrism 0 When we are egocentric we lack the ability to adopt another person39s perspective Positivity Bias 0 Encourages us to focus on a person39s positive aspects Negativity Bias 0 Encourages us to focus on a person39s negative aspects Explaining What We Perceive Attributions and explanations for behavior vary according to their o Locus 0 Stability o Controllability Common attribution mistakes 0 SelfServing Bias We attribute our successes to internal causes and our failures to external causes 0 Fundamental Attribution Error We attribute other people39s behaviors to internal causes more often than to external causes 0 Overattribution We focus on characteristic of a person and attribute a wide variety of behaviors to that characteristic lV Improving Your Perceptual Abilities Being mindful of your perceptions involves o Focusing on aspects of yourself 0 Focusing on aspects of others 0 The context that is in uencing what you perceive Checking the Accuracy of Your Perceptions Separate interpretation from fact Generating alternative perceptions Engaging in direct and indirect perception checking Revise your perceptions as necessary OOOO COMS 2060 Interpersonal Communication Chapter 5 Outline Language The Nature of Language Language consists of words that representsymbolize objects and concepts The connection between most words and the objects or concepts they symbolize is arbitrary Languages are governed by rules that are 0 Phonological Deal with the correct pronunciation of words 0 Syntactic Dictate the proper order of words for the intended meaning 0 Semantic Govern the meanings of individual words 0 Pragmatic Deal with the implications or interpretations of statements Words have both denotative and connotative meaning 0 Denotative meaning a word39s literal meaning or dictionary de nition 0 Connotative meaning a word39s implied or secondary meaning Verbal statements vary in how ambiguous they are The meaning of language is affected by the social and cultural contexts in which it is used ll Appreciating the Power of Words Naming is a fundamental way of giving identity to someone or something Language can be used to persuade others to thinkact in a particular way Some forms of language are perceived as more credible than others People use verbal behavior in personal relationships 0 Conveys affection and intimacy We can use words to provide comfort to others and also to ourselves Ill The Use amp Abuse of Language Humor relies on a violation of expectations Euphemisms allow us to discuss sensitive topics is a minimally discomforting way Many subcultures have their own slang o This serves as to mark membership in those groups Libel o Defamatory language that appears in print Slander o Defamatory language that is spoken Profanity 0 Form of language that is generally considered offensive Hate Speech 0 A form of profanity aimed at degrading or intimidating a speci c group of people IV Improving Your Language Use 0 Avoid shared knowledge shared opinion and monopolization errors 0 Learn to separate opinions from statements and learn how to appropriately respond to each one 0 Speak at a level of understanding that is appropriate for your audience 0 Take ownership of your thoughts and feelings 0 Do this by using lstatements more than youstatements COMS 2060 Interpersonal Communication Chapter 6 Outline Nonverbal Communication l The Nature of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication comprises behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words 0 Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication 0 It is present in most interpersonal conversations o It usually conveys more information than verbal communication 0 It is usually believed moreover verbal communication 0 Primary means of communicating emotion o It is metacommunicative Function that Nonverbal Communication Serves 0 Managing conversations Expressing emotions Maintaining relationships Forming impressions In uencing others Concealing information 00000 II The Ten Channels of Nonverbal Communication Facial Displays 0 Important for identity attractiveness and emotion Eye Behaviors 0 Eye contact 0 Pupil dilation Movement amp Gestures o Emblems o Illustrations o Affect displays 0 Regulators o Adaptors Touch Behaviors o Affection o Caregiving o Controlling o Aggressive o Ritualistic touch 0 Voice 0 Pitch o In chon 0 Volume 0 Speaking rate 0 Articulation o SHence 0 Accent Smell 0 Important for memories and sexual attraction People Maintain Four Levels of Space 0 Intimate 0 Personal 0 Social 0 Public 0 Physical Appearance 0 Important because we attribute positive qualities to attractive peopleHalo Effect 0 Time 0 The use of time sends messages of volume and power Artifacts 0 We use artifacts to communicate through selection and placement of objects as well as the use color lll Culture Sex amp Nonverbal Communication 0 Many nonverbal behaviorsbut not all differ from culture to culture 0 Sex in uences the communication of nonverbal behaviors lV Improving Your Nonverbal Communication Skills 0 The ability to interpret nonverbal messages is a function of being sensitive to those messages and deciphering their meanings The ability to express messages can be enhanced by spending time with expressive people and taking part in activities that exercise your expressiveness
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