Chapter 1 notes
Chapter 1 notes EDUC230010
Popular in Introduction to Exceptional Children
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Interventions in Special Education 1 Preventive o FAS drug addicted babies are 100 preventable 0 genetic disabilities aren t preventive but we know a lot more risk factors now 0 early intervention counseling 2 Remedial o catchup model bring them up to mainstream 3 Compensatory o teach them ways to quotget around the disability tips and tricks to help EARLIER INTERVENTION gt BETI39ER OUTCOMES School Placement System 0 A regular classes 0 B special classes any combination of traditionalspecial classrooms C special schools 0 D home instruction 0 E hospitalinstitution based instruction Continuum of Services 0 Level 1 regular classroom 0 Level 2 regular classroom with consultations outside advice 0 Level 3 regular classroom with regular supports PT OT behavior specialists etc 0 Level 4 regular classroom with a resource room 0 used for remedial education special needs throughout the day 0 Level 5 full time separate classroom total separation self contained Level 6 specialized facility still part of the public school system 0 Level 7 specialized facility private placements o homehospital instruction residential school LabeHng 0 tends to focus on the de cit 0 Bene ts 0 visibility to the public increase public knowledgeawareness understanding 0 funding requires a diagnosis 0 research 0 leads to the right services makes the child ELIGIBLE for certain servicesprograms o facilitate communication between and among professionals I Disadvantages 0 negative selfimage of students 0 negative stigmas stereotypes o selfful lling prophesy for teachers I teacher gives up before they even try don t take responsibility for failures I if you expect a child to fail they re more likely to fail 0 can t be used as an explanation for behavior Prevalence Rates pretty much impossible to estimate use lEP to get a head count 6million children receiving special ed services 0 about 10 of children 0 a lot of them get quotdeclassifiedquot largest group learning disabilities 40 smallest group dual sensory impairments I largest age group 611 years elementary middle second largest age group 1217 years remaining group ages 35 and ages 1821 transition ages I 40 of children receiving special ed services have a secondary diagnosis I fastest growing groups 0 autism spectrum disorders 0 emotional behavioral disorders 0 learning disabilities slowest growing groups 0 multiple severe disabilities 0 blind low vision 0 physical other health impairments doesn t include TBls Types of Classroom Settings Regular classroom Regular teacher Team Approach to Mastery TAM 0 Regular Educator Special Educator o mainstream students students with disabilities Selfcontained o segregated from mainstream 0 only a special educator Resource Room 0 separate classroom where students with disabilities receive specialized instruction for part of the day Inclusive Classroom 0 regular educator with consultation and support Stats about 75 of all students with disabilities receive at least part of their education in a regular classroom 0 40 or more of their day 96 of general educators currently teach students with disabilities or have in the past general educators have an average of 35 students with special needs assigned to their case load General Concepts LRE least restrictive environment FAPE free and appropriate public education mainstreaming reverse mainstreaming related services PT OT speech determined by lEP PLEP present level of education performance 0 reading level math pro ciency lEP Individualized Education Plan states what services the student will receive when they ll receive quanti es everything how long will it take to reach goals how do we tell when they have reached the goals Reasonable Accommodations adapts a task environment by removing a barrier or creating access to participation doesn t alter the essential nature of the task environment doesn t impose a great nancial burden Accommodation changes in how a student accesses information or demonstrates learning procedures are changed in order to give the student equal access to instruction equal opportunity to demonstrate what they know leveling the playing eld do NOT substantially change the instructional level content or performance criteria Commonly used accommodations schedang o breaks 0 time extensions 0 untimed setting 0 special seating arrangements 0 small grouping 0 location change equipmentmaterials 0 large print braille 0 electronic speller o bilingual dictionary 0 calculator o specialized software voice recognition word prediction presentation 0 repeated directions 0 written copies of orally presented material 0 audiotape of written materials 0 close captioning o notetaker 0 sign language interpreter response 0 use of word processorcomputer o dictated or oral response 0 pointing gesture responses 0 voice output equipment 0 interpreter Where are all the students with disabilities 0 94 are in regular schools 0 combinations of situations special classrooms resource rooms etc o 5 special schools 0 1 residential facilities hospitals homebound Testing and Assessments 0 can t use just one indicator use a battery of tests and assessments 0 Gold standard 0 multiple indicators performed by multiple professionals ALWAYS NEED FAMILY PERMISSION crucial that assessments are accurate and lead to the development of meaningful lEPs 0 important for entitlement and placement Standardized tests 0 means the test is always administered and scored the same way for everyone 0 includes most IQ and achievement tests 0 normed against a large sample 0 can be useful as PART of an evaluation 0 Other sources of assessment naturalistic observations interviews work samples portfolios collection of their best work collected over time new variations of older assessment tools 0 O O O O Precess of SpecialEd Services 1 Prereferral intervention o is it a problem that can be xed without special interventions Multifactored evaluation Eligibility determination lEP LRE determination Service delivery Annual review and reevaluation FP P FP N Other Terms 0 Developmental delay 0 when the child is behind typically developing peers by 25 or more 0 motor skills language etc 0 used instead of using a more formal disability label quotholding stagequot 0 At risk 0 child andor family has a greater than usual chance of developing a problem disability or handicap 0 low birth weight prenatal exposure to drugsalcohol environment Response to Intervention Model RTI helps decrease the amount of referrals to special ed 0 top tier usually results in a referral 0 may replace the discrepancy model in the future 0 needs to be adapted to include kids with severe disabilities 0 mostly used for students with SLD o more proactive and preventive than an quotwait to failquot approach PEOPLE FIRST LANGUAGE Don t use the handicapped the disabled mentally retarded crippled lame he IS autistic he IS downs he IS mongoloid nonverbal has a learning disability emotional or behavioral disorder birth defect con ned bound to a wheelchair quotnormalquot quotshe s in special edquot handicapped parking Do use people with disabilities people with intellectual disability ID or cognitive disability orthopedic disability he HAS autism he HAS down syndrome mute he IS learning disabled crazy disturbed congen aldEabH y uses a wheelchair without a disability receives special ed services accessible parking Inclusion Integration Bene ts Children WITH disabilities 0 increase in language communication skills 0 increase in social skills 0 increase in families satisfaction with programming 0 increase in family contacts in the community I Children WITHOUT disabilities 0 increase in language social skills 0 increase in tolerance of differences among individuals Inclusion Integration Barriers fear of losing services for children with disabilities if the child is in a typical classroom fear of inadequate services for kids WITHOUT disabilities teacher quotplays favoritesquot fear of physical harm going both ways fear of psychological emotional harm lack of planning teaching time lack of resources equipment lack of training knowledge NOT THE TEACHERS FAULT lack of administrative support quotBeing there is 90 of the battlequot Planks of Inclusion regular rhythm of the day year regular routine regular experience of the life span just like anybody else choicemaking give them the opportunity experience their sexuality regular economic standards wages taxes etc living learning recreating within the same community as others SelfDetermination skills can be taught set goals planning having a course of action selfevaluation making adjustments self advocacy very important for kids with intellectual disabilities but applies to anybody
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