Week 2 and 3
Week 2 and 3 PSY 400
Popular in Health Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Morgan Plauche on Monday September 21, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 400 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Jennifer Freeland in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Sept 8 Ex post facto designs Some things are unethical you cannot manipulate some things that are detrimental to the results of your study Epidemiology 4 types of research methods observational randomized controlled natural Epidemiologists use these 4 types to identify risk factors of diseases they have 2 words that they use to talk about rates of disease in a given population 0 Prevalence the portion or group of the population that has the disease 0 Incidence the number of new cases of the disease during a speci c time period measles outbreak in Texas all of the sudden Risks factors Smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer we cannot do an actual experiment on smoking but we assume it is linked to lung cancer among other things because of the number of people who have gotten it and they also smoke Risk factor is a characteristic that occurs with greater frequency in people that have a disease Risk factor approach identifying casual risk factors for a disease 0 Absolute risk a persons chances of developing a disease independent of anything else 0 Relative risk the ratio of prevelanceincidence of a disease in an exposed group to the pl of a disease in an unexposed group like ADHD apparently all kids have it false but they are exposed to others who have it what does that mean Observational methods similar to correlational methods cannot be used to determine causation Perspective studies used to determine who develops the disease and who does not case control studies Retrospective studies starts with a group who has the disease and looks backwards to try to identify why they got the disease and maybe how they got it Randomizedcontrolled trials people actually come into a lab and do what ever you are experimenting the best way but not a lot of external validity because a lab setting is not a realistic setting Participants are randomly assigned to independent or control group best case scenario results sometimes difficult to do because of ethical reasons due to health risks for health psychology Natural experiments keep your observations discrete so that you get a real observation if someone knows they are being watched their behavior might change No manipulation similar to ex post facto designs Clinical trials Used to test new drugs or medical treatments usually random and controlled Consort Be familiar with each other s work publish journals so that other people can read your work replicate someone s work or research something new read other people s work Metaanalysis an evaluation of many research studies on the same topic to draw an overall conclusion on that topic Theoretical models Theory a set of related assumptions that can be used to formulate a hypothesis they synthesize research ndings and generate new research Starts with a hypothesis that is tested over and over and you get the same result Psychometric methods Psychologist measure many different concepts the measures could be selfreport surveys The measures must be valid and reliable unlike a bathroom scale because they are not always accurate and change every time you step on them Reliability consistency interrater reliability everyone gets the same results testretest reliability either give you test 1 and then you later get test 2 testing the same thing different ways and getting the same results Validity measures exactly what it is supposed to be measuring People can have a disease and not be ill A disease is the process of physical damage within the body Illness is the feeling of actually being sick or have a diagnosis of aniHness 0 Who determines if you are iii A physician they look at your symptoms and make a diagnosis Symptoms Signs that my or may not indicate that you have a disease lllness behavior things people do when they think they have a disease because you are experiencing symptoms but you don t have a diagnosis yet 0 Occurs before diagnosis goal is to determine their health status Sick role behavior you receive a diagnosis therefore you start acting sick even if you aren t actually experiencing the real symptoms Six conditions Personal factors 0 Things that in uence us to seek medical attention how you view your body stress levels and personality traits Gender about equal for men and women 0 Women report more symptoms and distress about the symptoms 0 Men report only reporting life threatening symptoms Age 0 Young adults are least likely to seek a doctor 0 Older adults sometimes attribute symptoms as just old age and delay seeking a doctor Social class ethnicity and culture 0 Higher SES experience fewer symptoms but are more likely to seek a doctor than low SES 0 Low SES groups wait longer to seek care at which the symptoms may be more severe 0 Ethnic background European Americans more likely to seek care ethnic minorities experience discrimination and are less likely to seek care Characteristics of symptoms 0 More likely to seek care when The symptoms are visible The person perceives symptoms as more severe They interfere with you everyday life They are frequent and persistent Conceptualization of the disease 0 Identify the disease 0 What s the timeline o What is the cause of the disease o Consequence of the disease 0 What is the controllability of the disease Sick role 3 rights By Segal 0 To make decisions concerning helath issues 0 To be exempt from normal duties 0 To become dependent on others for assistance 3 duties 0 Maintain health and get well 0 Perform routine health care management 0 Use a range of health care resources Seeking medical care from sources other than a doctor bad Lay referral network calling family or friends The internet worst thing to do may give misinformation Receiving medical care Challenges people face when receiving medical care 0 Limited access to medical care You have to be employed and access to health insurance Sometimes you have to be marries with a spouse Health care is not always affordable 0 Choosing the right practitioner 0 Being in the hospital Sept 17 2015 Chapter 4 Adherence A persons ability and willingness to follow recommended heath problems like going to the doctor regularly nishing all you antibiotics telling your doctor you did something you weren t supposed to do because it could be detrimental to your health 6 measures of adherence Ask the practitioner Ask the patient they can often lie like substance abuse or weight exaggerating your good health to impress your doctor Ask other people around the patient good for children asking their parent Monitor medication usage use a labeled pill case to keep track Examine biochemical evidence Use Nonadherence Not everyone can or tries to adhere They may not take their meds properly The sicker you are the more you are going to adhere to your doctors advice Ba rriers Cost if you have to buy a 500 medical device that can be hard for some especially when you don t have good health insurance it can even be too time consuming or too physically demanding People don t like taking orders not even from doctors People stop meds when symptoms disappear Factors that predict adherence Severity of disease Treatment characteristics 0 Bad side effects decrease adherence weight gain nausea o More complex treatments decrease adherence Personal characteristics certain types of diseases require different treatments diabetes you have to prick your self with needles and that s not fun 0 Age very young and elderly less likely to adhere difficult attitude 0 Gender 0 Personality patterns more optimistic people more likely to adhere and vise versa 0 Emotional factors high stress and depression less likely to adhere Environmental factors 0 Economic money and treatment costs 0 Social supports caring family and friends who ask you if you worked out or took meds to hold you accountable and motivate you 0 Cultural norms Economic factors 0 Higher income access to health care ability to pay bills and medication 0 Affects minorities and older people because it costs to not have health insurance either way cant afford it 0 Cultural norms western and native Americans have different views from other areas of the world and may be less likely to adhere some religions also don t allow modern medication Perception of the severity of sickness predicts whether or not you adhere to a regimen Behavioral strategies to improves own adherence Using prompts like a tie of day Tailoring treatment info to the patient modifying workouts to people who aren t as exible or athletic Positive reinforcement for good things Using a contingency contract signing that you agree to do it holding yourself accountable Theories of adherence Continuum theories 0 Use of single set of factor to explain everyone one size ts all Health belief model 4 beliefs that should predict healthrelated behaviors does not actually predict adherence very well Perceived susceptibility to disease thinking youll get a cold by being coughed on Perceived severity of disease Perceived bene ts Perceived Selfefficacy model by Bandura predicts adherence to health recommendations but it focuses mainly on self ef cacy people will adhere to behaviors if they 0 Believe they can initiate and carry out the behavior 0 Believe the behavior will produce valuable outcomes Planned behavior theory your intention predicts adherence not as successful at predicting risktaking behavior Attitude towards behavior Subjective norms and social pressure to perform certain behavior Behavioral control kind of like selfefficacy sometimes we say we are going to do it but we neverdo Behavioral theory operant conditioning o Reinforcement strengthens behavior Punishment decreases behavior not useful when predicting adherence Stage theories 0 Trans theoretical model people progress and regress t rough ve stages spiral movements between stages can create different intervention between stages good for making changes along the way transitions may not be equally as easy to in uence Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation AcUon lWaH enance o Precaution adoption process model 0 Health action process approach good for exercise not as much research on this two stages Motivation Volitional phase
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