Chapters 3 and 4
Chapters 3 and 4 103
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Genetics Reproducing Life and Producing Variation Pp4164 24 pages Alicia Berard 0 The Cell Its Role in Reproducing Life and Producing Variation 0 Organisms having cells with no internal compartments are called Today these are singlecell bacteria 0 Organisms with internal compartments separated by membranes are called The membranes enclose the two main parts of the individual cells the and the between which various communications and activities happen 0 Page 42 and 43 contain the different organelles and theirjobs 0 In all animals and plants there are two types of eukaryotic cells 1 also called body cells comprise most tissues such as bone muscle skin brain lung fat and hair Diploid cells 2 are the sex cells sperm in males and ova or eggs in females Haploid cells 0 The DNA Molecule The Genetic Code 0 the complete set of chromosomes for an organism or species that represents all the inheritable traits refers to nuclear DNA which is identical in the nucleus of each cell type except red blood cells energyproducing ATP organelles in eukaryotic cells they possess their own independent DNA an important cellular molecule created by the mitochondria and carrying the energy necessary for cellular functions 0 On each side of the ladder of DN every unit of sugar phosphate and nitrogen base forms a single nucleotide variations in the DNA due to the change of a single nitrogen base 0The base of DNA can be adenine A thymine T guanine G or cytosine C 0Apart from rare errors in matching adenine and thymine are and guanine and cytosine are as well The DNA Molecule Replicating the Code 0 takes place in the nucleus and is part of cell division leading to the production of new somatic cells or the production of new gametes 0 Replication thus results in the continued cell production from the single celled the fertilized egg to two cells the four into the fully mature body with all of its many different tissues and organs within which cells are continuously dying and being replaced 0 Within somatic cells chromosomes occur in or matching pairs Each pair contains the fathers contribution the paternal chromosome and the mother s contribution the maternal chromosome 0These nonsex chromosomes are called 0 DNA such as mitochondrial DNA whose inheritance can be traced from mother to daughter or son 39 refers to a mixture of more than one type of organellar DNA such as mitochondrial DNA within a cell or a single organism s body usually due to the mutation of the DNA in some organelles but not in others 0The or complex set of chromosomes includes all of the autosomes and one pair of so called because they determine and offspring s biological sex DNA whose inheritance can be traced from father to daughter or son such as the Y chromosome which passes from father to son Mitosis Production of Identical Somatic Cells a cell that has a full complement of paired chromosomes Meiosis Production of Gametes Sex Cells a cell that has a single set of unpaired chromosomes half of the genetic material Meiosis plays a critical role in the inheritance of biological characteristics and variation seen in offspring the process by which homologous chromosomes partially wrap around each other and exchange genetic information during meiosis the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes resulting from a crossover event a group of alleles that tend to be inherited as a unit due to their closely spaces loci on a single chromosome a large set of haplotypes such as the Ychromosome or mitochondrial DNA that may be used to de ne a population rearrangements of chromosomes due to the insertion of genetic material from one chromosome to another refers to the failure of the chromosomes to properly segregate during meiosis creating some gametes with abnormal numbers of chromosomes refers to the condition in which only one of a speci c pair of chromosomes is present in a cell s nucleus refers to the condition in which an additional chromosome exists with the homologous par independent inheritance applies to genes from different chromosomes This gene the inheritance of a package of genes such as haplotypes from the same chromosome is an exception to Mendel s Law of Independent Assortment Producing Proteins The Other Function of DNA In addition to replicating itself DNA serves as the template for protein synthesis Proteins consist of of which there are 20 they are organic molecules combined in a speci c sequence by the ribosomes to form a protein Most of the human body is comprised of proteins and the body produces 12 of the amino acids The other eight are also called that cannot be synthesized in the body they must be supplied by the diet in the form of food or drink are responsible for physical characteristics are responsible for the expression of control genes These proteins include enzymes hormones and antibodies Protein synthesis is a twostep process the rst step is involving the creation of mRNA based on the DNA template The next step is involving the transfer of amino acids by tRNA to the ribosomes which are then added to the protein chain a singlestranded molecule involved in protein synthesis consisting of a phosphate ribose sugar and one of four nitrogen bases one of four nitrogen bases that make up RNA it pairs with adenine the molecules that are responsible for making a chemical copy of a gene needed for a speci c protein that is for transcription phase of protein synthesis a fundamental structure component of a ribosome the molecules that are responsible for transporting amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis sequences of three nitrogen bases carried by tRNA they match up with the complementary mRNA codons and each designate a speci c amino acid during protein synthesis sequences of three nitrogen bases each in DNA known as codons in mRNa the sequences of three nitrogen bases carried by mRNA that are coded to produce speci c amino acids in protein synthesis 0 chemical bond that joins amino acids into a protein chain 0 also known as a protein a chain of amino acids held together by multiple peptide bonds 0 sequences of a gene s DNA also known as exons that are coded to produce a speci c protein and are transcribed and translated during protein synthesis 0 sequence s of a gene s DNA also known as introns that are not coded to produce speci c proteins and are excised before protein synthesis Genes Structural and Regulatory are responsible for body structures turn other genes on and off an essential activity in growth and development 0An organism s form and the arrangement of its tissues and organs are determined by regulatory genes called embryo Polvmorphisms Variations in Speci c Genes the location of an allele or gene on a chromosome refers to the presence of two or more separate phenotypes for a certain gene in the population 0 are substances such as bacteria foreign blood cells and enzymes that stimulate the immune system s antibody production 0 are molecules that form as part of the primary immune response to the presence of foreign substances they attach to the foreign an gens is Mendel s First Law which asserts that the two alleles for any given gene or trait are inherited one from each parent during gamete production only one of the two alleles will be present in each ovum or sperm Genotypes and Phenotypes Genes and Their Physical Expression refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are the same refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are different refers to two different alleles that are equally dominant both are fully expressed in a heterozygote s phenotype The Complexity of Genetics Polygenic Variation and Pleiotropy 0 refers to one phenotypic trait that is affected by two or more genes 0 Heritability Genetic Variation Genetic Variation Environmental Variation 0Physical anthropologists are interested in heritability for one simple reason because only heritable traits respond to natural selection they are the primary driving force of evolution 0 refers to one gene that affects more than one phenotypic trait 0Answering the big questions on Page 64 Demes Reproductive Isolation and Species 0 is a local population of organisms that have similar genes interbreed and produce offspring 0 is any mechanism that prevents two populations from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material is any mechanism that prevents two populations from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material is small scale evolution such as changes in allele frequency that occurs from one generation to the next is large scale evolution such as speciation event that occurs after hundred or thousands of generations 0 is a condition in which the system is stable balanced and unchanging HardvWeinberd Law Testing the Conditions of Genetic Equilibrium 0 is a mathematical model in population genetics that re ects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes Mutation The Onlv Source of New Alleles 0 Regardless of their outcomes mutations are the only source of new genetic variation in a population are replacements of a single nitrogen base with another base which may or may not affect the amino acid for which the triplet codes is a neutral point mutation in which the substituted nitrogen base creates a triplet coded to produce the same amino acid as that of the original triplet 0 is a point mutation that creates a triplet coded to produce a different amino acid than that of the original triplet 0 is the change in a gene due to the insertion or deletion of one or more nitrogen bases which causes the subsequent triplets to be rearranged and the codons to be read incorrectly during translation 0 are mobile pieces of DNA that can copy themselves into entirely new areas of the chromosomes 0 is a chromosomal trisomy in which males have an extra X chromosome resulting in an XXY condition affected individuals have reduced fertility 0 are random changes in DNA that occur during cell division 0 refers to those mutations in the DNA resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals or to radiation 0 are substances such as toxins chemicals or radiation that may induce genetic mutations Natural Selection Advantageous Characteristics Survival and Reproduction 0 is the average number of offspring produced by parents with a particular genotype compared to the number of offspring produced by parents with another genotype 0 Alternative patterns of natural selection 0 is the selection for one allele over the other alleles causing the allele frequencies to shift in one direction 0 is the selection against the extremes of the phenotypic distribution decreasing the genetic diversity for this trait in the population 0 is the selection for both extremes of the phenotypic distribution may eventually lead to a speciation event 0 refers to an individual with high concentrations of melanin 0 refers to an individual with low concentrations of melanin 0 Natural selection in humans abnormal hemoglobins and resistance to malaria 0 process in which advantageous genetic variations quickly increase in frequency in a population 0 a genetic blood disease in which red blood cells become deformed and sickleshaped decreasing their ability to carry oxygen to tissues 0 conditions of insufficient iron in the blood due to destruction of red blood cells resulting from genetic blood diseases toxins or infectious pathogens 0 is hemoglobin altered so that it is less efficient in binding to and carrying oxygen 0 are small blood vessels between the terminal ends of arteries and the veins 0 Geography of sicklecell anemia and the association of malaria 0 is a situation in which selection maintains two or more phenotypes for a speci c gene in a population 0 Biology of sicklecell anemia and malaria AS red blood cells are a poor host for the parasite of malaria 0 The history of sicklecell and anemia in the 1950 s a physical anthropologist looked into the history in Africa 0 Other hemoglobin and enzyme abnormalities include 0 are a group of related genetic blood diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobin 0 is a genetic blood disease in which the hemoglobin is improperly synthesized causing the red blood cells to have a much shorter lifespan is an enzyme that aids in the proper functioning of red blood cells its de ciency a genetic condition leads to hemolytic anemia Genetic Drift Genetic Change Due To Chance refers to a population in which individuals breed only with other members of the population 0 refers to a population in which individuals breed only with nonmembers of their population is the accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that had become isolated from the parent population due to the genetic input of only a few colonizers is a rare genetic disease in which the central nervous system degenerates and the individual loses control over voluntary movements with the symptoms often appearing between the ages of 30 and 50 Gene Flow Spread of Genes Across P0pulation Boundaries 0 is the exchange of genetic material between two or more populations Summary 4 causes of evolution Mutation Natural selection Genetic drift Gene ow
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