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1 semester notes

by: Lizzie Enright

1 semester notes CJ 335

Lizzie Enright
Gregory Drake

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About this Document

Notes from the beginning of the semester till now
Gregory Drake
Criminal Justice
75 ?




Popular in Policing

Popular in Criminal Justice

This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Lizzie Enright on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CJ 335 at Michigan State University taught by Gregory Drake in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Policing in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University.

Similar to CJ 335 at MSU

Popular in Criminal Justice


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Date Created: 03/16/16
Early American Policing 0 First department near NYC circa 1844 0 Early departments characterized by 0 Decentralized and local orientation rather than centralized and national o Tremendous variation across agencies 0 Heavy in uence from local politics 0 General willingness to use force 0 General Eras of Policing 0 Political Era 18401930 0 Reform Era 19301970 0 Community Era 19702000 0 Modern Era 2000Now Political Era Large jurisdictions 0 Few officers Widespread corruption 0 Regulation rather than Enforcement 0 Patronage o Tammany Hall 0 quotBossquot Tweed Crime Commissions Wickersham Commission 1930 Reform Professionalization Era 19301970 0 August Vollmer amp Others 0 Professionalism Educa on Training Divorce from politics Civil service standards 0000 OW Wilson 0 Firings 0 Increased standards 0 Limits in officer discretion Community Era 19702000 0 Consequences of Reform 0 Professionalization and interaction with the community 0 Limited officer discretion 0 Proliferation of police technology 0 Civil Rights Movement 0 Enforcing Jim Crow Segregation Interracial marriage Limits on right to assemble Service amp client orientation Policing quotdesigned to ensure citizen satisfactionquot 0 John Angell amp Others 0 Increase connection to communities 0 Increase officer discretion and problem solving 0 Focus on quality of life offenses 0 Increase foot patrols Many de ned political era Modern Era 9112001 0 Development of DHS Intelligence led policing Evidence based policing Smart policing Collaborative efforts Emergence of more new technologies 0 Crime mapping 0 Less lethal force Consequences of Federalism Federal and State laws and law enforcement Overlap and Redundancy 0 Potential for con ict 0 Necessity of cooperation Government Agencies 0 Legislative in uence 0 Lawscodes to be enforced 0 Funding 0 Judicial in uence 0 Caselaw o Overturned arrests and convictions o Execu vein uence o Presidents governors mayorscouncils o MSP as example Criminal Justice Organizations 0 Professionalorganizations 0 Standard setters Prosecutors and the courts 0 Interpretation of Legal code 0 Evidence collection 0 Testifying Probation and parole 0 Information 0 Altered Expectations of Privacy 0 Collaborative efforts Media 0 Media portrayals of policing and the police 0 Glorify investigation 0 Overstate risk of injury 0 Overstate risk of Victimization quotIf it bleeds it leadsquot Potential for 0 Police portrayals Public information officers 0 Balances media 0 But skewed favorably Accurate picture falls between Community 0 Support for police varies 0 Age 0 Race 0 Gender 0 Prior Contact 0 Sovereign and Organizational Legitimacy Core Police Functions Typical Police Missions Enforce law Investigate crimes Prevent Crime Domestic peace Community services Common Police Practices Patrol amp CFS Response 0 Law Enforcement Orientation PeaceKeeping amp Order Maintenance 0 Order Maintenance Orientation Investigation Vice 0 Law Enforcement Orientation Types of Patrol Policing is largely atheoretical 0 But most practices rest on deterrence theory Preventative Random Patrol Directed Patrol 0 Distribution of Crime Ef cacy of Patrol Random Patrol 0 KC Patrol experiment 0 Why Directed Hot Spot Policing 0 Michigan State Police and Others 0 Why Types of patrol Vehicle Foot Bicycle Horse K9 0 Air water ATV Calls for Service amp Response Routine Response CFS 0 Response Time amp Citizen Satisfaction Clearance probability curve Emergency response 0 Girl in washer 0 Why Police are public face Traf c Enforcement Function Moving violations Code Enforcement Pretext stops 0 Of cer discretion Stopnfrisk 0 NYC ndings Accident Investigation amp Prevention 0 Leading cause of Death for 4 34 years old 0 Public face Traf c pursuits o 2 Con icting objectives Apprehension of quotbad guyquot Of cer amp Public safety Fun amp Exciting 0 Some agencies have restrictive policies Which can be effective Peacekeeping amp Order Maintenance Managing Disorder Quality of life offenses 0 Petty crimes 0 Broken windows model Physical Disorder a Fear a Social Withdrawal a Crime Fiscal and Social Cost of QOL Policing Fiscal Cost Racial tension Cost to personal liberties 0 Gang ordinances Investigations Romanticized aspects of Policing Evidence Collection 0 Discretion amp chain of Custody 0 Steven Avery Case Close relationship with DA s Undercover Work 0 Further limited oversight 0 Restriction on Entrapment Goals of Policing Philosophy vs Practice Community Policing is a philosophical change 0 New Goal Community justice Custom Crime control is best Police alone are ineffective Community Partnerships can help Problem Oriented Policing History amp Context Driving Forces 0 Frustrated Minority amp Urban citizens Social cost of crime control Frustrated officers Efficacy of common police practices 0 Random Patrol Desire for broadened policing goals 0 Service amp QQL Orientation De nitions Robert Trojanowitz 0 Three types of quotCommunity Policingquot Spectrum Police Departments Largely Ignore Citizens o Moral superiority Criminological wisdom we re the experts Police have the power but take input from community Police is driven primarily by the local community Five perspectives Deployment closer to citizens Community Revitalization improve neighborhoods ProblemSolving need citizens to be effect Customer Perspective citizens are clients with goals Legitimacy credibility extremely important 0 O O O O Four dimensions 0 Philosophical Dimension Citizen input Broadened police function Personal service 0 Strategic Dimension Reoriented operations Geographic permanency longer assigned beats Emphasis on long term prevention 0 Tactical Dimension Reliant on rst two dimensions Focus on Constructiveinteractions 0 Improved Partnerships Collaborative Problem Solving 0 Organizational Dimension Decentralization Planning Evaluation Examples of Community Policing Citizen contact patrol Organized neighborhood watch programs Substations Citizen patrols Citizen Policies academies Police department Civilianization Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy Average quotCommunity Policingquot approach 0 Rochester NY quadrant example CAPS o CAPS was a drastic departmentwide shift And integration of other government services Use of local beat meetings with citizens Linkages between police and other agencies Citizen driven goals for services Local of cer Autonomy and Authority 0000 Ef cacy of CAPS Crime 0 Mixed ndings crime down everywhere Fear of Crime 0 Fear decreased among highfear groups Neighborhood Physical Disorder 0 Citizens saw neighborhood improvement Public Con dence in police 0 Improved Extent and Efficacy of Community Policing Efficacy of POP approaches generally 0 Can work well if implemented correctly 0 Can address a larger swatch of goals beyond crime Maguire 1997 0 Lots of departments say they do it 0 Few have engaged in the Philosophical shifts required 0 Officers and departments are resistant to change Zhao 1996 0 Those elements consist with quottraditionalquot policing are most likely to be incorporated Modern Era Policing 911 Proliferation of technology that makes data analysis easier 0 Computers 0 Data aggregators 0 Mapping Technology software 0 Tech in Training DATA AN LYSIS Old crime Analysis 0 Park and Burgess 20 Technology has improved Quality of the data 0 NIBRS Analysis skills slowly catching up CRIME MAPPING Why is crime mapping important and valuable 0 Distribution of crime Time Day of the week month location COM PSTAT Four stages 0 Accurate and timely information and intelligence 0 Effective tactics Saturation vs Random patrol etc 0 Rapid Deployment Means not weekly data 0 Followup and Assessment Often maligned step Core elements of Compstat 0 Mission Clari cation Leadership is important 0 Data driven analysis of crime problems Department solutions 0 Decentralized decision making to beats 0 Innovative problem solving tactics o amp Organizational Flexibility with those tactics 0 Internal Accountability to goals INTELLIGENCE IN POLICING Intelligence vs other data Intelligence 0 TacUcah Individual gang terror associations Locations of operation Modus Operandi 0 Strategic Crime typelocation time trends Eg what the current problem type of heroin and where does it come from Who is selling it Etc Michigan Statewide Drug Threat Assessment INTELLIGENCE LED POLICING Using intelligence ie analyzed data of a tactical and strategic nature to combat terrorism 0 Also has applications in addressing types of crime 0 Six Stages Planning Data Collection Data management collation Analysis Dissemination Evaluation Assessment FUSION CENTERS Some intelligence is private by constitutional standards 0 Like federal restrictions on gang databases 0 Or information on terror Fusion Centers Are Large Intelligence Units 0 Gather Analyze disseminate information 0 Typically serve several agencies 0 Have access to a wider variety of policing and other government agency that are restricted Michigan Intelligence Operations Center EVIDENCE BASED POLICING Evidence means Scienti c Evidence Sherman quotwe are all entitled to our own opinions but not our own factsquot 0 EBP argues that police practices should be determined based on evidence SMART POLICING Largely an incorporation of other principles 0 Most notably evidence base policing 0 But with a focus on partnerships and community involvement as well plus the goal of Cost effectiveness Michigan State Police EX 0 Reduced number of posts 0 Decreased of cer time at posts 0 Started Secure Cities partnership Hot Spot policing 0 lnstituted departmentwide metrics standards SHERMAN 1998 Evidence Based Policing o Draws in uence from the success of evidence based medicine 0 Also learn from its failures Many medical procedures are not based on evidence Doctors rarely read currentjournals Much practice is based on local custom Early Child birth example 18405 Evidence traf c Cops 0 Role is to help direct behaviors toward those supported by evidence EVIDENCE BASED POLICING The use of research to guide practice and evaluate practitioners 0 Both in terms of developing new approaches 0 Evaluating current ones random patrol Move beyond the role of experience and expertise offered by of cers and departments Two areas of research for EBP 0 Basic quotwhat worksquot research on properly implemented programs and designs 0 Outcomes and process evaluations that examine the practical limitations of designs implemented quotin the eldquot Sherman argues principles of EBP can easily be incorporated in other forms of policing 0 911 CFS Model Use data to examine ef cacy of response time 0 Community Policing Implementation is key 0 Most important nding in program evaluation 0 Repeat DV in Milwaukee Employed vs unemployed offenders Risk of reoffending based on previous offenses Role of social stigma of arrest on the af uent Challenge of institutionalization 0 Extremely dif cult 0 Similar to changing culture 0 MSP grapples with this as well Evidence Cops Key 0 Suppo 0 Provide o Create evidence Professionals only make changes under external coercion PROBLEMS WITH EBP Goal Con ict Police Of cers 0 Lipsky says they are powerful and can absorb policy change 0 But also are people and have goals and needs of their own Police make bad researchers 0 Don t have the necessary skills Police Discretion What is it o 2 primary aspects American Bar Association Survey 1950 0 At behest of the Supreme Court Breakdown delay and ineffectiveness of American Law enforcement Main points on Discretion Discretion is necessary and inevitable in the criminal justice system 0 Discretion is incredibly dif cult to eliminate Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment Discretion Behavior is learned 0 Interactions key 0 Ala our discussion of culture Why Have Discretion Michael Lipski 1980 0 Goal Con ict and Situational Variables 0 Resource Deprivation Public Resources quotDemand and Supplyquot SLB Autonomy 0 Street level bureaucrat have limited oversight o Administrators have limited tools for censure Leads to Typi cationRoutinization o Other authors talk about moral worthiness Lipski Summary End point 0 Of cers have discretion 0 Discretion is needed 0 Discretion is dif cult to eliminate but A lack of resources limits discretion 0 Routine help ef cient use of limited resources Pro ling Moral evaluations help explain breaks from routines 0 Van Maanen amp others Pros and Cons of Discretion Pros 0 Job satisfaction 0 Autonomy o Ef ciency Cons 0 Abuse 0 Conup on o lnequhy In uences on Discretion Organizational Factors Neighborhood Factors Of cer Characteristics Organization Factors Formal Rules and Policy 0 Lipski says these are weaker than we think Limited Oversight Resources are more important Leads to quotPolicy Absorptionquot 0 Le ignoring policy Large Beats 0 Resources spread thin 0 Less time for each contact In uences behavior Neighborhood Factors Racial Composition SES ie Concentrated poverty High crime Of cer Characteristics Individual Differences o Eg Muir 1977 Of cer quotculturequotvaluesorientation behavior Gender 0 Female of cers less aggressive on average Race 0 Mixed ndings Added perspective quotDouble Marginalityquot Minority of cers treat minority suspects harsher than other suspects Offender Victim Characteristics Race 0 Boston quotdriving while blackquot study 0 Disentangle from Neighborhood effects Gender 0 Chivalry vs Paternalistic vs opportunity hypothesis Age 0 Young vs old Social class Income 0 Lowpoor vs Middle vs HighRich Situational Factors Offense Seriousness Victim Offender Relationships LocationBystanders CFS vs Of cer Initiated Suspect Attitude 0 Van Maanen Van Maanen 1978 Language 0 CrispyCritters Of cers Develop types of citizens 0 Why Lipski amp Danger Suspicious Persons Assholes Knownothings Van Maanen s Types of Citizens Suspicious persons 0 Of cers believes have committed offense Assholes 0 Do not accept of cer s de nition of events KnowNothing s 0 Others who of cers deem lack intimate knowledge of police work 3 Stages of Interactions with Assholes Affront Challenge to authority control Clari cation By the of cer of the situation 0 Did she he mean to offend 0 Could have acted Differently Remedy Police Subculture Culture 0 Shared set of customs Attitudes values norms amp behaviors that form a particular way of life Values 0 Aspects of Importance 0 Standards of Good amp Bad Norms Rules and Expectations Social Institution 0 Organizations that communicates Values amp Norms Subculture 0 Patterns of Culture within a segment of society that distinguish it Sub meaning within Police Subculture o All of the above themes in the context of the institution of policing gtEements of Sub Culture Each has a set of themes 0 Us vs them 0 Social Isolation Aspects are institutionalized o Irrational ways of doing things quotThat s the way its always been donequot Emotional Expression 0 How culture is passed on Stories FTO training gtSources of Police Subculture Organizational Factors Street Environment Administration Other C or Police Agencies Media Organizational Factors interactions w of cers 0 Platoon Squad Structure 0 Shift Schedules Social Isolation Of cer Bonding Cultural Transmissions Rei cation Street Environment Interactions w citizens o Frustration o Routinization Common Crimes traf c stops 0 Powerlessness Administration interaction w Leadership 0 Hierarchical Structure of Power Different goals for leaders and of cers Produces frustrating interactions 0 Cultural Divide Interactions with leadership shapes culture Organization Policy shapes culture Often developed to protect the organization and protect citizens not of cers needs or desues 0 Us vs Them also between leadership amp of cers Other Agencies Interactions w external peers 0 Case Processing DA Disillusionment Frustration o Dropped cases Stress Testifying 0 Conferences Sharing stories with other of cers about interactions with leadership Cultural Diffusion Media 0 quotInner Circlequot trusted Media Members Help with image management 0 Negative Reporting Purposeful or Otherwise Lack of Understanding of police behavior 0 Houston Taser Example 0 Taser cameras 0 Reinforces quotus vs themquot And isolation Control Solidarity Territoriality Common sense Use of force passion Masculinity Danger Us vs Them Unpredictability Secrecy Suspicion Social isolation Split Second Syndrome Bravery Moral Superiority Deception gtFacets of Police Subculture Control 0 Given Power to Actively Restrict Rights 0 Direct Control 0 Indirect control Through presence Territoriality o Dominion Use of Force 0 Active Constriction of rights 0 Right to end life Referred to as quotPassionquot quotWar onquot metaphors Availability of rearms All contribute to a very unique working environment 0 Use of higher degrees of force is rare OOOO Danger Unpredictability gt Suspicion o Bedrock aspects of Police Culture 0 quotPolice work is hours of sheer boredom punctuated by moments of sheer terrorquot Unpredictable but routine A constant state of suspicion results 0 SplitSecond Syndrome o Suspicion carries over to social life Paradox of Policing Perception of Danger is Most Important 0 National worker rate 37 per 100000 0 21 per 100000 rate of fatality for police 5x avg Taxi truck drivers Roofers Farmers Loggers Fishers Homicide rate Social Isolation amp Of cer Solidarity o Aspects of policing produce isolation Schedang Also enhances solidarity with other of cers 0 quotThin blue linequot Subcultural aspects of solidarity o Moral Superiority Common Sense Masculinity Us vs Them Secrecy OOOO Solidarity o Moral superiority May regard citizens as inferior 0 Common Sense Skill based in intuitiveness and experience Sometimes a distain for book knowledge Science 0 Tension with modern era 0 Masculinity 85 male of cers Policing has many masculine qualities ingrained within 0 Physicality 0 Fighting 0 Bravery Weaponry o Distain of feminine qualities 0 Communication 0 Empathy 0 Us vs Them Mentality Brotherhood in Blue Stems in part from negative community attention and a perceived lack of understanding in policing 0 Secrecy quotDon t give up another copquot Watch for partner rst Don t implicate other of cers Perjury amp Corruption Paoline 2004 Two Competing Conceptions of Police Subculture o quotMonolithicquot o Varieddifferences focused Use Typologies Not all of cers share the same values attitudes behaviors Composition of departments have changed over time 0 Females and Minorities and the infusion of quottheirquot behavior Muir s 1977 Typology of Of cers Passion Morality of Coercion Perspectiv Con icted lnteg rated e Tragic Reciprocators Professionals Cynic Avoiders Enforcers Paoline Findings 5 Subgroups of Of cers 0 Tough cops 9 o CleanBeatCrimeFighters 22 o Avoiders 14 0 Problem Solvers 10 o Professionals 23 2 new subgroups o AntiOrganization Streetcops 9 Laylows Traditionalists Very negative attitudes towards department administrators Very positive attitude toward citizens o quotDirtyHarry Enforcers 13 Tough cops No issue with civil violations Expanded police role Ok with administrators


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